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LIBRARY 

OF THE 




MASSACHUSETTS 

AGRICULTURAL 

COLLEGE 



so u^*Cbl I _eg «l_ .. _4ru_r\.da. 





December 26 1914.] 



THE 



GARDENERS' CHRONICLE 



# ZDeeklg Ollustrateb Journal 



HORTICULTURE AND ALLIED SUBJECTS. 



(ESTABLISHED IN 1S41.) 



VOL. LVI.— THIRD SERIES. 



JULY TO DECEMBER, 1914. 



LONDON: 
41. WELLINGTON STREET, COVENT GARDEN, W.C. 

1914. 



Y 



The Gardeners' Chronicle,] 



"Per- 

Gri<b6 



[December 26, 1314. 



1^/4. 



INDEX OF CONTENTS. 

JULY TO DECEMBER, 1914. 

(Foit Special 11i:ai>inus see undeii Books ; Certificates ; Law Notes ; Nursery Notes ; Obituary ; Plant Portraits ; 
y Plants, New; buiKNTiEiu committee ; Societies; and Illustrations.) 



AbbOTSBURS in June, 68 
.vines baleamea vax. hudsonica, 32U 
Abnormal flowering, 373 
Acclimatisation of trees and 
shrubs, 208 

Adair Place, purchased by Mr. 
W. H. Hartley, 389 

Adventitious growths on Phaius 
Wallichii, 273 

Aesculug Hippocastanum, introduc- 
tion of, into France, 144 

Agricultural colleges and the war, 
134 

Agricultural committee, 149 ; edu- 
cation conference, 262, 340 

Agricultural returns, 1914, 134, 237 

Agriculture at the British Associa- 
tion, 257 

Ailanthus, characteristics of, 256 

Albumen, the removal of, from 
seeds, 224 

Aldenham House, Elstree, Peaches 
and Nectarines at, 240 

Allen, Alderman Lemuel, appoint- 
ment of, 340 

AUgrove, Mr. J. C, 401_^ 

Allotment holders, suggestions for, 
164 

Aloe pretoriensis, 105 

Alonsoa, frost-cut specimen of, 356 

Alpine garden, the, 200, 320 

Alpines at home, 170 ; for crevices 
of rockeries facing south, 123 ; 
on Mont Cenis, 170 

Alstroemeria, cultivation of, 286 

Amaryllis Belladonna maxima, 196 

America, Antirrhinum rust in, 
372; Apple crops in, 263; exotic 
Conifers in. 190; the supply of 
potash in, 326 

American Gooseberry mildew, 300, 
303, 319 ; spray for, 413 

American seed, purchases of, in 
England, 238 

American wheelbarrows in England, 
58 

Anemone coronaria and its varie- 
ties. 413 

Anguloa Cliftonii, 381 

Antirrhinum rust in America, 372 

Antiseptics and soil micro-organ 
isms, 386 

Apiary, the, 53, 113, 131, 219 

Apium nudiflorum, 43 

Apple, a seedling. 386; " brown- 
rot" canker in, 85; canker. 401; 
crop in America, 263 ; curious 
growth on a grafted, 253 ; rever- 
sion in, 48; sawfly, 48; trains in 
the West, 372 : trees on grass land, 
180; versatile tree of, 368 

Apples: Charles Ross. 237: Harry 
Pring, 396; Norfolk Beauty, 
266. 275; Peacemaker, 95; 
Rev. W. Wilks, 225; cider, 76; 
colouring of, 328 ; disease of, 357 : 
French varieties of, 164 : fruit 
spot of, 357 ; naming of. 253. 299 ; 
selections of. 373. 389, 402, 415 • 
storing of. 233. 366 

Araucaria excelsa, 129 

Arderne, H. M.. the late, 256 

Arnold arboretum, the, 25, 45; 
autumn tints at the, 280 

Arsenate of lead as an insecticide. 
207 

Ashtead Park, Surrey. 274 

Asphalting garden paths, 64 

Aster batangensis, 186 

Asters, single Chinese, 240 



Aston, Mr. T. E., appointment of, 

95 
Athens, 271 
Aubergine, the, 37 
Auchinleck, Mr. G. G., appointment 

of, 163 
Australia, British Association in, 

262; notes from, 117; vegetation 

of, 133 
Austrian expedition to China, 96 



Bacterial rot of Celery, 73 

Bacterised peat, experiments with, 

12 ; grant for research in, 340 
Baeria coronaria, 35o 
Baghdad, fruit culture at, 229 

Banoch Park, Loch Lomond, pur- 
chase of, 58, 398 
Bamboos, hardy, 351 
Banding of fruit trees, 266, 299, 

373 
Banksian Rose, a largo. 95 

Barbados fruit crops -n relation to 
the war, 252 

Banes, the arboretum at, 127 

Basic slag for grass-land, 239 

Bastard trenching, 250 

Battalion of gardeners, proposal to 
form a, 371 

Bauhinia purpurea, 142 

Bee, the leaf-cutting, 137 

Bees, the management of, 53, 113, 
131, 219 

Beetle, the shot borer, 184 

Begonia Nancy, 297 

Begonias suitable for bedding, 212 

Belgian gardeners in England, help 
for, 296, 328 

Belgian peasants and farm labour, 
299 

Belgium, and pomology, 220; ex- 
ports from, 224 ; fruit industry 
in, 326; notes from, 329, 344*, 
360, 367, 383; seed Potato for, 
252 

Belgrave, Mr. W. N. C, appoint- 
ment of, 237 

Bell, Mr. A. R., appointment of, 
163 

Bennett, Reginald [Medical and 
Pharmaceutical Latin for Stu- 
dents of Medicine and Phar- 
macy), 211 

Biennials, hardy, 3, 29, 67 

Birkinshaw, Mr. ¥., appointment 
of, 163 

Bitter-pit in Apple, 357 

Bivort, Alexandre, the Belgian 
pomologist, 363 

Blackburn, Mr. G., presentation 
to, 134 

Black Currant mite, 75 

Black Poplars, the, 1. 46 

Black-rot disease of Tomato, 114 

Black spot in Roses, 333, 373 

Blairgowrie fruit trade, the, 149 

Blanjulus guttulatus, 172 

Blatter, 'Ethelbert (Flora of 
Aden), 129 

Bletchlev Park, Buckinghamshire, 
289 ' 

Bolton Chrysanthemum Society, 216 

Bomb in a garden, 133 

Books, Notices of : — Adven- 
tures among Wild Flowers (John 
vena), 402; A Guide to Rose 
( ulture in the Bombay Presi- 
dency [O. B. Patwardhan), 
321 : A Handbook of Tropi- 



cal Gardening and Planting 
with Special Reference to Ceylon 
(11. t'. MacMdlun), '£12; A 
Manual of Weeds (Ada 14. 
Georgia), 402 ; Bee Keeping for 
Profit (W. S. Morley), 21; 
British Rainfall, 1913, (H. B. 
Mill), 146; Critical Revision of 
the Genus Eucalyptus (J. H. 
Maiden), 237; Die Orcnideen, 
1X9 ; k-arm Accounts (C. S. 
(Irwin), 326; Flora of Aden 
(Ethclbert Blatter), 129; Flower- 
ing Plants of the Riviera (#. 
Stuart Thompson), 351 ; Hints 
on Planting Roses (National 
Hose Society), 390; Impurities of 
Agricultural Seed (S. T. Park- 
insan and G. Smith), 145; 
Journal and Proceedings of the 
Asiatic Society of Bengal, 145 ; 
Le Bon Jardinier, 128 ; Les 
Jardins de Plantes Vivaces 
(E. Laumonnier), 365; Materials 
for a Flora of the Malayan 
Peninsula (/. Sykes Gamble), 
145; Medical and Pharmaceutical 
Latin for Students of Medicine 
and Pharmacy (Beginald Bennett), 
211 ; My Garden in Summer (E. A. 
Bowles), 28 ; Perfumery and 
Essential Oil Record (/. C. 
Umney), 109; Plant Life in the 
British Isles, Vol. II. (A. B. 
Horwood), 146 ; Productive 
Orcharding (Fred G. Sears), 
354; Publications received, 21, 
37, 53, 138, 146, 166, 207, 218, 
240, 248, 261, 281, 326, 340, 366, 
402, 413; Revue Horticole, 149; 
Rural Improvement (Frank A. 
Waugh), 366 ; Submerged Forests 
(Clement Beid), 54; Sweet 
Peas for Profit : Cultivation 
— under Glass and Outdoors 
(/. Harrison Dick), 350 ; Sweet 
Pea Studies, IV., 50; The 
Agricultural Journal of the 
Union of South Africa, 310 ; The 
Beginner's Garden Book (Allen 
French), 28; The Botanical 
Magazine, 117, 179, 238, 252, 
323, 401; The Coco-nut (E. B. 
Copeland), 281; The Daffodil 
Year-Book, 306 ; The Flora ot 
New Guinea. 402; The Garden 
Under Glass (William F. Bowles), 
340, 398; The Genus Pinus 
(George Bussell Shaw), 402; The 
Orchid Review, 57, 191 ; The 
Orchid World, 191; The Pigs 
Tale and Other Recitations (Chas 
T. Druery), 95; The Scottish 
Gardener, 340; The Standard 
Cyclopedia of Horticulture, Vol 
II. (L. 11. Bailey), 207; Trees 
and Shrubs Hardv in the British 
Isles (jr. J. Bean), 340; Trees: 
A Woodland Notebook (Bt. Hon. 
Sir Herbert Maxwell), 402; War 
Time and Peace in Holland 
(■/. IP. Bobertvon Scott), 366; 
Zoological Philosophy (J. B 
Lamarck), 278 
Bordeaux mixture and Woburn 

paste, 401 
Botanic Gardens, Cambridge, 

the, 114 S 

Botanising in China, 185, 213 241 

258, 287, 318, 347 
Botany at the British Association, 
236 



Bottling Peas, method of, 64 
Bouckenooghe, M. Valere, news of, 

388 
Bouquet, the " epaulette," 372 
Bowles, E. A. (My Garden in 

Summer), 28 
Bowling greens in Edinburgh 

Pa.rks, 2^9 
Brackenhurst, seed-raising house 

at, 86 
Brassia brachiata, 171 
Brassicas, club root of, 118 
Brasso-Cattleya Ilene, 158 
Brasso-Laelio-Cattleya Gladius, 319 
Bread made from bulbs, 201 
British Association, agriculture at 
the, 257 ; botany at the, 236 ; in 
Australia, 262 
Brittonastrum ionocalyx, 109 
Broadway, Mr. W. E., appoint- 
ment of, 326 
Broccoli, old and new, 119, 240 
Brown, Mr. N. E., aetirement of, 

163 
Brown-rot canker of Apple, 85 
Buddleia Colvilei, 127 ; B. nivea, 

160 
Bulb-garden, the, 232, 322, 366 
Bulbs as meal for making bread, 

201 
Butcher, Mr. Gerald W., resigna- 
tion of, 224 



Calceolaria Cotswold Hybrid, 206 

Calceolarias, herbaceous, 264 
Caledonian railway station gar- 
dens, 266 

Californian reeds, 227 

Callistephus hortensis, 240 

Cambridge Botanic Gardens, 114 

Campanula Medium calycanthema, 
3; C. pyramidalis, 3; C. velu- 
tina, 214 

Campanulas, the culture of, 3 

Camphor industry in Japan, 180 

Canker, brown-rot, in Apple, 85 

Cannell, the late Henry, 310 

Capsidae, 48 

Carbon dioxide, uses of, 34 

Carnation-splitting affected by the 
weather, 190 

Carnations, insect pest of, 172 ; 
Perpetual-flowering, 49 

Carter, Mr. H. G., appointment of, 
223 

Cashew nuts, 263 

Cattleya Alpha. 319 ; C. birex, 319 ; 
C. Mossiae, 236 

Cauliflowers cultivated in Nor- 
mandy, 163 

Ceanothus, summer-flowering varie- 
ties of, 246 

Cedrus Deodara, 119; C. D. var. 
nana, 320 

Celastrus articulatus, 368 

Celeriac, 129 

Celery, bacterial rot of, 73 

Celery crop, the, 298 

Celsia cretica, 3 

Cereus lividus, 58 

Certificated Fruits and Vege- 
tables : Apples : Harrv Pring, 
283, Winter Ribston, 404; Black- 
berry Himalayan Giant, 196 ; 
French Beans, Early Forty- 
fold, 153: Eldorado. 153; 
Magpie, 153 ; Perpetual, 153 ; 
Melons: Emerald Gem, 153; 
Hero of Lockinge, 164 ; Perfec- 
tion, 153; Windsor Castle, 153 



December 26, 1914.] 



INDEX. 



[The Gardeners' Chronicle, iii 



Certificated Plants : Amaran- 
thus Dr. Martin, 16 ; Amaryllis 
Belladonna speciosa purpurea, 
196 ; Anguloa Cliftonii var. Raw- 
don, 284 ; Asters : Amellus Are- 
thusa, 225; Amellus King George. 
196 ; Cloudy Blue, 253 ; Comet, 
197; Giant Comet Ruby, 197; 
Giant Comet The Bride, 197; 
Purple Prince, 253 ; The Prince, 
197; Toison d'Or, 197; vimineus 
Lovely, 225 ; Begonia Mrs. 
Harry Barton, 281 ; Brasso- 
Cattieya Admiral Jellicoe var. 
Pink Pearl, 374; B.-C. llene, 60; 
B.-C. sulphurea, 359; Campanula 
garganica W. H. Paine, 16 ; C. 
Norman Grove, 196 ; Carnations : 
Chelsea, 16; Delice, 376; Gor- 
don Douglas, 16 ; Mrs. F. G. 
Bealing, 98; Nora West, 376; 
Pink Sensation, 341 ; Princess 
Dagmar, 253; Wivelsfield White, 

281 ; Cattleya Adula var. Vale 

Bridge, 284; C. Ajax var. 
Orchidhurst, 282; C. Alcimeda 
var. Antiochus, 376; C. amabilis 
Fowler's var., 226; C. Antiope, 
254 ; C. Armstrongii var. 
Cringlewood, 359; C. Astron, 99, 
313 ; C. Empress Frederick alba. 
284; C. Fabia Fire King, 359; 
C. General Smith-Dorrien, 284; 
C. gigas coloratura, 138 ; C. g. 
Walton Giant, 138 ; C. Hardyana 
rubens, 99; C. Irene, 15; ('. 
iridescens var. aurifera, 195; ('. 
labiata Andromache, 376 ; C. 
Mossiae splendens, 81 ; C. 
Peetersii alba West Point var., 
359; C. Princess Royal, 254; C. 
Rhoda Fowler's var., 254; C. 
Sibyl var. Lord Kitchener, 195 ; 
C. S. var. Sir John French, 284 ; 
C. Sylvia var. atro-rubens, 359 ; 
C. Warscewiczii Meteor, 15 ; 
Celastrus articulatus, 403 ; 
Chrysanthemums : Abe r corn 
Beauty, 300; Almirante, 300; 
Annie Walters, 342 ; Bronze 
Goacher, 300 ; Caledonia, 300 ; 
Captain Fox. 311, 330; Carrie, 
300 ; Champ d'Or, 300 ; Chestnut 
Beauty, 391 ; Crimson Polly, 
300; Delight, 255; Diana, 300; 
Dorothy, 284; Elfrida, 284; 
Ethel, 300; Evelyn, 300; Ex- 
mouth Yellow, 313 ; Fee Parisi- 
enne, 300; F. Wilson, 300; 
General French, 255 ; General 
Smith-Dorrien, 342; George 
Bowness, 300; Harrie, 300; 
Hestonia, 255 ; J. Bannister, 300 ; 
James Fraser, 375; James Stred- 
wick, 281, 284; Jimmie, 300; 
La Negresse, 311 ; Leslie, 300 ; 
Lizzie Morris. 330; Lorraine, 
300; Mabel Roberts, 300; Mme. 
Marie Masse, 300. Market White, 
300; Martin Peed, 300; Mary 
Wild, 330: Meudon,, 341: Mi^'s 
Amv Poulton, 330: Miss Edith 
Webb, 255; Mollv Godfrev, 342, 
374; Mrs. J. Fielding' (syn. 
Goacher's Terra Cotta), 300: 
Mrs. J. Gibson, 311 : Mrs. Keith 
Luxford, 313; Mrs. W. Syden- 
ham, 300 ; Nina Blick, 300 : Nor- 
man Lachus. 330 : Perle Chantil- 
lionaise. 300 : Pluio d'Argent. 300 : 
Polly, 300; Red Star, 330; R. 
Goodbourn, 330; Rich-rond. 391, 
403 ; Roi des Bla.ncs, 300 ; R Pem 
berton, 300 : Sir Tonv, 341 ; 
Stella, 300: Thos. Beeson, 255: 
Tonkin, 300; rndaunted. 313; 
Wells's Scarlet. 300; W. Rigby, 
281, 330 ; Coelia macrostachya., 
284 : Cypripedium Actaeus Ethel, 
376; C. A. gisas, 284; C. Draco 
var. Cvclops,359; C. Eileen. 376: 
C. Fairrii-tisii, 227; C. Grevi 
var. Aslilands. 81: C. Tdinn, 
359: C. Nirvana, 313: C. Regi 
nald Young var. Calliope, 376 ; 



C. Selene, 376; Dahlias : Bar- 
bara Purvis, 225; Canopus, 
253; Deveron, 281; Eden, 196; 
Etoile Rose, 196 ; Kismet, 196 ; 
Lord Kitchener, 225 ; L.oreley, 
196; Lowfield Star, 225; Mar- 
guerite Phillips, 196 ; Melody, 
225; Mrs. Edward Drury, 19b; 
Neptune, 225; Rotifer, 196; 
Stella, 196; The Swan, 196; 
W. E. Peters, 225; White Star, 
196; Worth Star, 196; Erica 
vagans St. Keverne, 98 ; 
Gladioli : Abeliard, 101 ; 

Armaganac, 101 ; Chicago White, 
101; Eldorado, 59; Fire King, 
101; Lord Alverstone, 196; 
Marie Therese, 101; Mis. Atkin- 
son, 16 ; Radiance, 16 ; White 
Giant, 101 ; Heleniums : 
autumnale Gartensonne, 267 ; 
a. grandiflorum, 267 ; a. superbum 
rubrum, 267 ; Riverton Gem, 267 ; 
Helianthus rigidus Rev. Woolley 
Dod, 267; H. multiflorus plenus, 
267; Heliotropium Mrs. J. W. 
Lowther, 225 ; Hypericum laevc 
rubrum, 16 ; Iris Kaempf eri 
Mikado, 16 ; Laelia pumila alba 
Orchid Dene var., 282; Laelio- 
Cattleya Aphrodite Our Queen, 
15; L.-C. Britannia Melanie, 254; 
L.-C. Canhamiana Rex var. Has- 
sa.ll's, 87; L.-C. Cicely, 81; L.-C. 
Fascinator var. Sanson, 81; L.-C. 
Lady Oliphant, 282; L.-C. Mar- 
tinettii var. Ruby, 81 ; L.-C. Miss 
Louisa Fowler, 99 ; L.-C, Mrs. 
Evelyn Norrie, 254 ; L.-C. 
Neleus var. Sunspot, 313; L.-C. 
Sir Douglas Haig, 404; L.-C. 
Thyone var. McBean's, 195 ; 
Lapageria alba delicata, 311 ; 
Lilium Biondii, 196 ; Lysinotus 
Willmottae, 17; Mirhauxia 
Tchihatchemi, 59; Miltonia 
Charlesworthii var. Beardwood, 
81; M. Sanderae var. En- 
chantress, 15 ; M. vexillaria 
illustris, 15 ; M. v. Rev. W. 
Wilks, 60 ; Nemesia, Marsden 
Jones's da.rk flowered strain, 59; 
Odontioda Brewii Merl Dene. 
138; O. B. Rann Lea, 81; 
Odontoglossum Christopher 
Guest, 81 ; O. crispum Catherine 
Oakshott, 81 ; O. c. Hololeucuni, 
376: O. c. Millie, 342; O. c. Mrs. 
J. Helm, 376; O. Dorothy Ark],.. 
81 ; O. eximium Excelsior, 
81 ; 0. e. purpurescens, 138 ; O. 
e. Solum, 15 ; O. Hermes, 376 ; 
O. Invincible. 15 ; O. Irene, 313 ; 
O. Jane Leegatt, 81 ; 0. Jean- 
ette var. rubellum, 359 ; O. x 
Mrs. A. E. Thompson, 138; 0. 
Noel, 359; O. x Peacock, 81; 
O. percultum King George, 60 ; 
O. x Waterloo, 81; O. Zulu, 
376; Odontoma Charlesworthii, 
60; O. Cleverleyana, 15; O. 
Magali Sander var. xanthotes, 
282 ; Oncidium Leopoldianum, 
99; Pentstemons : Admiral Togo, 
154; Aldenham Pride, 154; 
Alex. Wood. 154; Crimson Gem, 
154 ; Fair to See, 154 ; Gay Gar- 
land, 154; James Douglas, 154; 
Jane Dieulafoy, 154; Lady Sybil, 
154 ; Margarite Baden. 154 ; Mrs. 
A. C. Sweet. 154; Persimmon, 
154; Phrvne, 154; Rosamund, 
154; Southeate Gem, 154: 
Sportsman, 154; Virgil, 154; 
Petunia Purple King. 98 : Pileo- 
stegia viburnoides, 225 : Poinset- 
tia pulcherrima. rosea, 403 ; Poly- 
stichum angulare var. plumosum, 
311 ; Renanthera pulchella, 15 ; 
Roses : Augustus Hartmann, 
38; Butterflv, 38; Clytemnestra, 
38; Dolly Varden, 38; Majestic, 
38 ; Margaret Dickson Hamill, 
38 ; Mrs. Arthur Bide, 38 : Mrs. 
Bertram Walker, 38 ; Mrs. Maud 



Dawson, 38 ; Pemberton's White 
Rambler, 38 ; Waltham Scarlet, 
16 ; Salvia Greggii, 225 ; Sophro- 
Cattleya Pearle, 376; S.-C. 
November, 342; Sophro-Laelia 
Felicia Fowler's var., 312; Sweet 
Peas : Fiery Cross, 78; Jean Ire- 
land, 78; Mrs. Hugh Wormald, 
16 ; Royal Purple, 78 ; The Presi- 
dent, 16 ; Vuylstekeara msignis, 
15 
Chamberlain, the late Joseph, and 

Kew, 247, 309, 340 
Chatsworth in 1844, 326 
Cheal, Joseph, awarded the Victoria 

Medal of Honour, 372 
Cheimatobia brumata, the winter 

moth, 266, 299 
Cheiranthus linifolius, 186, 207 
Chemical manures and the 

maturing of fruit, 179 
Children of London, gardens for 

the, 118 
Chimonanthus fragrans, 217, 241 
China Asters, single varieties of, 

240 
China, Austrian expedition to, 96; 
botanising in, 241 ; Mr. Reginald 
Farrer's explorations in, 185, 
213, 258, 287, 318, 347; tree 
Paeonies in, 387 
( hinese Vines, 213 
Chino-Thibetan borderland, Cypri- 

pediums of the, 381 
Chipp, Mr. T. F., appointment of, 

163 
Chrysanthemum conference, 372 
( hysanthemums : at Edinburgh, 
265 ; at Glasgow, 266 ; early 
varieties of, 265, 288, 304; in- 
curved, at Nottingham, 384 ; in 
the L.C.C. parks, 251 ; varieties 
for market purposes, 394 
Church Army's city gardens, 54 
Cider Apples in the Cherbourg 

district, 76 
Cirrhopetalum pulchrum, 158 
Clare Island, tree growth on, 413 
Clarke, Mr. Ernest, in Belgium, 

355 
Clayton, Henry J., memorial, 389 
Clerodendron splendens, 34 
Climatic records, the use of trees 

for, 190 
Closon, M. Jules, welfare of, 370 
Collectors, hints for, 173 
Column's, Sir Jeremiah, gift to 

Reigate, 95 
Conference on Sweet Peas, 61 
Conifers, dwarf varieties of, for 
the rock garden, 320 ; exotic, in 
America, 190; notes on. 305, 364, 
411 
Construction of greenhouses, 324 
Convolvulus sabatius, 279 
Cooke, Dr. M. C, the late, 356 
Coombe Wood nursery, sale at, 251 
Corky scab in Scotland, 182 
Cotoneaster angustifolia, 352 ; C. 
bacillaris, 412 ; C. salicifolius, 
var. rugosa, 413 
Covent Garden Market collection 

for relief funds, 252, 370 
Crataegus, varieties of, 240 
Crocus vallicola, 233 
Crop, the effect of one, upon 

another, 74 
Cross pollination in Apples, 152 
Cryptomeria japonica var. Lobbii 

nana, 320 
Crystal Palace as a hospital, 133 
Cultivation of medicinal plants, 

348. 373 
Cupressus Goveniana, 364 ; C. 
Lawsoniana var. densa, 320 ; C. 
Macnabiana, 411; C. obtusa var. 
nana aurea, 320 ; C. o. var. nana 
densa, 320; C. pisifera var. nana, 
320; C. torulosa, 305 
Cuthbert.son, Mr. Win., awarded 
the Victoria Medal of Honour, 
372 
Cyanamide and superphosphate, 
the mixing of, 191 



Cyaniding for insect destruction, 
389; greenhouses, b6, 86 

L'yclamen culture in Germany, 192 

Cylindrosporium Pomi, a disease of 
Apples, 357 

Cypnpediums of the Chino- 
Thibetan borderland, 381 

Cyprus, chemical manures for, 34U 



Dahlia conference, 251 

Dahlia society in U.S.A., pro- 
posed, 32o 

Dahlias and the Duffryn trials, 379. 
403 

Damson wine, recipe for, 270 

Darwin Tulips, 111 

Davenham grounds open to the 
public, 31 

Dawkins, Mr. A., 401 

Dawyck, trees and shrubs at, 125 

Delphinium Emiliae, 3U 

Dendrobium Hookerianum, 200 

Desfontainea spinosa, 160 

lA'titzia, varieties of, 198 

Devon, notes from, 364 

Dianthus barbatus, 3 

Dick, J. Harrison {Sweet Peas for 
Profit), 350 

Dickson and Robinson's vegetable 
show, 209 

Digitalis f erruginea, 3 ; D. pur- 
purea, 3 

Diorama pendula, 310 

Dioscorea, the genus, 187 

Diploma in Horticulture, National, 
30, 31, 372 

Disease of Apples, 357 

Dragon Fly, the, 97 

Druery, Chas. T. (The Pig's Tali 
and Other Recitations), 95 

Duffryn, South Wales, trials of 
Dahlias at, 379 

Dulwich Chrysanthemum Show, 
267 

Dutch middlemen and the German 
seed trade, 296 

Duthrie Park, Aberdeen, altera- 
tions at, 389 



Eahl of Stair, death of the, 38>. 
Echinops, 3 ; E. multiplex, 145 
Edinburgh Chrysanthemum Show, 

251, 340 
Edinburgh, fruit and vegetable 

market at, 526, 340, 413 ; parks, 

bowling-greens in, 239 
Elder tree trunk, a large, 281 
Employment during winter on 

country estates, 240 
Enemy, trading with the, 355 
Eryngium Rothenbergii, 29 
Essex farmers and wheat-growing. 

117 
Eucalvptus Globulus flowering ir 

the'open, 267, 328 
Eumerus lunulatus (Narcissus fly), 

6, 31, 58, 95 
Euphorbia, reversion in, 230, 253 
Evans, Mr. W. N., appointment 

of, 75 
Events "j the year. 412 
Exotic Conifers in America, 190 



Farm produce for the troops, 251, 

291 
Farmer, Mr. George, appointment 

of, 163 
Farmers' horses for the war, 163 
Farrer's, Mr. Reginald, explora- 
tions in China, 185, 213, 258, 287, 
318, 347 
Fastigiate Robinia, 58 
Fatsia (Aralia) japonica, 368 



IV 



'I'll'' I I. II lIl'NI-P .S' I I II I, | 



INDEX. 



[December 25. 1914. 



frond, the, 217 
I'll i ilHj ni i he soil, the, 370 
Flies, the deal i action of, 294 
Flori»te' flowers, 49, 111, 265, 288, 

304. 384 
Flower garden, the management of 
the, II, 32, 53, 72, 96, 112, 130, 
L46, 160, 174, 189, 202, 219, 234, 
249, 261, 277, 292, 307, 322, 337, 
353, 368, 384, 399. 416 
Flowering, abnormal, 373, 389 
Flowei . hi season, 134, 253, 279, 
340. 413; postal transit of, 5; 
preservation of, 193, 413 
Food, home-grown, 163 
Food supplies, care of, 114, 132, 
133, 137, 149, 163; export of, 
388 
Foreign correspondence, 201, 329, 

344. 360, 367, 383 
Forestry, conference on, 37, 76, 
120 ; official report on State, 108 
Forrest, Mr. George, return of, 

from China, 387 
France, food supplies in, 149; in 
1870, 288; Mistleto in, 3; notes 
from, 273 
Franco-German frontier, news from 

a nursery on the, 201 
Fremontia californica, 382 
French, Allen [The Beginner's 

Garden Book), 28 
French, crops, 224 ; fruit syndicate, 

a, 114 
" French " garden, the, 11, 73, 131, 
161, 175, 189, 235. 284, 323, 369 
French harvests, 149 ; horticulture, 
not-es on, 3, 107, 126, 144 ; page, 
329, 344, 360. 367, 383, 397, 414; 
varieties of Apple and Plum, 164 
Freylinia oestroides, 390 
Frost and sap-density, 386 
Fruit crops, in Holland, 14; in New 
Hampshire and Maine, 297; re- 
marks on the condition of the, 
87, 94, 109, 135, 152, 166, 181. 
193 
Fruit culture at Baghdad, 229 
Fruits : drying of, 164 ; maturing of, 
affected by chemical manures, 
179; of the double-flowered 
Peach, 193. 239. 253. 267; pack- 
ing, awards for, 98; plentiful 
supplies of, 193 ; preserving and 
storing of, 105 ; recipes for pre- 
servation of, 134, 152, 165; regi- 
ster of, 275 
Fruit trees, banding of, 266, 299, 
373 : pruning of, 382 ; the parts 
of, 395 ; treatment of, 245, 259 
Fruits, cultivation of, under glass, 
10, 32, 52. 72. 97, 112, 130, 146, 
160. 174. 189, 202. 218, 234, 249, 
261. 277, 292, 307. 322, 337, 352, 
369. 385. 398. 416: history of cul- 
tivated. 363. 409; naming of, 281 
Fuchsia excorticate, 83 
Fungi, how saproohvtic, may be- 
come parasites. 106 



Gaiilardia, morning and evening 

positions of. 165 
ible, .T. Sykes [Materials for a 

Flora of Ha Malayan Peninsula), 

145 
Gardeners as soldiers, 133 
Gardeners' Company's gift to the 

Lord Mayor of London, 37 
Gardeners in the Forces and their 

St;it i- insurance, 281 
Gardeners' Royal Benevolent In- 
stitution. 37 
Gardeners, young. 8, 31 
Gardening, educational. 50 
Gardens, for the children of 

London. 118 ; old and new, 373 
Garlic, the eradication of wild, 294 
Gas tar as a remedy for mealy bug 

on Vines, 341, 357 

rndia elata. infected by a 

fungus, 77 



Gentiana septemfida var. lago- 

dechiana, 232 
German prisoners' camp at Long- 
moor, 355 
German trade and the Dutch 
middleman, 296 

Germans visit a French nursery, 
236 

< '■' 1 many. Cyclamen culture in, 
192; Hops and Potatos in, 57; 
seeds from, 224, 355 

Germination of seeds in the fruit, 
58, 98 

Gilia aggrcgata and G. coronopi- 
folia, 29 

Gladiolus vitriacensis, 192 

Glasgow, afforestation scheme at, 
340 ; as a centre for the overseas 
fruit trade, 114; proposed Loch 
Lomond Park at, 58, 297, 398; 
public bowling-green6 in, 266 ; 
public gardens, 182; rainfall at, 
390 ; Sweet Peas in a park at, 
306 

Glasnevin, the rock garden at, 186 

Glaucium leiocarpum, 29 

Globularia incanescens, 69 

Gloriosa Rothschildiana, 75 

Glover, Mr. F., appointment of, 

Gongora grossa, 117 

Gooseberry mildew, 76 ; enquiry 

concerning, 300; the control of, 

303 
Government trading, 299 
Grading and storage of Apples and 

Pears, 233 
Graire, M. Henri, as an amateur 

horticulturist, 250 
Grape Primavis Muscat, 58 
Grass in the rockery, 30, 144 
Grass-land treated with basic slag, 

239 8 

Greenhouses, construction of, 324 ; 

cyaniding of, 66, 86 
Greenway, Devonshire, in autumn, 

364 
Green wood, 179 
Gunnersbury House, Acton, 69 
Gunpowder, wood used in the 

manufacture of, 401 



H 

Hamamelis vernalis, 239 
Hambro, Sir Everard, awarded the 
" Lawrence " Medal, 386 

Hampstead amateur gardeners, 148 
Hardy flower border, the, 50 

Hardy fruit garden, operations in 
the, 11, 33, 53, 73, 97, 113, 131, 
147, 161, 174, 188, 203, 218, 235 
248, 261, 276, 292, 306, 323, 337, 
353. 368, 385. 399. 417 

Harrow, Mr. George, 401 

Harrow, preparations at, for the 
food supply, 134 

Hartley. Mr. .1. E. T., appoint- 
ment of, 237 

Harvest, and the Labour Ex- 
changes, 134 ; of wild fruits, 133 : 
orospects for the, 134 

Hawick, the season at, 151 

Heal, Mr. John. 401 

Hedysarum microcalyx, 29 

Helinnthus cucumerifolius, 59 

Helichrysum bellidioides, 320 

Herbaceous flowers from Hope- 
toun, 191 

Heredity, 176 

Hesperis matronalis, 29 

Hessels, Mr. Theo., experiences of, 
in Antwerp, 264 

Heston, early Chrysanthemums at. 
288 

Hippeastrums. the history and 
culture of. 145 

Holboellia latifolia, 241; in 
Jamaica. 201 

Holland, fruit crops in, 14, 114 ; 
Hyacinths from, 355 : ' plant 
disease administration in. 141 ; 
produce market in. 387, 401; 
trade from, 149 



Holland House Show, 15; supple- 
mentary awards at, 34 
Holly hedge, transplanting a, 124 
Holmes, Mr. E. M., 372 
Hopetoun, hardy herbaceous 

flowers from, 191 
Hop-picking, 149 
Hops, in Germany, 57; experiments 

with, 297 
Horticultural branch of the Board 

of Agriculture, annual report ot, 

the, 326 
Horticultural societies, an appeal 

to, 166 
Horticulture, and the war, 166, 

403 ; at the Vienna Centenary 

Exhibition, 1915, 54; evening 

classes in, 297 ; National diploma 

in, 30, 31, 372 
Hoxton market holiday fund, 98 
Huber, the late Dr. Jacques, 57 
Hunnemannia, 29 
Hyacinths from Holland, 355 
Hybrid Orchids. 126, 272, 364 
Hydrocyanic acid gas and its use in 

horticulture, 65 



I 



Ice fringes, 413 

Impatiens Holstii, 310 

Imports and exports of fruits and 

vegetables 1913, 148 
India, Strawberries in, 263 
Inheritance of acquired characters, 

278, 280 
Insect destruction by cyaniding, 

Insect galls of Java, 179 
Insect pests of Carnations, 172 
Insecticidal value of liquid extract 

of Larkspur seed, 372 
Insecticide, arsenate of lead as an, 

207 
International sympathy, 149 
Inula acaulis, 246 
Iris Boissieri x tingitana, 322 ; I. 

Histrio alba as a pot plant, 396 ; 

I. stylosa, 403; I. Urumovii, 272 
Irises, notes on, 48 ; origin of some 

garden, 48 
Italy, notes from Southern, 71 
Ivy stems, severing of, 30 
Ixiolirion, the cultivation of, 286 



Jam-making, prices of, 133 

Japan, camphor industry in, 180 
Mr. Wilson's botanical explora 
tions in, 308 

Jarrett, Mr. J., appointment of 
163 

Javanese insect galls, 179 

Juniperus chinensis var. nana. 320 
J. c. var. Pfitzeriana, 320; J 
communis var. alpina, 320, J 
Sabina var. procumbens, 320 ; J 
S. var. prostrate, 320; J. S. var 
tamariscifolia, 320; J. virgin 
iana var. globosa, 320; J. v. var 
Kosteriana, 320 



K 

Kauri, age and growth of the, 179 

Kew Gardens, houses closed at, 
328; notes from, 327; thunder- 
storms at, 76 ; Tulip tree at, 216 

Kew Guild Roll of Honour. 401 

King's Oak, Tilford, preservation 
of, 224 

Kitchen garden, management of 
the, 10. 33. 52, 73, 97, 113, 131, 
147, 161, 175, 189, 203, 219, 235 
248, 260, 277, 293, 307, 323, 337, 
353. 369, 385, 399, 416 

Kninhofia. the genus, 409 

Kolkwitzia amabalis, 117 



Kropotkin's, Prince, views on in- 
herited variation in plants, 280 



Lachenalias, the culture of, 186 
Laelio-Cattleya Penarth, 143 
Laet's, Mons. F. de, nursery near 

Antwerp, 388 
Lamarck, J. B. (Zoological Philo- 
sophy), 278 
Land, for agriculture, 257 ; reclama- 
tion of, and unemployment, 262; 
work on, as a cure for unemploy- 
ment, 266, 328, 340 
Larkspur seed, insecticidal value ot 

liquid extract of, 372 
Late Blight fungus, persistence in 

soil, 37 
Laumonnier, E. (Les Jardins de 

Plantes Vivaces), 365 
Lavender grown for profit, 84 
" Lawrence Medal," award of the, 

386 
Law Notes.— American Goose- 
berry mildew prosecution, 63 ; 
Apple pulp in Raspberry jam, 23 ; 
Bankruptcy statistics, 197 ; 
Failure of Plantoids, Limited, 
155 ; Gardening contract dis- 
pute, 392; Nursery for women 
gardeners, 332; Statutory small 
tenants and market gardening, 
378 
Lawn tennis grounds, treatment of, 

o 
Leaf-cutting bee, the, 137 
Le Clerc, Mons. L. V. P., honour 

for, 149 
Lefroy, Prof. A. Maxwell-, ap- 
pointment of, 95 
Lemoine, Mons. E., letter from. 

295 
Lemoine 's nursery at Nancy, 201 
Leuzea conifera, 50 
Lewis, Mr. W., appointment of, 

301 
Lightning, effect of, on trees, 280 
Lilium Harrisii, the forcing of, 
394; L. Henryi, 232; L. nepal- 
ense, 117; L. Sargentae at Mon- 
reith, 180; L. sulphureum, 240; 
L. Wallichianum, 275 
Lime juice and Orange oil in West 

Indies, 264 
Linum maritimum and Glaucium 

leiocarpum, 207 
Littonia modesta, 69 
Liverpool, a new park for, 252 
Loch Lomond, proposed public 

park at, 58, 297, 398 
Loiseleuria procumbens alba, 8 
London gardens, 76 
London Gardens Guild. 98 
London kitchen gardens, an appeal 

for help for, 224 
London Scottish Regiment, horti- 
cultural members of the. 339 
Longmoor, German prisoners' camp 

at, 355 
Lorette system of pruning, 302, 378, 

395 
Louvre roof-garden, the, 273 
Lunaria biennis, 29 



M 

MacMillan, H. F. I A Handbook of 
Tropical Gardening and Plant- 
ing, with Special Reference to 
Ceylon), 272 

Magnesia used to purify water. 191 

Magnolia grandiflora ' ferruginea, 
320 

Manchester district, market gar- 
dening in the. 143 

Manure, for Tomatos, 297 ; loss 
of weight of, in transport, 75 ; 
sulphur as a, 372 

Manures, chemical, required in 
Cyprus, 340 

Mapledurham, Oxfordshire, 334, 
335 



December 26, 1914.] 



INDEX. 



[The Gardeners' Chronicli 



Market fruit garden, operations in 
the, 47, 86, 126, 169, 265, 298, 
317, 366, 396 
Market-gardening in the Manches- 
ter district, 143 
Markham, the late Mrs. H., 95 
Maron, Mons. Ch., 388 
Marrows, hybrid, 298 
Masdevallia curtipes, 143 
Mawley, Mr. Edward, resignation 

of, 264 
Mealy bug on vines, gas-tar as a 

remedy for, 341, 357 
Meconopsis, 29 
Medicinal plants, the cultivation 

of, 348, 373 
Melons, a good crop of, 267 
Metrosideros lucida, 31 
Michauxia Tchihatcheffii. 67 
Micro-organism of the soil and an- 
tiseptics, 386 
Millipede, the spotted, 172 
Miltonia spectabilis virginalis, 230 ; 
M. vexillaria, 200; M. v. Laelia 
Sander, 162 
Mistleto in France, 3 
Mite, the Black Currant, 75 
Modern gardening, some aspects of, 

4 
Moles as pest destroyers. 224 
Mont Cenis, alpines on, 170 
Moon's effects on plants, the, 86. 

193 
Morayshire, tobacco-growing in, 14 
Morning and evening positions of 

flowers, 165 
Moth, the Diamond Black. 57 
Myosotis, garden species of, 67 



N 



Naming, of Apples, 253, 299 ; of 
fruits, 281 

Narcissus, early specimens of, 366 

Narcissus fly, the lesser, 6, 31, 58, 
95 

Narcissus seeding, 58 

National Diploma in Horticulture, 
30. 31 372 

National Relief Fund, 148 

National Rose Society's contribu- 
tion to Queen Alexandra's Fund, 
190, 205 

National Rose Society's show, table 
decorations at the, 76 

National Sweet Pea Society's trials, 
224 

Naturalisation of alien plants. 179 

Nerine " Coral," 196 

New Hanipshire and Maine, fruit 
crops in, 297 

Newry, flowers and fruit at, 202 

New Zealand, alien plants natural- 
ised in, 179 

Nomenclature, German views on, 
400, 4-15 

Normandy, cultivation of Cauli- 
flowers in, 163 

Nowell, Mr. Edward, as musical 
composer, 326 

Nursery, damage at a, 76 ; em- 
ployees and the war, 133 ; start- 
ing a small flower, 140 

Nurserymen and prisoners, 279 

Nursery Notes ; — Cheal, J., 
and Sons, Crawley, 95 ; Hillier 
and Sons, Winchester, 150 : 
Sander and Sons, St. Albans, 364 ; 
Voitch. Robert, and Son, Exeter, 
214 

Nvmphaea scutifolia, treatment of. 
'198 



Oaklands, Wimbledon Park, 304 
Orituarv: Arderne, H. M., 256, 
269; Beckett, C, 285; Bound, 
W., 346; Bradbury, Joseph, 104; 
Cannell, Henry, 300 ; Chamber- 
lain, Joseph, 42 ; Chapman, 



Samuel, 243; Cooke, Dr. M. C, 
345 ; Coombs, James, 331 ; 
Cuthbert, George, 43, 63 ; 
Cypher, Frank, 243; Donaldson, 
Alexander, 346; Folkes, Henry, 
43; Herd, W. A., 256; Hors- 
croft, Samuel, 243; Iggulden, W., 
243; Kirkpatrick, Walter B., 
269; Lamb, Robert, 392 ; La- 
tham, William Bradbury, 418 ; 
Mansfield, Thomas, 167 ; May- 
cock, G., 346; Miller, William, 
315 ; Nisbet, Richard, 378 ; 
Oubridge, Henry Robert, 167 ; 
Phippen, F., 285*; Sangwin, W., 
43 ; Scouler, John, 197 ; Tower- 
son, Thomas E., 269; Waland, 
John J., 408; Weismann, August, 
361; White, Nelson B., 331 

Odontioda Diana, 246; O. Fla- 
mingo, 284; 0. Stella, 143 

Odontoglossum aspidorhinum, 200; 
O. Uro-excellens, 246; O. Dro- 
Skinneri, culture of, 156 

Odontonia Charlesworthii, 107 ; O. 
Cleverleyana, 86 ; O. Macnab- 
iana Brackenhurst var., 126; O. 
Magali Sander var. xanthotes, 
288 

Oenothera biennis, 67 ; O. taraxaici- 
folia, 67 

Oncidium lanceanum, 230; 0. Leo- 
poldianum, 246, 304 

Oldham. Mr. C. H., appointment 
of, 237 

Onopordon, 67 

Ontario Rose Society, 57 

Orchards, the digging of, 366 

Orchid houses, the management of 
the, 10, 32, 52, 72, 96, 112, 130, 
146, 160, 174, 188, 202, 219, 235, 
249, 261, 277, 292, 306, 323, 336, 
352, 368, 385, 399, 415 

Orchid notes and gleanings, 86, 
107, 126, 143, 158, 171, 200, 230, 
246, 272. 288, 304, 319, 364, 381 

Orchid hybridisation, lecture on, at 
Horticultural Club, 358 

Orchids : at St. Albans, 364 ; at 
Rosslyn, Stamford Hill, 107 
blue flowered varieties of, 270 
hybrid. 126. 272, 364; new, 57 
sales of, 264 

Othonna. the genus, 27 

Overseas fruit trade. Glasgow as a 
centre for the. 114 

Oxfordshire, school-gardens com- 
petition in, 372 



Paeonia lutea, 225 

Paeonies in China, 387 

Panama Pacific Exposition, plant- 
ing at the, 372 

Pancratium illyricum, 140, 165 

Papaver orientale Perry's White, 
132 

Paris, flower trade in, 134 

Parkinson, S. T. (Impurities of 
Agricultural Seeds), 145 

Patholosica! Convention, proposed, 
94, 338, 350 

Patwardhan, G. B. (.4 guide to 
Role culture in the Bombay 
Presidency), 321 

Peach, fruiting of the double- 
flowered. 193. 239. 253, 267 

Peaches : at Aldenham House. Els- 
tree, 240 ; grown in the open, 30 ; 
large, 137. 152 ; split stones in, 44 

Pear Glout Moreeau, 279 

Pears in Kent. 328 

Peas, late varieties of, 202, 225, 
241. 310. 373. 389, 415 

Peat, experiments with bacterised, 
12 ; grant for research in bac- 
terised, 340 

Pelargoniums forty years ago, 304 ; 
seventy years ago, 296 

Perennials treated as biennials, 67 

Perry and Sons' employees' out- 
ing, 134 



Peru, customs formalities in, 401 
Pest destroyers, the use of moles 

as, 224 
Pests, protection against, 94 
Phaius Wallichii with adventitious 

growths, 273 
Philadelphus, varieties of, 198 
Phytophthora inf estans, 37 ; a 

Potato capable of resisting, 250 
Picea ajanensis, 327; P. excelsa, 

320 
Pine, the Siberian yellow, 180 
Pineapples in the Azores, effect of 

smoke on, 239 
Pinus montana, 320; P. StroBus 

var. nana, 320 ; P. sylvestris var. 

globosa, 320 
Pinwill, Capt. W. Stackhouse C, 

awarded the Victoria Medal of 

Honour, 372 
Pirie, Mr. William G., appoint- 
ment of, 280 
Pittosporum Dallii, 192 
Pitwood, the scarcity of, 297 
Plant disease administration in 

Holland and Denmark, 141 
Plant growth, effects of radium on. 

134 

Plant Portraits:— Aconi- 
tum rotundifolium, 239; Agave 
bracteosa, 252; Ceratostigma 
Willmottianum, 401 ; Clematis 
Armandii, 401 ; C'oelogyne brachy- 
ptera, 323 ; Cotoneaster Fran- 
chetii, 179 ; Crataegus pubescens 
stipulacea, 401 ; Cyrtosperma 
Johnstonii, 179 ; Cytisus palli- 
dus, 252 ; Echinocactus minus- 
culus, 323 ; Echinopanax horri- 
dus, 239 ; Gongora grossa, 117 ; 
Hamamelis vernalis, 239 ; In- 
digofera Kirilowii, 252 ; Ixora 
umbellata, 252; Kniphofia, the 
genus, 410 ; Kolkwitzia ama- 
bilis, 117 ; Lonicera f ragran- 
tissima, 323 ; Meconopsis rudis, 
179 ; Nothofagus Cunninghamii, 
323 ; Pimelia f erruginea, 239 ; 
Pleione pogonioides, 401 ; Pri- 
mula vinciflora, 117 ; P. vittata, 
323; Rosa corymbulosa, 117; R. 
setipoda. 179; Salvia longi- 
styla, 401 ; Tillandsia Bentham- 
iana var. Andrieuxii, 239 ; Tri- 
chocaulon pictum, 252; Trollius 
chinensis, 117 ; Zingiber Mioga, 
179 
Plant press at Wisley, 330 
Plants by post, transit of, 296 
Plants, New or Noteworthy.— 
Aloe pretoriensis, 105 ; Bauhinea 
purpurea, 142; Iris Urumovii, 
272 ; Othonna paclrypoda, 27 ; 
Populus generosa, 258 ; Primula 
angustidens, 142 ; Streptocarpus 
Blythinii, 258; Syringa Wil- 
sonii, 27 
Plants under glass, the cultivation 
of, 10, 33, 52, 72, 96, 112, 130, 
147, 161, 175, 189, 203, 218, 234, 
249, 261, 276. 293, 307, 322, 336, 
352. 369, 384. 398, 417 ; inherited 
variation in. 280 
Plasmodiophora brassicae, club 

root disease, 118 
Plum. Jefferson, as a pot plant, 
215; La Delicieuse, 138; summer 
pruni'io; ,,f the. 6. 152 
Plums, French varieties of, 154 
Poinsettia pulcherrima rosea, 190 
Pollen, the preservation of, 37 
Pollination, cross, in Apples, 126, 

152 
Pomologists, lives of the great, 363, 

409 
Pomology, Belgium's contribution 

to, 220" 
Poplars, American, 1 ; Black, 2, 46, 

66 
Populus deltoidea, 46 ; P. Eugenei, 
47; P. generosa, 258; P. Henry- 
ana, 47; P. Lloydii, 66; P. mari- 
landica. 66 ; P. nigra, 1 ; P. n. 
var. italica, 1 ; P. plantierens's, 



2; P. regenerate, 47; P. robusta, 
66 ; P. serotina, 47 

Postal transit of flowers, 5, 296 

Potash and the Highland Kelp m- 
industry, 372 ; in America, 326 

Potash manures, 149. 263 

Potato, a blight- and frost-resist- 
ing, 250, 280; competition at 
Edinburgh, 251; crop, 401; 
digger, a new, 37; growers and 
the war, 134; seed for Belgium, 
252; spraying at Woburn. 74 

Potatos : Arran Chief, 34±, 357; 
Carisbrooke Castle, 327 ; Dun- 
nottar Castle, 413 ; Warwick 
Castle, 413. 

Potatos, affected with corky scab, 
270 ; experiment in planting, 
180; in Germany, 57; wart- 
disease of, 237 

" Pour nos amis francais et beiges," 
329, 344, 360, 367, 383, 397, 414 
Preservation of flowers, 193, 413 ; 
of outdoor timber, 70. 

Preserving and storing of fruit, 
105, 134 

Primula angustidens, 142 ; P. kew- 
ensis, 415 ; P. obconica (double- 
flowered variety of), 181 ; 1'. 
Palinuri, the home of, 216 ; P. 
pseudo-capitata, 59 ; P. vinci- 
flora, 117 

Produce market in Holland, 387 

Pruning fruit trees, 6, 152, 382 

Psoralea bituminosa, 225 

Publications received, 21, 37, 53,. 
138, 146, 166, 207, 218, 240, 248, 
261, 281, 326, 366, 402 

Puccinia antirrhini (Antirrhinum 
Rust), 372 

Pyracantha angustifolia, 352 

Pyrus floribunda, 141 ; P. veslita, 
•8 

Pyruses, varieties of, 240 



Rabbits as food for the poor, 133 

Radium and plant growth, 134 

Rainfall at Glasgow, 390 

Recipe for Damson wine, 270 ; for 
preserving fruit, 134 

Red House, Harrow-on-the-Hill, 
240 

Reichenbachian Herbarium, the, 57 

Reid, C. (Submerged Forests), 54 

Reigate, Sir Jeremiah Colman s 
gift to, 95 

Restio subverticillatus, 119 

Reversion, in Apple, 48 ; in Eu- 
pnorbia, 253 

Rheum Alexandrae, 58 

llh'idndendrons. fur the San Fran- 
cisco Exposition, 206; poisonous 
to animals. 124 

Ribes Henryi, 29 

Ringing trees. 320 

Robinia Pseud-acacia, 58 

Rockerv, a natural, 200 ; grass in 
the, 30, 144 

Roll of honour, gardeners', 326; 
Kew Guild, 401 

Rome Convention, the, 94, 338, 
350 

Roof-garden at the Louvre, 273 

Root crops, the, 372 

Rosa corvmbulosa. 117 

Rosary, the, 70, 105, 186. 265, 289, 
384 

Rose peculiarities, some, 105 

Rose season, beginning of the, 5 

Rose Society of Ontario, 57 

Roses, classification of. 6. 71 : cure 
for black spot in, 333, 373 ; good 
and bad weather, 265; new, 54; 
past and present, 70 ; planting of, 
under glass, 187 ; repotting, 186 ; 
single-flowered climbing varie- 
ties of, 289 ; source of yellow, 7 

Roses : American Pillar, 384 ; 
Fortune's Yellow, 206 ; Lady 
Waterlow, 37; Lyon, 137; Marl- 
chal Niel (treatment of). 362; 
Mrs. George Shawyer, 326 



vi The Gardeners' Chronicle.] 



INDEX. 



[December 26, 1914. 



Roaslyn, Stamford Hill, Orchids at, 
107 

Ross, Mr. Charies, 401 

R.H S. : Bulb show, 56, 164; Fruit 
Show, 133, 223, 262; Orchid Show 
in 1SJ15, 64; the president and 
Council b appeal to members, 

176; Tulip .Nomenclature Coin 
mittee 1914, 37 
Rural Improvement [Frank A. 
Waugh), 366 



S 



Sansevieria LAiiu.Mii. 144 
Sap-densitj and Erost, 486 
Saprophytic fungi as parasites, 

106 
Sawfly, Apple, 48 
Saxifraga mutata, 67 
Si ant-making, 198 
Scholarships in agricultural and 

veterinary science, 14 
School gardening, 50 

Scientific Committee: Abraxas 
grossulariata, 119; Aegle sepi- 
aria, seedless fruits of, oo7 ; Aes- 
cuius indica, seeds of, 417; Al 
stroemeria Hookeri, 100 ; Apple : 
a black, 267; damaged by frost, 
417; in bird's nest, 417; with 
curious markings, 330; Apple 
tree pruning and its effect on 
growth, 390 ; Apples, seedless, 
22 ; Araucaria imbricata at- 
tacked by fungus, 367 ; Aster. 
Dodder on, 100 ; Bay leaves 
injured by insects, 208 ; Bi- 
furcation of leaves, 330 ; Black 
Currants, reversion in, 119 ; 
Black Fellow's Bread (Poly- 
porous Mylittae), 390; Cabbage 
root, maggot in, 22 ; Calanthe x 
Branchii, 357, 391 ; Callipsyche 
aurantiaca, 390; Castelleya sp., 
101 ; Cladrastis amurensis, 100 ; 
Claytonia sibirica, doubling in, 
22 ; Cotyledons, enlargement of, 
22 ; Dahlia stem eaten by wasps, 
208 ; Dendrobium Tof tii awarded 
a botanical certificate, 357 ; 
Dianthus barbatus, a spirally con- 
torted specimen of, 390; Dodder 
on German Aster, 100; Erodium 
cicutarium, leaves of variegated, 
390 ; Fasciation in Daisy, 22 ; 
Frost damage to Apple, 417; 
Gerbera with gall on veins, 208; 
Geum, Mrs. Bradshaw, 119; 
Gordon, the late Mr. G., 119; 
Harpagophytum, fruit of, 100; 
Hiedycium Grreenii with apical 
bulb. 417; Insects destroy- 
ing Lettuce, 100; Isoloma with 
supernumerary petals, 390; Le- 
canium on Ray leaves, 208 ; 
Lysionotus Wilmottiae, 100 ; 
Maggot in Cabbage root, 22: 
Maize cobs, malformed, 357; 
Narcissus. diseases of, 100, 
119; Narcissus fly. the lesser, 22; 
Nemesia with fringed flowers, 
100: " Xettle leaf" or reversion 
in Black Currants, 119: Oak 
leaves, abnormal. 390; Origanum 
Marjorana. 330; Origanum 

species, 242: Orobanche Hederae, 
100 : Pancratium canadensis. 208 ; 
Papaver orient-ale x P. somni- 
ferum. 208: Parasite on Mag- 
pie Moth, 119: Parrisia rosaria, 
119: Pea. seedless. 100; Pear X 
Quince. 330 : Pelargonium hy- 
brid. 208. S'-'O. 417: Pinns Thn'n- 
bergii, malformation in, 267 ; 
Plant, an unidentified, 390: 
Polyporus Mylittae (Black Fel- 
low's Bread), 390; Primula flori- 
bunda. 417: Quercus Cerris. 
deeply lolled specimens of. 
330 ; Reversion in Black Cur- 
rants, 119 ; Rose buds injured by- 



grubs, 119; Hose galls from the 
Alpcs-Marninies, 208; Saiix 
hybrids, 330; Sawfly on Viola, 
242; Saxifrage, a nybrid, 2o< , 
Seedless Pea, 100; Sempervivum 
Chrysanthemum, 267; Sisym- 
brium austriacum, a wild speci- 
men of, 357 ; Snowdrop bulbs ou 
stems, 390 ; Stenichneumon scutel- 
lala, 119; Sweet Peas, twin pods 
of, 242; Teasel, a malformed, 
330 ; Vine leaves, warts on, 22 ; 
" Wild Almond " from the Cape, 
22 

Scotland, corky scab of Potato in, 
182; notes from, 182, 266; Viola 
trials in, 172; weather in, 119 

Scott, Mr. M. B., appointment of, 
163 

Sears, Fred. C. (Productive 
Orcharding), 354 

Sedum sempervivoides, 67 

Sedums, the misnaming of, 334 

Seed, American purcru.ses ol, 238 
preservation of, for shipment. 
237 

Seed growers, subsidies for, 371 

Seeds, collection and storage of, 
335 ; dead or alive. 34 ; from Ger- 
many, 224; from Holland, 251; 
germination of, 58, 98; removal 
of albumen from, 224 

Semele androgyna, 241 

Shot borer beetle, 184 

Shrewsbury Show, orchard house 
trees at the, 57 

Shrewsbury, Sweet Pea Show at, 
121 

Shrubberies, care of, 291 

Siberian Yellow Pine, 180 

Silene chloraefolia, 279; S. com- 
pacta, 67 

Small-holders, technical instruction 
for, 237 

Small-holdings, 188 

Smith, G. (Impurities of Agricul- 
tural Seeds). 145 

Smith, J. T., the late, 389 

Smith, Mr. Joseph, gift to, 389 

Smoke, effect of, on Pineapples, in 
the Azores, 239 

Societies:- Aberdeen Chrys., 

284 ; Ayrshire Sweet Pea and 
Rose, 122 : Banbridge Hort. and 
Agri., 183; Barry Chrys., 343; 
Birkenhead Agricultural, 23 ; 
Birmingham Chrys., 342; Bir- 
mingham Hort., 79 ; Bishop's 
Waltham, 121 ; Bournemouth 
Hort., 357; British Gardeners' 
Association, annual meeting, 102 ; 
British Mycological, 343 ; ; Burn- 
ley Hort., 37; Cardiff Hort., 82, 
101 ; Cemetery Superintendents', 
102; City of London Rose, 22; 
Coventry Chrys., 343; Croydon 
Chrys., 313; Croydon Hort., 23: 
Elgin Hort., 138"; Elstree Hort., 
06 ; Formby Hort., 102; Gar- 
deners' Royal Benevolent Insti- 
tution (Festival Dinner), 9; 
(Berkshire branch), 37; General 
Bulb Growers of Haarlem, 122: 
Gloucestershire Rose and Sweet 
Pea, 82; Highland and Agri- 
cultural, 138; Hornsey Chrys., 
313; Horticultural Club, 14.' 34 
(Excursion to Hatfield House 
and Balls Park), 76, 309, 358; 
Horticultural Trades' Associa- 
tion (annual meeting). 208: Kil- 
larney Hort. and Industrial, 138: 
Lancaster Hort.. 376: Leaming- 
ton and County, 103. 119; 
Leicester Flower Show, 182 : Lin- 
nean, 377: Liverpool Hort.. 62, 
343; Maidenhead Chrys.. 314; 
Manchester and North of Eng- 
land Orchid, 81, 138, 227, 284, 
314, 359, 376 : Manchester Royal 
Botanic and Hort., 63; Midland 
Carnation and Picotee. 120 • 
National Carnation and Picotee. 
37. (Southern Section) 79; 
National Chrys., 227, 242, 255. 



k!84, 313, 330, MA, 370, 391, (an- 
nual conference) 406; Mationai 
Dahlia, 162, 268, 284, 375; 
National Gladiolus, 101 ; .National 
Rose, 38, (annual meeting; 
405; National Sweet Pea, 
37, 77, 78, 242, (annual meeting) 
267; Newark and District Hort., 
154; North of England Hort., 
83; People's Palace and East 
London Hort., 314; Perpetual- 
flowering Carnation, 61, 206, 376, 
(annual meeting), 391, 401; 
Reigate Rose and Sweet Pea, 63 ; 
Riclimond Hort., 22; Koyal Agri- 
cultural Shrewsbury Snow, 4l ; 
Royal Hort. (Holland House 
Show), 15, 59, (Masters Me- 
morial Lecture) 76, 98, 119, 153, 
195 208, 225, 242, 253, 267, 281, 
300, 311, 330, 341, 357, 374, 390, 
403, 417; Royal Hort. affiliated 
societies, 242; Royal Hort. of 
Aberdeen, 331; Royal Hort. of 
Ireland, 268; Royal Hort. of 
Victoria, 122 ; Royal Meteorologi- 
cal, 389; Roval Scottish Arbori- 
cultural, 154, 209. 407; Saltaire 
Rose, 81; Scottish Hort., 82, 154, 
210, 268, 359; Shropshire Hort., 
41 ; Smithfield Club, 391 ; Societe 
Francaise d'Hort. de Londres, 
63; Southampton Hort., 61, 101; 
Stevenage Chrys., 371; United 
Horticultural Benefit and Provi- 
dent, 83, 154, 225, 314, 343; 
Ventnor Chxys., 330; Watford 
Hort., 101; Wolverhampton 
Show, 40, 119; Women's Agri. 
and Hort. International Union, 
407 : Woolton hort., 101. 

Soil, fertility of the, 370; micro- 
organisms and antiseptics, 386 ; 
particles, distribution of, 74 ; 
sterilisation, 179 

SouEh- Eastern Agricultural College, 
Wye, 387 

South Africa, notes from, 86 

South African plants in autumn, 
204 

South Devon, flowers in, 231 

Southend public parks and gardens, 
157 

Soya Bean as a vegetable, 224 

Spider, red, 172 

Spinach and its substitutes, 117, 
151, 165 

Stair, the late Earl of, 386 

State insurance of gardeners in the 
Forces, 28 

Sterilisation of soil. 179 

Stomata, the distribution of, in 
Graminaceous seedlings, 192 

Storage and grading of Apples 
and Pears, 233 ; of seeds, 335 

Strawberry Mme. Henri Leduc. 
275 

Strawberry, pests of the, 118 

Strawberries at Upton, Hampshire, 
158; in India, 263 

Streak disease of Sweet Pea, 124 

Streptocarpus Banksii, 192 ; S. 
Blythinii, 258 

Succulent plants, watering, 150 

Sugar, a substitute for, 148 

Sugar Beet, the culture of, 168 

Sulphur as a fertiliser, 372 

Sun, flowers that follow the, 
165 

Superphosphate and cyanamide, the 
mixing of, 191 

Sutherlandia frutescens, 240 

Sutton and Sons' annual excursion, 
14. 

Sutton, Mr. Leonard, elected 
mayor, 296 

Sweet Pea Conference at the White 
City, 61 

Sweet Peas, at Glasgow, 306 ; best 

irieties of, 51; exhibition, 7; 

" Simplicitas " trophy for, 134; 

streak disease of, 124 ; undei 

glass, 140, 172 

Sweet William, origin of, 241 

Syringa Wilsonii, 27 



Tea statistics, 372 

Technical instruction for small 

holders, 237 
Tennis court, to make a hard, 

332 ; a sand, 124 ; lawns, 3 
Tetranychus bimaculatus, 172 
Texas, proposed botanic garden for, 

86 
Thompson, H. Stuart (Flowering 

Plants of the Riviera), 351 
Thrips affecting Onions, 172 
Thrips tabaci, 172 
Thuya occidentalis var. Hovei, 320 
Timber, preservation of outdoor, 

70 
Tivey, Mr. George, 401 
Tobacco-growing in Morayshire, 14 
Tomato chutney, recipe for, 212 
Tomato, Golden Sunrise, 2u2 ; 

Peach Blow, 129 
Tomatos, artificial manure for, 297 , 

black rot of, 114 
Torquay public gardens, 199, 267 
Tree growth on Clare Island, 413 
Trading with the enemy, 373 
Tree growth on Clare Island, 413 
Tree-planting in Uruguay, 192 
Trees and shrubs, 141, 160, 208, 

■Aid, AUb, Z91, ozO, 3ol, 368; at 

Dawyck, 125 
Trees, as climatic recorders, 190 ; 

the ringing of, 320 
Trenching, at Woburn, 74; bas- 
tard, 250 
Trollius chinensis, 117 
Tropaeolum speciosum, 241 
Truffaut, Mons. A., letters from, 

279, 400 
Tulip Tree at Kew, 216 
Tulip William Copeland, 309 
Tulips, Darwin, 111 
Turnip flea beetle, trap to catch, 

180, 194 
Turrill, Mr. W. B., appointment 

of, 163 



Umney, J. C. (Perfumery and 

Essential Oil Record), 109 
Underley Hall, Burnley, 37 
Unemployment, a land cure for, 

266, 298, 311, 340 
Upton, Strawberries at, 158 
United States of America, Hops, 

fruit and Petatos in, 95 
Uruguay, tree-planting in, 192 



Vacant land, the cultivation of, 

206 
Yallotai purpurea, 30 
Vegetable Marrows, hybrid, 298 
Vegetable Products Committee, 

371 ; scheme to assist troops, 

252 
Vegetable show at Manchester, 209 
Vegetables, green varieties for 

winter markets. 319; notes on, 

117, 129, 202, 298, 384 ; prices of, 

164, 210: under glass, 123. 
Vegetation, islands of, 264 
Veitch and Sons' nurseries, sales of 

stock at, 310. 356 
Veitch, Sir Harrv. 279 
Veitch, the late John Gould, 256 
Verbascum, 67 ; V. Warley Pearl, 

59 
Veronica edinensis, 368 
Victoria Medal of Honour aw.irds, 

372 
Vienna Centenary Exhibition, hor- 
ticulture at the, 54 
Vines, remedy for mealy bug on, 

341, 408 
Viola trials in Scotland, 172 
Vitis armata. 213; V. Henryana, 

214; V. Thomsonii, 214; V. 

Wilsonii, 214 



December 26, 1914.] 



INDEX. 



[The Gardeners' Chronicle, yii 



W 

Wain wright, Mr. A., appointment 
of, 237 

Walnuts, a pest of, 340 ; preserva- 
tion of, 286 

War, early effects of the, 148, 166, 
405 ; farmers' horses for the, 163 ; 
gardeners, and the, 162 ; items, 
177, 178, 179, 190, 205, 224, 238, 
251, 264, 279, 295, 309, 325, 339, 
370, 388, 400, 413: our duty 
during the, 241 : the effect of, on 
Barbados fruit crops, 252 

Wart disease of Potatos, 237 

Wash for fruit trees, 86 

Washington Botanic Garden to 
change its site, 191 

Wasps, 8, 31, 181, 207 ; value of de- 
stroying queen, 193 



Watercress, a substitute for, 37 
Water gardening, 4 
Watering succulent plants, 150 
Water, the purification of, by mag- 
nesia, 191 
Waugh, Frank. A. [Rural Improve- 
ment), 366 
Weather and the crops, 280 ; effect 
of, on Carnation-splitting, 190 ; 
in October, 328 
Weeks, Mr. Charles, 401 
Weevil, the Apple blossom, 48 
Westcliff, public parks at, 157 
West Indian Lime juice and Orange 

oil, 264 
West Indies, notes from the, 201 
Wheat crop, extension of the, 237 
Wheat-growing and Essex farmers, 
117 



Wheelbarrows, American, 58 
White City, forestry conference 

at, 76 
White, Mr. W. H., 252 
Whiteley Park, foundation-stone 

laying ceremony at, 95 
Whvtoclt, Mr. J., awarded V.M.H.. 

372 
Williamson, Rev. David R., 387 
Wilson's, Mr. E. H., explorations 

in Japan, 309 
Winter, effect of, on woody plants, 

3 ; employment on country es- 
tates, 240, 311 
Winter moth and banding of fruit 

trees, 299 
Wisley gardens, summer drought 

at, 310 ; trials at, 300 ; work and 

improvements at, 133 



Woburn, experiments at, 74 
Woburn paste and Bordeaux 

mixture, 401 
Wood used in the manufacture of 

gunpowder, 401 
Worms and caterpillars, a request 

for, 207 



Yew, poisonous properties of, 415 
Yew tree, an old, 76 



Zephryanthes Candida, 240 



SUPPLEMENTARY ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Aloe succotrina in Botanic Gardens, South Africa (December 19) 
*Apple Peacemaker (August 1) 

Athens (October 24) 
*Begonia Altrincham Pink (October 10) 
"Carnation "Wells' Champion" (December 5) 

Cattleya Mossiae (October 3) 
"Clerodendron splendens (July 11) 
Cotoneaster bacillaris and C. salicifolia var. rugosa (December 26) 



•Gloriosa Rothschildiana (July 25) 

Hi.mitelia capensis in Botanic Gardens, South Africa (November 21) 
*Hippeastrum Daphne (August 22) 

Miltonia vexillaria Laelia Sander (August 29) 

Papaver orientale Perry's White (August 15) 
*Poinsettia pulcherrima rosea (September 12) 
*Tulip William Copeland (November 7) 



* Coloured Plates. 



(Fur Lint of General Illustrations in the text see next page.) 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 4, 1914. 



'form of the glabrous European Black Poplar, 
from which it differs only in the peculiar habit, 
all the branches being "directed vertically up- 
wards. Much erroneous matter liasi been written 
about the origin of this tree, some old writers 
considering it to be a distinct 6pecies, native of 
Asia Minor or Persia. I have given elsewhere* 
historical evidence proving that it originated, 
probably as a single tree, between 1700 and 1720 
in the plains of Lombardy. From here it spread 
rapidly by cuttings over the whole world, reach- 
ing France in 1749, England in 1758 and the 
United States in 1784, while it was carried to 
the Levant about 1750 by the Genoese. It is un- 
known except as a planted tree in Asia Minor, 
Afghanistan, and India. 



in 1908, 1910 and 1914. The origin of this is 
quite unknown. 

Populus plantierensis t is the fastigiate form 
of the pubescent (or English) Black Poplar, and 
derives its name from the nursery of Simon- 
Louis at Plantieres, near Metz, where it origi- 
nated. M. Jouin, the present proprietor of this 
famous nursery, where so many sports and' 
hybrids have been raised, told me last year that 
there existed in 1868 a line of female trees 
of Populus nigra var. betulifolia. alongside 
some Lombardy Poplars, and that fifteen seed- 
lings of fastigiate habit were found, which con- 
stituted the original stock (both sexes occu-- 
ring). One of the original trees, which is a male, 
measured 74 feet high by 5 feet in girth in 1908. 




Fig. 2. — English black poplar, populus nigra var. betulifolia, at bishop's stortford. 



The original Lombardy Poplar was a staminate 
tree, and all trees propagated from this are con- 
sequently of the male sex. The rare female 
Lombardy Poplars, which have been reported to 
occur in Germany from time to time, have not 
strictly vertical branches, and appear to be seed- 
lings from Poplars of the ordinary spreading 
form, which were pollinated by the pollen of the 
Lombardy Poplar. The only female Lombardy 
Poplar with a truly fastigiate habit which I 
have 6een is a tree (fig. 3) in Kew Gardens, about 
50 feet high, which produced pistillate catkins 

* Trees of Great Britain and Ireland, VII., 1798 (1913), 
Seguier, in P'antae Vertmenftes, II., 2«7, published in 1745, 
states that the fastigiate and ordinal? Black Poplars differ 
•only in habit, and in the first being a planted, the latter a 
wild, tree. 



This tree can only be distinguished from the 
ordinary Lombardy Poplar by its hairy twigs 
and petioles. It is doubtful if it is more 
vigorous, but its growth can be seen at Kew 
and at Glasnevin, where there are excellent 
specimens of th:6 and most of the other remark- 
able Poplars. 

The fastigiate habit may occur as a sport in 
any species of tree. Some are still very rare in 
cultivation, as the fastigiate Beech, which is only 
known as a single tree at Dawyck, and the 
fastigiate Scots Pine, the original example of 
which is at Dryburgh. Amongst the Cypresses 

t So nanu-d hy Di.de (1905). This name is convenient, tint 
it is more properly called Populus nigra var. plantierensis, 
Schneider (190(1). 



and Junipers, fastigiate seedlings are more 
numerous than in other genera, and appear to 
breed true to the habit. Lord Selborne gathered 
from an upright Mediterranean Cypress at 
Scutari in 1884 two or three cones, which lay for- 
gotten in a drawer till 1895, when their seed? 
were sown. Seventeen seedlings resulted, all 
like the parent in habit. These were about 6 to 
15 feet in height at Blackmoor in 1910. With an 
increase from seed in the number of fastigiate 
individuals, as occurs in the Cypress, we see the 
transformation from a sport to a constant form, 
which, if more suitable than the spreading ordi- 
nary form in some environment, might become 
by selection a geographical variety. 

In North America, east of the Rocky 
Mountains, there occurs one species of Black 
Poplar, divisible, like the European species, into 
distinct geographical varieties. This widely-dis- 
tributed American Poplar has been identified by 
American botanists with Populus deltoidea, Mar- 
shall, an old name to which is attached a vague 
description. The first certain description of i»uy 
form of the species was given under the name 
Populus monilifera, Aiton, a type specimen of 
which can be seen in the British Museum ; and 
I adhered to this name in Trees of Great Britain, 
vii. 1807 (1913) ; but as the business of nomen- 
clature is to get some name fixed to a species, I ' 
think it now better to adopt the name favoured 
by American botanists. 

There are three distinct forms of the Ameri- 
can Black Poplar in the wild state, all of which 
have identical floral characters, and all differing 
in foliage from the European species as given 
above. These are distinguishable as follows: — 

1. Populus deltoidea var. monilifera, Henry 
| Populus monilifera, Alton, Hort. Kew. iii. 406 
(1789)]. 

Leaves deltoid ovate, about 3 inches long and 
wide, abruptly contracted into a long non-ser- 
rated apex ; base wide and shallowly cordate, 
bearing two glands at the junction with the petiole 
in front ; margin densely ciliate ; both surfaces 
and petiole quite glabrous, except for a few 
evanescent hairs on the midrib and main nerves. 

This variety, which may be conveniently called 
P. monilifera, is wild in Ontario, Quebec, New 
England, New York, and Pennsylvania. Its 
habit is shown by fig. 4, representing a tree 
growing near Ithaca (N.Y.), about 100 feet in 
height and 13 feet in girth at 5 feet above the 
ground, 

This Poplar was early introduced (about 1700) 
into France and England, but has not been pro- 
pagated for many years, as it was supplanted 
by the fast-growing hybrids. The only tree that 
I have seen in England was one in the Cam- 
bridge Botanic Garden, cut down some years ago, 
but replaced by a cutting, which is thriving. 
There are two other old trees in England which 
have been identified with this species. No tree 
is more easy to identify by the form of the 
leaves, and it is remarkable that the unlikeness 
of the hybrid forms escaped notice, the latter 
still masquerading in books and nursery cata- 
logues as P. monilifera or its synonym P. cana- 
densis, names only applicable to the true Ameri- 
can species. 

2. Populus deltoidea var. occidentalis, Ryd- 
berg [Populus Sargentii. Dode (1905) ; Populus 
occidentalis, Britton (1906)]. 

Leaves smaller than in the preceding, thicker 
in texture, and lighter in colour, deltoid, trun 
cate at the base, with fewer and coarser serra- 
tions ; glabrous. 

This, which is the xerophytic form of the 
species, grows in North America in the territory 
east of the Rocky Mountains, from Saskatchewan 
and Alberta southwards to New Mexico and 
western Texas, and is the characteristic tree on 
the river flats of the western prairies. It has 
not been introduced. Aug. Henry. 
{To be continued.) 



July 4, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



HARDY BIENNIALS. 

(Continued from p. 432.) 



CELSIA CRETICA. 

This plant, although classed as a half-hardy 
biennial, frequently stands the winter if sown 
about July. It makes an effective plant about 
4 feet high, and has Mullein-like spikes of 
yellow, brown-spotted flowers. It grows in 
common soil. 

CAMPANULAS. 

Of the hardy Campanulas, which arc 1 est 
treated as biennials, or are really such in nature, 
the most popular is the Canterbury Bell, Campa- 
nula Medium. The seeds are best sown in the 
open in June in shallow drills, and covered to a 
depth of about a quarter of an inch with fine soil. 
Prick the seedlings out into light but well- 
manured soil, about 3 inches apart. They should 
be encouraged to make free growth by watering 
in dry weather, and occasional waterings with 
weak liquid manure. A second transplanting 
may be given early in August if the plants be- 
come crowded, and they should be put in their 
flowering quarters in September or October, or 
left over until spring if the ground ia required 
for other plants. 

These handsome flowers can now be had in 
strains of distinct colours, which will be 
found useful for colour effects, but packets of 
mixed seeds are also procurable. The Cup-and- 
Saucer varieties, Campanula Medium calyean- 
thema, are very effective from the calyx being 
coloured like the corolla. The Chimney Bell- 
flowers, Campanula pyramidalis varieties, are 
not much used as hardy biennials, although they 
can be treated as such by raising them in the 
same manner as the Canterbury Bells. Although 
not, as a rule, so fine as when cultivated in pots 
under glass, they make good border flowers. 

Other good Campanulas which are either true 
biennials or are best cultivated as such are C. 
longistyla, blue, 3 feet ; C. multiflora, blue, 14 
foot high; C. patula, light violet, 2 feet; C. 
petraea, a pretty Alpine species, with yellow 
flowers, only about 9 inches in height ; C. 
sibirica, blue, 1 foot; C. thyrsoidea, a curious 
yellow-flowered species, about a foot high. The 
allied Symphyandras also afford us two plants 
for biennial treatment, these being S. Warmeri, 
red-purple, about a foot high, and S. Hofmannii, 
white, the same height. The above can be 
raised and cultivated in the same way as the 
Canterbury Bells, but the species should have 
a drier soil. 

DIGITALIS PURPUREA. 

The Foxglove is one of the most important of 
the plants generally cultivated as biennials, and 
its noble spikes of brightly-coloured flowers are 
highly effective everywhere. The wild Foxglove 
is far outshone by the glorious garden strains, 
with colours of the most varied hues, and many 
of the blooms, especially in the gloxinioides 
strains, are wonderfully spotted. They are easily 
raised from seeds, sown in the open in ordinary 
soil, from April to July, and transplanted early 
to where they are to bloom. If they cannot be 
transplanted early they should be prevented from 
making long tap roots by planting them on 
ground which is hard underneath. Thin sowing, 
early transplanting, and growing with as little 
check as possible, will give the finest plants. 

Digitalis ferruginea, a biennial Foxglove, about 
4 feet high, has dull yellowish flowers veined 
with purple, and is a suitable plant for those 
wishing something distinct from the ordinary 
Foxglove of gardens. It can be treated in the 
same way as the others. 

ECHINOPS. 

A few of the. species of Echinops, or Globe 
Thistles, are of biennial duration, but the only 



one worthy of much consideration is E. bannati- 
cus, the Bannat Globe Thistle. This is one of the 
prettiest of this ornamental genus, the plants 
growing to a height of about 3 to 4 feet, and 
having effective leaves and blue flowers. It is 
easily raised from seeds sown in the open in 
May, June, or July, and planted out when in a 
young state where it is to bloom. If left until 
late in the season it is liable to be dwarfed. 

DIANTHUS BARBATUS. 

Sweet Williams, as the varieties of Dianthus 
barbatus are commonly called, are old-fashione 1 
plants, best treated as biennials. They are not 
in so much request as they were many years ago, 
but they are valuable flowers, and when 
grown make excellent garden plants. 

They should be sown, either broadcast or in 
little drills in sandy soil in the open, from April 
till July, May being, perhaps, as good a month 
as any. Sow very thinly and cover with about 
a quarter of an inch of fine 6andy soil. Shade 
during very hot weather, and water if necessary 
through a fine rose. As soon as the seedlings 
appear, light should be gradually given, and 
when thev have made two of their true or second 




Fig. 3. — female lombardy poplar at kew. 
(See p. 2.) 

leaves prick them out from 1 to 2 inches apart 
in light soil. When they have become estab- 
lished pinch out the tops, and after they have 
made some fresh growths plant out in ,yxjd foil, 
made rather firm beneath, and in an open situa- 
tion. If sown early they may again have the tops 
pinched out early in August, and in late Sep- 
tember or October transplanted to where they 
are to flower. They may, however, be left until 
April, but Autumn planting is best. Plant in 
good soil, not too heavy, but well manured with 
old manure, preferably that from the cowhouse. 
S. Artwtt. 

(To be continued.) 



NOTES ON FRENCH HORTICULTURE. 



are Apple and Poplar. Mistleto in France is 
rare on other common trees and extremely rare 
on the Oak. 

Nature of soil does not appear to play a deci- 
sive part in limiting distribution, and as regards 
altitude, Mistleto has been recorded in the 
Basses Alpes at a height of 3,600 feet on Pinus 
sylvestris. The damage is negligible, except 
where the Mistleto is very abundant, but when 
it is abundant the Poplar suffers and the fer- 
tility of Apple and Almond is reduced. 

EFFECT OF WINTER ON WOODY 
PLANTS. 

The Dendrological Society of France has made 
an enquiry into the effect on vegetation of the 
winter 1913-14, which was somewhat more 
than recent winters. 

Although there were two fairly long periods 
of frost, and although in the neighbourhood of 
Paris minima of 25° were recorded, damage 
appears to have been unimportant. The results 
of the enquiry are chiefly interesting because of 
their bearing on the hardiness of a certain 
number of newly-introduced plants. 

In the east of Franco (Nancy) it is reported 
that the following have suffered no ill-effects 
ii mi the winter : — Viburnum rhytidophyllum, 
Davidia involucrata, Eucommia ulmoides, Loni- 
pileata, Osmanthus Delavayi, Populus yun- 
nanensis, Pinus Armandii. 

In the neighbourhood of Paris, at the School 
of Arboriculture, St. Mande, M. Pinelle reports : 
Cistus (various species) and Clerodendron foeti- 
dum were affected, but C. trichotomum and C. 
sii were not injured. Osmanthus Delavayi 
suffered very much. Viburnum odoratissimum 
id I V. Tunis were badly damaged; whilst V. 
I larlesii and C. rhytidophyllum were not touched. 
Also unharmed were Edgeworthia papyrifera, 
Ehrelia macrophylla and Piptanthus nepalensis, 
and the following plants were killed by frost at 
Verrieres-le-Buisson, in the gardens of M. 
Philippe de Vilmorin : — Abies religiosa, Arun- 
dinaria Falcbneri, Buddleia macrostachya, Fuch- 
sia Riccartonii. Nothofagus Cunninghamii, N. 
uliginosa, Pinus Lumholtzii, P. oocarpa and P. 
tenuifolia, Smodingium argutum, Stransvaesia 
glaucescens (whilst S. Davidiana appears not to 
have been affected). The following suffered 
somewhat : — Actinidia Henryi, Ercilla spicata, 
Quercus acuta, Quercus incana, Callicarpa 
japonica, Desfontainea spinosa, Stillingia sebi- 
fera, Aristo'telia Macqui, Tsuga yunnanensis, etc. 
The following resisted the frost perfectly : — 
Laurus Benzoin, Umbellularia californica, Ehre- 
tia macrophylla, Ligustrum Delavayi, Zelkova 
Davidiana, Eucommia ulmoides, Jasminum 
Beesiana, Davidia involucrata, Carrierea calycina, 
Populus Iasiocarpa and Pinus Ayacahuite 
(Veitchii). A. Meunissii r. 



LAWN TENNIS CROUNDS. 



MISTLETO IN FRANCE. 

The Minister of Agriculture ordered last year 
an enquiry to be made in all parts of France on 
the mode of propagation of and losses caused 
by Mistleto. The results (published in BnlUiin 
des Informations Agrieoles, February. 1914) 
show that the trees most frequently attacked 



TREATMENT DURING THE SEASON. 

The treatment of the lawn tennis court re- 
quires more care than when the game was first 
instituted forty years ago. Then club 
grounds were scarce and people took things as 
they found them; but nowadays, since the fast 
game has taken so much hold, players have be- 
come critical, and the success of the club now 
depends more on the excellence of the courts 
than on anything else. Artificial courts 
have arrived and set the grass courts a new 
and higher standard. 

The visitor, whether he is in the ground for 
hard play or social chat, is always critical, and 
the keener he is the less likely he will be to 
overlook the defects in the court, the condition 
of the nets, the white canvas top, and the var- 
nish and the neatness of the posts ' 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 4, 1914. 



Another matter which affects new-comers is 
the margin around the court and the general 
ba-;h ground. In many cases walls exist ; these 
may be painted a light drab or black, but prefer- 
ably a green. Overhanging trees which shade 
the court add undoubtedly to the beauty of the 
ground, but often at a sacrifice of light; there- 
fore, while they should not be entirely dispensed 
with, a few branches may sometimes be lopped. 

The club courts should now be in the height 
of perfection. But to keep them in this delight- 
ful condition will necessitate constant care and 
attention. ; and now that they have had two 



A court that is worked hard must be renovated*; 
but this having been neglected, the members of 
this particular club have a starved ground, on 
which moss and weak grass predominate, to play 
on this year ! I quote this as an instance of the 
misuse of the lawnmower. On wet grounds, in 
a normal summer, the mower must be freely 
used ; but even on these courts during hot, dry 
weather the machine should not be set too close. 
Generally speaking, the groundsman should work 
from end to end of the court and should roll in 
the same manner. If this is persisted in the 
grass will be left lying up and down on the 




Fig. 4. — American black poplar, populus deltoidea var. monilifera, near ithaca (n.y.). 

See p. l.) 



months' wear, the critical visitor will at once 
detect the use or the abuse of both roller and 
lawn mower, to say nothing of the work on the 
court of the over-zealous workman. 

One ground under observation which was laid 
out some years ago on approved, methods is 
already bare. This is not due to excessive 
play and hard wear, but to excessive rolling and 
mowing. Last season, after hard wear, the 
zealous groundsman was at work upon it with 
roll and mower until well on into the winter ; 
and while he favoured artificials when allowed 
to get them, he was averse to farmyard manure. 



length of the court, and not crossways. On the 
best of grounds, however, there will be occa- 
sional long, wiry 6pears of grass which escape 
the cutter, and where these are too much in evi- 
dence relief may be obtained by transverse mow- 
ing, care being taken to roll lengthwise after- 
wards. 

Patches on the ground indicate two things. 
In some cases sinkage from bad levels or im- 
proper drainage, and an excess of clover. And 
clover, which retains considerable moisture, 
affects the player. When allowed to remain in 
compact beds it makes a surface of green mat 



which stains the balls and more often than not 
makes running dangerous. It spreads quickly 
in all weathers ; it" is likely to smother the finer 
grasses, and, being a gross feeder, it "thrives on 
many artificials recommended for lawns. Where 
it is to be kept out I would not advise the use of 
basic slag. 

The rains experienced in some parts have 
proved most beneficial to grass courts, but at any 
time the groundsman may experience a long 
spell of hot, dry weather, when he will be faced 
with the problem of liow and when to water. 

The adequate water supply for the club ground 
frequently presents difficulty. Taken from the 
water company '6 mains, it means expense and a 
length of hosepipe, and in no case should water- 
ing commence until the evening after the court6 
have been closed. But the trouble does not stop 
there. A little water is ineffective, and while 
sufficient should bo used to soak into the ground 
several inches, the court must not be subjected 
to a sudden flood. A sudden rush of water 
thrown on, for instance, from a bucket washes 
the fine soil away from the roots of all the best 
grasses. Thi6 practice results in considerable 
damage. Where possible a lawn sprinkler should 
be used. This will cover a third of the court 
with a gentle shower. Failing this ingenious 
method the next best thing to use is the hose- 
pipe with a spray, or the ordinary watering-can 
with a fine rose. 

The tournaments, of which two or three may 
occur during the season, are generally looked for- 
ward to by the members of the club, who expect 
to find the courts in good order. Such events 
entail again extra care, and in dry, hard weather 
extra watering. 

A week before the fixture (if one or more 
courts can be saved a bit) it should be 
thoroughly well soaked, and then rested for a 
couple of days. It should then be rolled and 
cut, and on the eve of the tournament refreshed 
again with water gently laid on, and before 
play begins the courts thus treated may 
be swept with a soft broom and receive 
the usual attention. This extra prepara- 
tion will well repay the management of the 
club, while the groundsman will have the satis- 
faction of knowing that he has done all that can 
be done to get his ground in good order. 
Harry Danes. 



SOME ASPECTS OF MODERN 
GARDENING. 

(Concluded from Vol. 7,1'., p. 459.) 



Water Gardening. 

In regard to the water garden, Mr. E. W. 
Wallace spoke as follows : — I would speak of 
the later development of this phase of garden- 
ing rather than of the mere planting by lake 
and pond sides, interesting though this is and 
delightful in results. 

I have in mind the possibilities that lie amid 
the surroundings of flat meadow lands that 
adjoin a small river or watercourse, through 
which a stream or small canal finds its way. By 
merely diverting this small feeding stream and 
digging out various channels and widening them 
at intervals into larger pools we soon have a net- 
work of smaller pools and courses, all set in 
meadowland capable of much fine planting. 

Such a meadow might well join the woodland 
we have just been contemplating; and passing 
from the wood we find ourselves in what was 
once a flat piece of meadowland unrelieved by 
any planting, but now presenting a picture of 
slow-moving streams with their banks clothed at 
intervals with slender vegetation rising in soft 
outline, widening here and there into pools on 
whose surface are floating many-coloured Water 
Lilies : the skyline broken by the planting of 
Willows, whose graceful habit and soft colours 
give an indescribable charm to the landscape. 



July 4, 1914] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



Should there be any large expanse of 
water its banks would be found the best places 
for the larger-leaved plants, such as Gunneras, 
Rheums, and giants of the waterside — the Reed 
Maces, Typha latifolia, and T. angustifolia, the 
Giant Reed (Arundo Donax) which I have seen 
in September 16 feet high, and, if you have 
room, a few of the graceful Bamboos, 6uch as 
Quilioi, mitis, and viridi glaucescens. 

Within the area of the water meadow positions 
must be found for several Willows. They serve 
to give height to the landscape and softness 
of outline. Salix vitellina aurea pendula has 
been planted freely, and a more beautiful sight 
in spring I do not know. The drooping branches 
seem to be involved in a mist of golden rain. 
The weeping White Willow is very beautiful, and 
possesses a picturesque outline of growth 
peculiar to itself. A few bushes of the Silvery- 
leaved Willow — Salix regalis — make a pleasing 
change, as also does the Rosemary-leaved Willow. 
Two dwarf Willows, used mainly for clothing 
banks and filling odd corners, are Salix purpurea 
nana, very pleasing in its purple stems and dense 
fine foliage, and Salix sericea pendula, with its 
downy, grey-leaved procumbent stems reaching 
out over the water. 

The cut-leaved Alder — Alnus lacinata — and the 
similar foliaged Sambucus tenuifolius are both 
to be noted as fine. In Reeds and Rushes we have 
many fine plants. The large Typhas I have 
already mentioned, but you cannot do without 
the slender stenophylla and the tiny minima, 
with its curious globe-shaped mace. The Wild 
Rice (Zizania latifolia) rises high in a corner with 
its Iris-like foliage, the rustle of which is always 
distinctive. I have never seen it in flower, though 
in September the tall spikes, with handsome 
polished green stems, begin to lift themselves, 
but never develop fully on account of the lateness 
of the season. 

Among the smaller-growing inhabitants of the 
waterside, both semi-aquatic and otherwise, will 
be found the sweet flag, Acorus calamus (how 
few know the fragrance of its leaves ; or the 
Japanese variety with its variegated foliage !), 
the beautiful native flowering Rush, with ite 
pink, cup-shaped flowers borne in umbels, and 
the Galingale, Cyperus longus, a most distinct 
and ornamental plant at the water's edge, with 
its tall, slender, and aristocratic foliage terminat- 
ing in a spiked inflorescence of green and brown. 

The Giant Buttercup (Ranunculus lingua 
grandiflora), with its free growth and tall 
spikes of yellow flowers, is possibly the 
best of all waterside plants. Nor must I 
overlook the water Forget-me-not. Along the 
banks of the smaller and narrower streams much 
effective planting can be done by the use of the 
lesser-growing bog plants in broad masses, with 
occasional planting of larger-habited plants. In 
such plantings will be found masses of Mimulus 
growing and flowering in greatest profusion, 
such ae luteus, cupreus, Berneti (particularly 
effective), and Brilliant, which is so beautiful in 
its dark colour and dwarf habit. The Kingcups 
(Calthas) are fine in spring, particularly poly- 
petala, and Primulas, of course, in many 
colours. 

Orchis foliosa and 0. maculata superba should 
grow close to Epimediums, which latter are 
highly prized on account of their beautiful 
foliage falling right down to the water's edge. 
As taller occasional plants, we cannot do better 
than make free use of the Irises of the Siberian 
group, particularly Snow Queen and Delavayi, 
and our wild English Waterflag and its prim- 
rose-coloured form ; and, for a later effect, 
Senecios, Cimicifugas, and Astilbes. 

I will now draw brief attention to some of 
the bolder-growing herbaceous plants which 
thrive amongst moist surroundings. Reference 
has already been made to the Astilbes, and 
these, together with the Spiraeas, form, I think, 
the most important group we have ; easy of 



growth and increase, free-flowering, they are in- 
dispensable during the summer months. The 
unique crimson colour of palmata is superb, and, 
when well established, this species reaches 3 to 
4 feet in height. Tall plants of fine stature and 
superb foliage to be seen from a distance are the 
white-flowered gigantea and its pink variety, 
and venusta, with 6 to 8 feet high spikes of 
soft, rosy-pink flowers. These Spiraeas may be 
well grouped together with Gunnera and Senecio 
clivorum at some distant point seen across the 
water, and I might also add Rheum palmatum 
for early effect. 

The introduction of Astilbe Davidii has given 
rise to a number of hybrid forms partaking of 
the strength of Davidii, but with a more sub- 
dued range of colour. Many of the best we owe 
to Mr. Arends. His Salmon Queen, Cream 
Pearl, Venus, and Vesta forms have given quite 
new colours to this genus. Astilbe grandis, one 
of Wilson's Chinese plants, is delightful in its 
early growth ; the Tuddy-tinted stems covered 
with hairy growth contrasting effectively with 




Fig. 5. — method of preserving cut flowers 
during transit by post. 

trollius in creamy shades close by. In fact, 
many of the Astilbes are worth special group- 
ing on account of the colour of their foliage in 
a young state, which acts as a delightful foil to 
such plants as the already-mentioned Trollius, 
double Welsh Poppy (which is splendid by 
water), Mimulus, etc. 

Bocconias are fine in foliage, especially when 
they escape late frosts. So are the purple 
Loosestrife (Lythrum) and Eupatorium purpu- 
reum. 

So far in these remarks I have omitted all re- 
ference to what I think may be called amongst 
hardy plants the chief gloTy of the water garden 
in July. 

I refer to the Japanese Iris, Iris Kaemp- 
feri. In view of the general desire to grow these 
fine plants, and having myself been particularly 
successful in their culture, I may usefully refer 
here to what I Tegard ae the main conditions of 
success. They will do well in any well-worked 
soil rich in vegetable matter, but avoid 
planting in heavy clay by water-side. On 
meadow pasture land, alongside ditches and 



small ponds, planted just above the water-line, 
in soil that has been well dug and manured and 
well drained, they will thrive splendidly, and 
often seed themselves freely in the grass. 

Another point, division after flowering in 
August or early September is best. You will 
find in early autumn quantities of new roots 
pushing, so that by early planting you gain all 
this new root action. Again, in February, count- 
less fibrous roots are pushed out This is the 
time to mulch freely, and about May dam your 
ditches, if possible, and flood freely. Division 
of the clumps every two or three years is good, 
and planting in fresh soil, as such greedy rooters 
quickly exhaust the surroundings. 

You may ask, "Why take all this trouble';" 
Well, if you do you will have foliage over 3 feet 
in height, and spikes 4 feet high, five to six on a 
clump, and your water-side and ditches will glow 
with colour, huge flowers, more like gigantic 
butterflies just poised, and such a combination of 
colour as I do not think is to be found in any 
other plants. One more point, always nlant ;n 
fullest exposure in the sun ; remember they can- 
not have too much water in the growing season, 
but when at rest they should have as little as 
possible. 

I have referred to crossing the water with low 
stone bridges. Long, broad, flat stones placed 
just above the water surface, and crossing your 
narrow stream at intervals, or the use of step- 
ping-stones, or both combined, are fine features 
in the water garden, and always at such crossings 
group at either hand, as has already been sug 
gested, Iris Kaempferi and tall reeds and rushes. 
When rightly placed, and not too many of them, 
these give you that necessary feeling of support, 
and seem the natural finish to the bridge or 
stepping-stones. 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 

(.The Editors do not hold themtelvet responsible for 
the opinion) expressed by correspondents.) 

Transit of Flowers bv Post.— I have 

just received a hybrid Lily from Mr. A. Grove 
packed as shown in fig. 5. This plan 
of sending delicate flowers by post seems 
to me so ingenious that I venture to suggest to 
some maker of horticultural sundries that it 
would be north while to produce for sale similar 
boxes of various sizes. The stem of the flower 
is passed through a hole in the cork of the 
bottle, from which no water has escaped. I be- 
lieve that if packed in this manner flowers cut 
in bud might be kept for some days or even 
weeks without withering. H. J- Elwcs, 
Colesbome. 

The Beginning of the Rose Season.— 
When the earliest Roses appeared in our Scot- 
tish gardens some weeks ago, the conditions were 
highly unfavourable. The weather was cold, 
with a withering north-east wind. As a 
natural consequence, many plants will, I ven- 
ture to predict, be a long time in recovering, if 
ever they do so, from its disastrous effects. My 
Irish Roses, such for example as Hugh Dick- 
son, Mr. Herbert Stevens, Old Gold, Dorothy 
Ratcliffe, Duchess of Sutherland, and Evelyn 
Dauntesey, have been greatly injured in then- 
growth ; though I am not without hope that they 
may recover to a great extent their normal capa 
bilities during the autumnal months. Much 
more promising, probably by reason of then- 
more protected situation, are such fine varieties 
as British Queen, Countess of Gosford, and 
Frau Karl Druschki ; of which the first-men- 
tioned Hybrid Tea, which created such a sensa- 
tion when it was first exhibited, has proved it- 
self a much more vigorous grower than I had 
anticipated. It is, in my opinion, widely 
different from the great Rose it was expected 
to supersede ; it has a somewhat pendulous ten- 
dency, like that of its Tea parent, the white 
Maman Cochet, and its exquisite formation and 
refined fragrance likewise irresistibly remind me 
of that highly susceptible Rose, which has only 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



LJuly 4, 1914. 



once or twice succeeded here— in exceptionally 
fine seasons — to my perfect satisfaction. But on 
the other hand, British Queen is not quite so 
much dominated by atmospheric influences. The 
splendid sunlight that has recently and provi- 
dentially prevailed has had quite an inspiring 
effect on some of the older Hybrid Perpetuals 
and Hybrid Teas on which 1 greatly fear we 
have still chiefly to rely for effective garden 
ornamentation. This improvement in their as- 
pect is chiefly observable in such invaluable 
varieties as Clio and Enchantress, which, what- 
ever the character of the season, seem invariably 
to succeed ; Margaret Dickson, one of the most 
aspiring and floriferous of all my posses- 
sions ; White Lady, a fine derivative from 
Lady Mary Fitzwilliam ; La France, whose 
colour, formation, and charming fragrance still 
form an irresistible combination of the grandest 
characteristics; the invariably commanding (if 



A. Central portion of a pyramid tree show- 
ing : («) leading or stem continuation growth 
stopped at about 12 inches, or to eight 
or nine good leaves; (b) continuation of leader 
stopped at third leaf ; (c) subcontinuation lead 
that need not be pinched unless extending be- 
yond growth shown ; (d) laterals and sublaterals 
pinched to one leaf ; (e) side growth from stem 
stopped at fifth leaf ; (/) extension and laterals 
pinched to one or two leaves ; (g) short, stubby 
shoots that are not stopped ; (h) spurs left in- 
tact ; (i) continuation growths of previous season's 
side branches stopped at fifth or sixth leaf 
(about 6 inches) ; (/) laterals and sub-laterals 
pinched to one leaf ; Ik) side growths of side 
branches stopped to four or five leaves ; [1) 
laterals and sublaterals pinched to one leaf ; (m) 
short, stubby shoots not shortened; (n) spurs 
left intact. If the tree is young and extension is 
desired, the wood being well matured, no winter 




FlC. 6. — SUMMER 1T.UNING THE PLUM. 



only in dimensions) Caroline Testout, and the 
free - flowering, intensely sweet Viscountess 
Folkestone. Few flowers are more attractive at 
this gracious season than those of the Austrian 
and Penzance Briars, whose very foliage is an 
odorous fascination ; among the loveliest of 
them are Rosa Harrisonii, the uniquely- 
coloured Austrian Copper; Lady Penzance; and 
Jeanie Deans. David R. Williamson. 

Summer Pruningof the Plum (see fig. 6). 
— I was much interested by the very practical 
article by Mr. W. R. Thatcher in the Gardeners' 
Chronicle for June 13 last, p. 404. This has 
prompted me to send you an illustration of 
" Summer Pruning the Plum," which you may 
possibly consider worthy of reproduction. The 
letters in the figure indicate the following : — 



pruning is advisable ; if growth is immature, or 
but little extension is desired, shorten at winter 
pruning to croes lines, and root prune. B. Portion 
of branch of espalier or wall tree : (o) continua- 
tion of branch growths ; (p) laterals, if any, 
stopped to one leaf ; (q) side growth stopped to 
four or five leaves; (r) laterals and sublaterals 
pinched to one leaf ; (s) short, stubby shoots not 
shortened; (t) spurs left intact; (») two-year 
spur ; (v), growth from uppermost pruning bud 
of previous year pinched to four leaves and 
laterals to one lead ; (w) spurs formed ; cross 
lines, points of winter pruning; continuation of 
brained shoot not shortened unless unduly long 
or desired to originate growths, then to point 
expedient on well-matured wood. Natural 
spurs. C, in year of formation; D, in second 
season ; E, short, stubby shoot in second 



summer; (x) extension; (y) spur. -Originating 
spur. F, side growth stopped at fifth leaf; (z) 
laterals and sublaterals to one leaf ; (a) point of 
winter pruning. G, Result of F in fol- 
lowing summer : (6) growth from uppermost 
pruned bud of previous year stopped to five 
leaves, and laterals pinched to one leaf ; (c) sh< irt 
stubby shoots or spurs ; (d) point of shortening 
at winter pruning. G. Abbey. 

Classification of Roses.— Your corre- 
spondent, Blue Rose., has evidently not read the 
articles upon this subject which appeared in the 
National Rose Society's Annual of 1914 or he 
would have known that on page 41 of that pub- 
lication I advocated the very thing he is now 
proposing, i.e., the formation of an International 
Committee of experts to consider the very im- 
portant matter of classification. There are so 
many excellent authorities upon the Continent 
and in other parts of the world, and as the 
Rose is such a universally popular flower it 
would be exceedingly indiscreet of the National 
Rose Society of England to take it upon them- 
selves to revise the existing classification. Now 
that the matter has been brought forward it is 
to be hoped it will not be allowed to drop. 
Walter Easlea, Eastivood, Leigh-on-Sea. 

The Lesser Narcissus Fly.— I should 
not have troubled you with a further note were 
it not for the very useful letter of Mr. F. J. 
Chittenden (p. 435), which surely proves my 
case " to the hilt." It is obvious that it is 
Mr. A. J. Bliss who misses the real point, and 
not I. That gentleman confuses his point with 
the real point. It has been obvious all along 
that his " point " has been that the fly attacks the 
unhealthy bulb, and does so in search of decayed 
matter which it seeks to "scavenger" (an idea 
possibly derived from three lines on p. 34 of last 
year's edition of Sydenham's All About Daffo 
dils), but that it does not attack the healthy 
bulb. In support of this contention Mr. Bliss 
has adduced no affirmative evidence whatever. 
But the real point, which Mr. Bliss appears 
unable to realise, is, as plainly stated in my 
last note, whether the fly will in any circum- 
stances attack healthy bulbs, for, if it will, then, 
in view of its enormous increase, all the pre- 
cautionary measures which I and others have 
suggested become absolutely necessary and 
urgent. The Board of Agriculture has 
affirmed this in no uncertain terms, and 
now we have the added testimony of Mr. 
Chittenden that " at least at times the larvae 
attack healthy bulbs," and those who know this 
gentleman will feel sure that he would not 
have stated this unless he had absolutely proved 
it. This fact goes to the root of the whole 
matter. Whether the fly may. or may noL, 
under certain conditions, feed also on decayed 
matter must at present be a matter for more 
conclusive evidence, for the fly has been found 
(certainly in nearly all cases in my own garden) 
to — again quoting Mr. Chittenden — be "feed- 
ing in bulbs which show no other damage than 
can be accounted for by the larvae feeding in 
the bulb," and it must always be difficult, 
especially where there are very many larvae, 
to accurately differentiate between the amount 
of excreta and "decayed matter" result 
ing from the presence of the larvae 
and any excess of decayed matteT not so 
to be accounted for. But, as a matter of argu- 
ment, it might be conceded that, on occasions, 
the fly may feed on decayed matter, 
hut that leaves untouched the dominating fact 
that they do at times, and in my experience 
generally do, attack healthy bulbs. And this cor- 
respondence has now fully established this ci q- 
clusion. I am glad to know that Mr. I'diss 
agrees with me that the Board of Agriculture 
is not " stupid." I rather feel inclined to trans- 
fer the term to those who would allow themselves 
to be persuaded by reason of a little possibly un- 
necessary trouble to expose themselves to risks 
and consequences which, as is now shown, may 
prove very disastrous to them in the future. 
It is bad policy to " cry peace when there is no 
peace," and a grave responsibility attaches In 
those who do so. Charles E. Shea. 

There seems to be no record of the Lesser 

Narcissus Flv (Eumerus strigatus) occurring in 
Shallots in this country, although it is said to 
attack this crop on the Continent. During 1911. 
however, I hatched out a number of these flies 



July 4, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



from Shallot bulbs where the larvae had been 
feeding in company with those of the Onion 
Fly (Anthomyia ceparum). A. Simmonds, St. 
Albans. 

With your consent I would like to 

chronicle one more letter having reference 
to this most amusing and instructive dis- 
cussion. Mr. Bliss, receiving a hint from a 
friend that Eumerus was a scavenger, followed 
up the clue, and demonstrated to his own satis- 
faction that it did not feed on living matter. The 
Daffodil cult at that time, owing to Eumerus, 
were anticipating an expensive conflict, believ- 
ing the fly to be really dangerous; therefore 
Mr. Bliss "communicated" with the Gardeners' 
Chronicle with a desire to encourage an opti- 
mistic view. Mr. Charles E. Shea, who evi- 
dently holds pessimistic ideas relative to this 
particular fly, expressed himself strongly against 
optimism, and urged a war of extermination 
against it. He, however, found the arguments 
against himself so strongly expressed that the 
controversy must- have ended here ; but an article 
confirmatory to his views came out in the May 
number of the Journal of the Board of Agricuh 
ture. This was opportune; he placed himself 
behind page 140, and with a big megaphone an- 
nounced h's withdrawal from the conflict, chal- 
lenging Mr. Bliss to continue his argument 
against the Board of Agriculture, or with its 
champion writer on entomological pests. All 
this is very good fencing, and he exhibits some 
clever swordsmanship. But in quoting from 
page 140 he happens to have omitted the word 
"supposed," which makes all the difference 
Mr. Shea thus gives himself entirely away : he 
makes a statement of fact of what the Journal 
puts forward as a supposition. Personally, 1 
prefer the statement of Mr. Bliss on this subject 
to that of either Mr. Shea or the Journal 
of thr Board of Agriculture. May I, in 
conclusion, point out that in the article quoted. 
or misquoted, by Mr. Shea, there are no fewer 
than fourteen different interjections, such, for 
instance, as "supposed," "it seems," "it is 
said," etc., where the writer is using uncon- 
firmed matter, and flare not stake his reputation 
on its reliability. In such circumstances it is 
remarkable that Mr. Shea should allow himself 
to be led into error. The Board of Agriculture 
would do well to delay publication until definite 
results have been obtained, rather than to issue 
contributions to which attaches so much un 
certainty. Geo. St. Ox. 

The Source of Yellow Roses. In 
Beyond the Pir-Panjal, by E. F. Neve, M.D., 
the author says : — " The wild Boses of Kashmir 
are famous. They are yellow, white, and even- 
shade of red and pink. The double yellow- 
Rose occurs in hedges, and is a very character- 
istic Kashmir flower. It has a peculiar per- 
fume." What is this double yellow Rose? 
Again he says : — " The petals of another charm- 
ing single Rose are terra-cotta inside and 
primrose outside." Is this the so-called 
"Austrian-Copper" at home? White Rose re- 
duces our source of yellow Roses to two 
species — R. hemisphaerica and R. lutea — both 
from the Orient. May there not be others 
awaiting an intrepid collector in the Himalayas 
of Kashmir and Thibet? The above extract 
seems to give a promise of further finds, and 
not only of Boses, for the author is enthusiastic 
over the Kashmir Irises. Western Wight. 

Growing Exhibition Sweet Peas. -When 

Sweet Pea plants are grown under natural con- 
ditions for garden decoration or for seed pur- 
poses but little disease is seen. When grown 
under special treatment for exhibition purposes 
plants frequently become unhealthy and failure 
results. We are apt to attribute all the blame 
to the altered system of manuring and so-called 
feeding. I suggest, however, that there are 
other causes which may be worth corn [era 
tion. When grown upon "exhibition lines" 
plants are usually confined to one or two stems 
with all the side growths removed, the result 
being a greatly restricted leafage. When we con- 
sider the function of leaves in the economy of the 
plant it seems probable that this restriction of 
foliage may be the cbief source of trouble. The 
two principal uses of leaves are to elaborate the 
carbonic acid gas of the atmosphere into organic 



substances and to transpire water ; these are 
called assimilation and transpiration, which can 
only be accomplished by means of the rays of 
light acting upon the surface of the leaves, and 
healthy growth can only result when the amount 
of foliage is proportionate in extent to that <f 
the roots. In other words, a green leaf is a 
manufactory in which the plant-food derived 
through the roots is compounded with the carbon 
accumulated by the foliage for the nutrition of 
all parts of the plant, including new growth, 
flowers and seed, the energy to do all the work 
being derived from light. It will thus be ap- 



this way an additional young leaf is left at each, 
joint of the stem. This additional foliage may 
be expected to greatly encourage root action., 
increasing the size and improving the quality of 
the flowers and remaining available for supplying 
nutrition for the plant after the older leaves be° 
come tough and useless. This additional foliage 
may be beneficial even when plants are grown 
with two or three stems, because far more 
plant food is obtained from the atmosphere 
through the leaves than from the soil through 
the roots, besides which the various sub- 
Stanci ". led for nutrition and growth are 




FlG. 7. — CARNATION GOItDON DOUGLAS: A CRIMSON BORDER VARIETY. 
(See R.U.S. Floral Committee's Awards, p. 16.) 



parent how necessary both leaves and light are for 
plant nutrition, for without these the plant food 
derived through the roots would be unavailable 
and absolutely useless. When plants are grown 
naturally and the foliage is not restricted root 
action is proportionate to the leafage, but when 
the latter is restricted malnutrition follows. 
Taking into consideration these facts, my sugg< 
tion is that when plant growth is confined to one 
or two steins the amount of leafage should be 
increased by allowing nearly double the quantity 
of leaves to be grown upon each stem by 1 i 
one leaf on each side growth (that is, by pinch- 
ing the points of all side growths to one leaf). In 



manufactured in the leaves. We know how 
iry light and air are for plant growth, how 
well plants succeed under favourable conditions 
of an abundance of light and air; also how 
failure comes under unfavourable conditions, such 
as crowded plantations, in shady places, and 
during dull days in winter. Now leaves absorb 
carbon through" the stomata or minute pores of 
the leaves by the action of light, and this cannot 
take place under these unfavourable conditions, 
neither can it in the case of a deficiency 
of foliage, or at any rate not in suffi- 
cient qurntitv for healthy nutrition 
Robert Holmes,'. Tuclswood Farm, Norwich. 



8 



HE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 4, 1914. 



LOISELEURIA PROCUMBENS ALBA.— As I 

cannot find any record of the white variety of 
Loiseleuria (Azalea) procumbens, and others 
more competent than I have failed to find it 
mentioned, I may say I have collected this 
variety in Scotland this year. I had seen last 
autumn two plants with foliage and teed pods of 
a much brighter green than the ordinary variety. 
Accordingly, on May 29, I visited the spot, and 



Pyrus vestita-a Warning.— This fine 

Service tree, sometimes known among nurserymen 
as Sorbus nepalensis or magnifica, is the most 
ornamental of the genus known to me. About 
twenty years ago I planted one which is now 
30 feet high. It was a graft on Hawthorn 
stock, which soon showed itself, but as the scion 
was set very low it was possible, after the Haw- 
thorn shoots had been removed, to bank up the 




Fig. 8. — gladiolus mhs. 



ATKINSON : COLOUR OF FLOWERS SALMON-PINK, BLOTCHED WITH CRIMSON. 
(See R.H.S. Floral Committee's Awards, p. 16.) 



found the plant in flower. The flower is similar 
to the pink form in size and shape, but pure 
white, and the foliage is quite free from the 
purple tinge. The altitude was about 2,300 feet. 
Owing to its age I fear the plant may suffer 
from its disturbance, but so far it is looking 
quite happy in the peat bed in my rock garden, 
and fresh growth is coming on well. A large 
plant of the pink variety collected last 
year is quite healthy, but failed to flower 
this spring. G. Scott, Down Place, Guildford. 



stem so that Pyrus was able to root itself. Being 
well pleased with the tree, which has splendid 
foliage, I purchased some others, well-lookini;, 
straight plants, but these, after some ten years' 
growth, are unable to develop their leaves. They 
are alive, but the leaves remain unfurled. The 
reason for this is that tho Indian species has 
been grafted about 3 feet high on stocks of 
Rowan (P. Aucuparia), which, being a tree of 
much inferior capacity to P. vestita, is quite 
unable to meet the demands of the more vigorous 



species. The sap supply being stinted, the 
scion languishes and will soon die. Those, there- 
fore, who wish to grow this most desirable Ser- 
vice tree will do well to protect themselves from 
disappointment by careful inspection of young 
plants before purchase. Fortunately P. vestita 
ripens seed freely in this country, which is the 
surest means of propagating it. The same may 
be said of the flowering Ash (Fraxinus ornus), of 
which I raised many from seed obtained from M. 
Rafn, and these have flowered this year. Every 
old specimen of this tree which I have examined 
in Great Britain tas proved to be grafted on the 
common Ash. Herbert Maxwell, Monreith. 

Queen Wasps at Dorking.— At my re- 
quest Mr. Ranson sent me the wasps mentioned 
in his note (p. 435), to which some had been 
added, all having been caught by nine men ar.d 
a boy in Holmbury Gardens, an area of about 
twenty acres, between early February and the 
end of May, on the flowers of black and red Cur- 
rants and Gooseberries, and particularly on 
laurels. The results, compared with the batch 
from Tring (see Vol. LV., p. 423), are rather 
astonishing and serve to show the difference in 
local distribution of the several species. The 
following are the numbers : — 

Queens. — Vespa germanica 104 

Vespa vulgaris 337 

Vespa rufa 1,364 

Vespa sylvestris 68 

Vespa norvegica 15 

Vespa austriaca — 

Male. — Vespa germanica 1 

1,889 
The overwhelming preponderance of V. rufa wiil 
be noticed and the comparatively small numbers 
of germanica and vulgaris, whilst one tree wasp 
(norvegica) is somewhat more numerous than at 
Tring, and the other (sylvestris) decidedly less. 
I am at a loss to account for the presence of the 
solitary male, since no males survive the winter, 
and can only conclude that it was caught last 
autumn and kept, perhaps with queens taken at 
same time, and thrown in with the rest. There 
were no workers in this consignment. C. 
Nicholson, 35, The Avenue, Chingford. 

Young Gardeners.— A striking passage in 
the address which Sir Harry Veitch delivered 
to the Horticultural Trades Association re- 
cently, was one in which he referred to 
the difference in the young gardeners of 
to-day and those of former years. He 
regretted the lack of keenness and interest 
in their work displayed by so many. Sir 
Harry's words caane vividly te my mind 
when reading the address delivered (by Prin- 
cipal Whyte tio the students at the New Col- 
lege, Edinburgh, ait the close of last session. 
Tne Principal took for his subject "Thomas 
Boston and the Lessons of His Life." Thomas 
Boston was a famous old Scottish divine whose 
works had a great vogue in Scotland last century. 
One of his most famous works was called " The 
Fourfold State." Principal Whyte quoted what 
a famous Scottish minister — Dr. Andrew Thom- 
son, of Edinburgh — said of that book. " ' The 
Fourfold State ' had found its way over all the 
Scottish Lowlands. From St. Abb's Head to 
the remotest point in Galloway, it was to be 
seen side by side with the Bible and Bunyan 
on the shelf in every peasant's cottage. The 
shepherd bore it with him, folded in his plaid, 
up among the silent hills ; the ploughman in the 
valleys refreshed his spirit with it, as with 
heavenly manna, after his long day of toil. The 
influence, which began with the humble classes, 
ascended like a fragrance into the mansions of 
the Lowland laird and the Border chief, and 
carried with it a new and a hallowed joy." 
In those days the son® of such shep- 
herds and ploughmen were the young men 
who recruited the ranks of gardening. The 
profession of gardening seemed to open up 
a career for them with greater prospects than> 
that of their fathers, and thousands embraced 
it. Trained in such an atmosphere and endowed 
with "the power of work," can we be surprised 
that they impressed themselves on the mind of 
Sir Harry Veitch? He must have come across 
hundreds of them, because, tirue to the instincts 
of their Tace, they aye kept " haudin sooth." 
William Culhbertson. 



July 4, 1914. J 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



GARDENERS' ROYAL BENEVOLENT 
INSTITUTION. 



FESTIVAL DINNER. 

June 26. — The seventy-fifth anniversary fes- 
tival dinner of the friends and supporters of the 
Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institution took 
place on Friday, the 26th ult. , at the Hotel 
Metropole. The dinner was one of the most 
successful of the series, and we are pleased 
to announce that the sum of money ob- 
tained constituted a record. The chair was 
occupied by the Rt. Hon. the Speaker of the 
House of Commons, James Lowther, Esq. The 
Chairman was supported on the right hand by 
Lady Ci'rl Meyer, the Rt. Hon. Lord Aldenham, 
Mrs. Holcombe Ingleby, Colonel the Rt. Hon. 
M. Lockwood, P.C., M.P., the Rt. Hon. 
Laurence Hardy, P.C., M.P., Mr. Holcombe 
Ingleby, M.P., Sir Ed. Stern, D.L., Sir John 
Jackson, C.V.O., M.P., Mr. Fred Hall, M.P., 
Mr. Samuel Samuel, M.P., Mr. Arnold White, 
Mrs. J. W. Campbell. Mr. N. N. Sherwood, 
V.M.H., Alderman C. A. Hanson, and Mr. 



Lowther humorously referred as the salary of a 
Cabinet Minister, and also his own very inade- 
quate one. They had been told recently that 
the rich ought to be glad to distribute ipart of 
their annual income amongst the poor, and when 
the needs of gardeners were /considered, and the 
enormous amount of time they spent at their 
labours, it was not to be wondered at that they 
were often in need of assistance. Mr. Lowther 
said he had communicated with the Registrar- 
General and asked him to supply him 
with some recent statistics. He was sur- 
prised to find that in 1901 there were only 
211,000 gardeners, while in 1911 there were 
258,000 — an increase of 35 per cent. There was, 
however, a decrease in the number of women 
gardeners, the statistics showing that in 1901 
there were 5,000, and in 1911 only 4.000 women 
gardeners. He was told that gamekeepers had 
increased in the decade only by 3 per cent. He 
felt he could predict that this increase was not 
likely to cease, and to give an illustration of 
the rapid strides horticulture had made during 
the last few yeare he might point out that some 
time ago, when attending a meeting of theR.H.S., 
it was difficult to find the Hall. Nowadays the 




THE RT. HON. JAMES W. LOWTHER, M.P., SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE OF COMMONS, 



Edward Sherwood. On the Chairman's left were 
Lady Colnian, Sir Carl Meyer, Bart., Mrs. L. 
Salomons, Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart., D.L., 
V.M.H., Sir Walter Smythe, Bart., D.L., Mr. 
L. Salomons, Ladv Veitch, Sir Harry J. Veitch, 
V.M.H. (Treasurer), Mr.' Geo. Gardner. Mr. 
W. M. Gibson, M.V.O., Mr. Arthur W. Sutton, 
V.M.H., Mr. and Mrs. Gordon SeMridge, Mr. 
and Mrs. Edward White, and Prof. F. Keeble, 
F.R.S. 

After the usual loyal toasts had been 
honoured, the principal toast of the even- 
ing, " Continued Prosperity to the Gar- 
deners' Royal Benevolent Institution," was 
proposed by the Chairman. Mr. Low- 
ther 6aid that he had been busy during the 
past few days in deliberating on the Parliamen- 
tary Grants-in-aid, but he was sorry to say the 
Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Institution did 
not figure in the Finance Bill. Probably that 
was the reason he had been asked that evening 
to help to fill the void, and he wished to 
thank the ladies and gentlemen who had re- 
sponded to his appeal on behalf of the Charity. 
The Institution during its seventy-five years had 
distributed £150,000, and during the past year 
had paid away about £5,000, to which Mr. 



difficulty was not to find the Hall, but to get 
into it ! In conclusion, Mr. Lowther made 
an eloquent appeal for support for the 
Institution. 

The toast was responded to by the Treasurer, 
Sir Harry Veitch, who thanked the Chairman 
on behalf of the Executive Committee for the able 
way in which he had proposed the toast, and 
also for the time he had given and the sympathy 
he had shown in being with them that evening. 
Sir Harry then gave some interesting details of 
the work the Institution was doing on behalf of 
gardeners, mentioning that candidates were ad- 
mitted at sixty years of age, provided they were 
incapable of doing work. At the present time the 
Institution was maintaining 267 pensioners, of 
whom 165 were men and 112 women. The oldest 
pensioner, who was receiving help from the Vic- 
toria Era Fund, was 100 years of age. Her hus- 
band had paid 25 guineas in subscriptions, and 
between them they had received £452. Other 
annuitants were aged 97, 93, 92, and 90. The 
youngest recipient was 47, and was suffering 
from paralysis. The Fund did not deprive pen- 
sioners of the privilege of a Government old-age 
pension, as they were allowed under the State 
scheme to add the pension to an income up to 



£30 a year. Sir Harry pointed out that they 
kept the management expenses as low as pos- 
sible, and the members of the Committee gave 
their time to the Institution. H© was glad to 
record that they had made steady progress, and 
since 1838 had distributed £150,000. At the 
first election only one candidate was elected, 
whilst the number elected this year was fifteen. 
Sir Harry said that he had pleasure in telling 
the company present that Mr. James Sweet had 
contributed £500 to the funds, and secured 
a further sum of £500 under the provisions of a 
will. 

Sir Jeremiah Colman proposed " Horticul- 
ture in all its Branches," and the toast was re- 
sponded to by Mr. Laurence Hardy. 

At^this point the Secretary announced that, 
the conations amounted to £3,500, which, with 
the legacy, made a grand total of £4,000. The. 
list of donations included the following: — 

Messrs. Rothschild and Sons £105 

Messrs. Sutton and Sons 105 

Mr. Arthur W. Sutton 21 

Mr. N. Sherwood and Sons 100 

Lord Mountstephen 50 

Sir Frank Crisp 62 

Sir Jeremiah Oolman 52 10 

Lady Colman 5 

Sir " Harry and Lady Veitch 62 10 

Messrs. James Carter and Oo 52 10 

Mr. Leopold Salomons 31 10 

Mr. Anthony Waterer 25 

Mr. Edward White 21 

Mrs. White 5 5 

Messrs. Webb and Son, Wordsley 21 

Major George Churdher 20 

Messrs. W. Wood and Son 63 

Mr. H. G. Alexander 53 

Mr. R. W. Wallace 31 10 

Mr. A. Mackeller (Windsor) 25 

Mr. R. J. Cuthbert 25 

Mr. Bailey Widde 21 

Hi. E. F. Hazelton 9 7 

Mr. David W. Thomson 20 

Mr. J. McKerchar 15 

Mr. J. O'Brien 18 18 

Mr. W. J. Jeffries 15 15 

Mr. J. W. Barr 15 15 

Mr. John Heal 12 

Mr. H. W. Nutting 12 12 

Mr. Arthur Turner 11 11 

Messrs. George Bunvard and Oo 11 11 

Mr. F. Sander 74 

Sir Arthur Markham 25 

Mr. A. B. Wadds 11 

Mr. G. H. Richards 10 10 

Sir Carl Meyer, Bart 10 10 

Mr. Reginald Cory 10 10 

Mr. Percival Etheridge 10 10 

Mr. J. Vert 10 10 

Messrs. Barr and Son 10 10 

Mr. T l,:imli 10 10 

Mrs. .1. W. Campbell 10 10 

Mr. E. Beckett 5 15 

The following donors each gave £5 5s. : — Mr. 
W. A. Bilney, Mr. W. Y. Baker, Mr. H. B. 
May, Messrs. Anderson, Mr. T. N. Cox, Messrs. 
Cutbush and Son. Field-Marshal Lord Grenfell, 
Sir Walter Smythe, Professor Keeble. Mr. 
Walter Cobb, Mr. Donald McDonald, Mr. A. 
Dawkins, Mr. J. Jacques, the Gardeners' Com- 
pany. Mr. J. F. McLeod, and the Gardeners' 
Crronicle. 

Covient Garden tables, under Mr. George 
Monro, Mr. Joseph Rochford, and Mr. Geo. 
Monro, jun., realised £260, which included the 
following amounts : — 

Mr. Joseph Rochford '£26 5 

Mr. J. Sweet 26 5 

Mr. A. Wat kins 21 

Mr. John Rochford 15 15 

Mr. George Monro 21 

Mr. E. Rochford 10 10 

Mrs. George Monro 5 5 

Mr. B. RocMord 5 5 

Mr. George Monro, jun 25 

The list from Mr. W. O. Hiehle amounted to 
over £90, and included the following: — 

Mr. D. Ingomells £5 5 

Mr. A. Bird 5 5 

Mr. George Messer 6 5 

Mr. A. E. Honnor 5 5 

Mr. Geo. Hiehle 6 5 

Mr. J. Collingridge 5 5 

Socit*te Francaise d'Horticulture de 

Londres 5 5 

The total, amounting to £4.000. included a 
munificent gift of £500 from Mr. James Sweet, 
and the additional sum of £500 allocated by Mr. 
Sweet on the estate of the late Mi6s Williamson. 

The proceedings concluded with a hearty vote 
of thanks to the Chairman, this toast being 
eloquently proposed by Colonel the R,ti Hon. 
Mark Lockwood, M.P. 



10 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



■".July 4, 1914. 




The Week's Work. 




THE ORCHID HOUSES, 

Br H. J. CHAPMAN, Gardener to MRS. COOXSON, 
Oak-wood, Wylam-on-Tyne. 

Seedling Cypripediums.— Seedlings of one 
year or more may need re-potting. Where the 
compost is in a good condition plants in single 
pots may be placed into larger receptacles with- 
out disturbing the roots, as this will entail very 
little check to growth. Hybrids of the .green- 
leaved, winter-flowering sections require a little 
fibrous loam mixed with the potting materials; 
whenever loam is employed finely-broken crocks 
should be incorporated with the compost. Fill 
the pots to about one-third of their depth with 
material for drainage. Thrips are great pests 
of young Cypripediums, and where the houses 
are near to borders of hardy herbaceous plants or 
trees they are very liable to infest the Orchids, 
therefore constant watch must be kept to see 
that they do not increase, or they will cause 
the foliage to become disfigured. Small, dark 
marks such as might be caused by a pin-prick 
at the base of the young leaves are the first in- 
dication of the presence of thrips, therefore 
directly any spotting is observed take measures 
at once to destroy the insects. 

Shading.— Many of the plants in the warm 
and intermediate houses have almost completed 
their growth and will be benefited with plenty 
of light. The shading, therefore, should not be 
of so dense a nature as hitherto, and it is an 
advantage to apply a thin shading of a per- 
manent character over the roof-glass. Pow- 
dered whitening mixed with skim milk and a 
little salt and linseed oil will be suitable. The 
glass should be made quite clean before this mix- 
ture is applied and the work done on a dry day 
when the roof ventilators may be opened ; with 
air in the house there will be no condensation 
of moisture on the glass inside to run through 
the joints and make streaks in the shading be- 
fore it is dry. We find that a brush, such as is 
used for washing railway carriages, fastened on 
a long handle, is very handy for applying the 
wash. The advantage of this kind of sh 
is that from the present time onwards the roof 
blinds need not be used until late in the morn- 
ing, and they may be drawn up very much 
earlier in the afternoon, without fear of the sun 
scorching the foliage ; at the same time the plants 
will receive plenty of light. 

Liquid Manures. — Large plants of Cypri- 
pedium of the winter-flowering section, Cym- 
bidiums and Calanthes, which have filled their 
pots with roots, may be fed on one or two occa- 
sions each week with soot-water and weak 
liquid manure made from cow dung. As I have 
pointed out in a previous note, the situation of 
the garden and of the district must be taken 
into consideration in the treatment afforded 
Orchids, and it will be found that whilst manure 
will do good in some cases, in others it will have 
the opposite effect. If, therefore, the use of 
manure has not been practised before, the 
grower must apply stimulants with caution. 

Pleione.— Plants of autumn - flowering 
species, such as P. lagenaria and P. maculata, 
ompleting their pseudo-bulbs and the foli- 
age will soon commence to decay. Remove the 
plants to a cooler and airy house, affording the 
roots only sufficient moisture to keep the stems 
plump. Examine carefully the foliage occasion- 
ally for the presence of red spider; sponging the 
leaves with a weak insecticide is the best remedy. 

Miltonia vexillaria.— Plants of robust- 
siowing species of Miltonia should be dipped in 
an insecticide as soon as they have finished 
blooming, placing them on their sides to allow 
the superfluous moisture to drain away, for it 
must not be allowed to accumulate in the axils 
of the leaves. If this is done the plants will be 
free of thrips during the. short period before 
they start to grow again. 



PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By C. H. Cook, Gardener to the Earl of Derby, 
Knowsley Hall, Lancashire. 

Allamanda.— Pinch out the points of the 
shoots when they have reached a suitable length, 
as this will throw further strength into the flower 
shoots. Strong-growing climbers such as Alla- 
madas, when planted in well-drained soils, need 
frequent a plications of liquid manure at the 
roots, as this stimulant gives increased size and 
substance to the flowers. Specimens that have 
been potted recently need to be watered with 
extra care, and they should be syringed freely. 

Chrysanthemums and Pelargoniums.— 

Chrysanthemums that have been potted recently 
should be syringed several times daily in bright 
weather. The trusses of Zonal Pelargoniums 
intended for blooming in winter should be re- 
moved for the present. After the plants of 
Show Pelargoniums have finished flowering 
stand them in a sunny position out-of-doors. 

Streptocarpus.— These plants are in full 
flower, and will be benefited by applications of 
weak soot-water and liquid manure at the roots. 
Remove the old flowers as they fade to prevent 
seeds forming,, as this would exhaust the plants, 
thereby shortening the flowering season. Shift 
young 'plants raised in January into larger recep- 
tacles as they require increased root room. The 
majority of 'this batch will flower this season, 
but a selection of the best plants should be made 
for stock, and the inferior ones discarded. The 
compost used for potting may consist of three 
parts loam and the remainder equal portions of 
dry cow manure, leaf-mould and sand. Grow 
the plants in a temperature of from 55° to 
60° and shade them from bright sunshine. 

Camellia. — Specimens planted out should be 
afforded as much fresh air as possible. Examine 
the borders to ascertain if the soil is in a proper 
condition of moisture, and syringe the plants 
daily. Keep the leaves clear of scale insects and 
dirt l'v sponging them with soapy water. Speci- 
ns in pots" should be hardened gradually, with 
a view to placing them in the open. Select a 
sheltered place out-of-doors, and plunge the pots 
in a bed of coal ashes, which will not only keep 
the roots moist without much watering, but save 
the plants from being blown down during times 
of high winds. If stimulants are required use 
weak soot water and liquid manure with an 
occasional dusting of concentrated fertiliser or 
bone-meal. Use the syringe freely. 

Hard-wooded Plants.— Plants of Azalea 
indica (Rhododendron indicum) are completing 
their growth under glass, and when this is 
finished they should be hardened gradually and 
placed out-of-doors. Select a sheltered spot in 
partial shade, and plunge the pots in ashes. Feed 
the roots with weak soot-water and syringe the 
foliage twice daily. Late-flowering varieties 
should be stood out at a later date. Ericas 
should be afforded the same treatment as Azaleas. 
Genistas, Deutzias, Myrtles and Salvias should 
also be plunged in a bed of coal ashes out-of- 
doors to ripen their growths. 

Euphorbia pulcherrima.— As soon as the 
cuttings have rooted remove them to a rather 
cooler house. When ready for potting the plants 
may be shifted into pots 4j inches in diameter, 
the compost to consist of three parts loam and one 
part peat and sand. See that the ball of soil 
attached to the roots is moist before the work of 
potting is done, as it is not advisable to resort to 
watering after one good soaking until the roots 
have become re-established. Syringe the foliage 
two or three times each dav and gradually accus- 
tom the plants to more light. 

Souvenir de la Malmaison Carnations.— 

As the plants pass out of flower select some of 
the best specimens for layering. In the mean- 
time, get ready a frame or some other structure 
where lights can be placed as required, and pre- 
pare some gritty soil for layering the shoots. 
Plunge the plants in a sloping direction to enable 
the shoots to be pegged to the ground conve- 
niently. Prepare the layers, peg them to the 
ground, and- water the soil freely by means of 
a rose can. Keep the frame closed for a week 
or so. but admit air gradually afterwards. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

By R. P. Brotherston, Gardener to the Earl of 

Haddington, Tymnghame, East Lothian. 

Parsley.— Beds of transplanted Parsley 
should be covered with a thin mulch of rotted 
manure, as there will then be no need to apply 
water. At the same time it must be remem- 
bered that the finest leaves are produced in soil 
only just fertile enough for the requirements 
of the plants, and this fact must be kept in view 
in applying the mulch. It will soon be time to 
make a sowing for the supply of this herb in 
early spring. Choose rather dry soil and a situ- 
ation that is shaded from the direct rays of the 
sun early in the day. Thick sowing is a fault 
that must be guarded against. 

Cauliflower. — A few seeds of Early Lon- 
don, Magnum Bonuni, or other reliable quick- 
growing varieties, may be sown to raise plants 
for furnishing heads late in the autumn. It 
will save time if a few seeds are dropped at suit- 
able distances apart, the seedlings to be thinned 
subsequently to one at each station, though I 
have sometimes allowed two plants to grow, and 
although these produce smaller heads they are 
generally more favoured for the table than the 
very large Cauliflowers ready earlier in the 
autumn. 

Turnips. —In addition to Swedes for fur- 
nishing roots in winter, the old hard-fleshed 
Turnip Golden Ball is useful at that season, and 
can be successfully grown in one-third the space 
that is required by Swedes. The seeds may be 
inserted now or shortly ; the seedlings should be 
thinned to 6 inches apart in the rows. Swedes 
will do all the better if a little soil is drawn up 
to them on either side. 

Beans.— Where the tops of Broad Beans are 
infested with black aphis they should be cut off 
and the plants dusted with tobacco powder. A 
cheap insecticide for spraying Beans may be 
made by adding a quantity of paraffin oil to the 
household suds, which should be syringed freely 
over the crop. 

Tomatos.— If iTomatos out-of-doors are 
allowed to carry three trusses this will be suffi- 
cient for a crop ; in many instances this number 
of trusses has formed and the plants should be 
stopped just beyond the third inflorescence. 
Continue to remove all axillary growths as 
they develop and see that the plants are sup- 
ported to strong stakes, for they will become 
very heavy with the weight of the fruits 



FRUITS UNDER GLASS. 

By W. Hedley Warren, Gardener to the Aston-Clintoa 
'Park Estate (the Rt. Hon. Lord Rothschild), Buck- 
inghamshire. 

Vines.— The leaves of vines from which the 
bunches have been cut should be kept clean and 
healthy by syringing them with clear water both 
morning and evening. The inside borders must 
be kept in a fairly moist condition ; let the water- 
ing be sufficient to reach the lowest roots. This 
condition must be maintained throughout the 
summer and autumn, until the foliage commences 
to ripen and drop, when water should be with- 
held until the time for the annual pruning and 
dressing of the vines and the renovation of the 
borders arrives. Admit an abundance of air to 
houses in which the fruit is ripe, keep the at- 
mosphere dry : examine the bunches at intervals 
with a view to removing split or decaying 
berries. Vineries in which the Grapes are 
colouring should be kept very warm ; at the 
same time admit plenty of fresh air. for if 
allowed to ripen too slowly, or in a low tempera- 
ture, the berries will be wanting in flavour, 
neither will they keep so well as when ripened 
in a brisk heat. Water freely the roots of 
vines on which the berries are swelling, p.nd 
periodically remove all lateral growths. The 
bunches of late varieties that are intended to- 
hang on the vines during the autumn or winter 
should be well thinned, otherwise losses may 
occui later through berries damping. Ventilate 
carefully houses planted with Madresfield Court 
and Lady Downes varieties, or splitting and' 



July 4, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



11 



scalding of the berries may take place. In 
either case use plenty of fire heat and ventilate 
the house freely to prevent the least possible 
amount of moisture from condensing on the 
berries. It may become necessary to shade the 
vines lightly during times of very bright sun- 
shine where the roof is glazed with 15 oz. glass, 
but shading is seldom required where 21 oz. 
glass has been employed, and the roof built at 
the right angle. 

Orchard House.— Keep all pot trees sup- 
plied with moisture at the roots, and in addi- 
tion to artificial manures afford an occasional 
application of manure-water to trees carrying 
heavy crops of fruit. Remove early Cherries 
that have been cleared of their crops from the 
house, and plunge their pots to the rims in a 
suitable medium out-of-doors ; this timely treat- 
ment will facilitate the thorough ripening of the 
wood, and the consequent maturation of the buds 
for the production of the next season's crop. 
Ventilate the house early in the morning and 
during warm nights. Trees- that have not yet 
ripened their fruit should be syringed freely 
twice daily. 

Peaches and Nectarines.— In houses in 
which the crops have been gathered, syringe the 
foliage with clear water daily. The ventilators 
should remain fully open, and the glass kept 
free from dust and dirt, so that plenty of light 
may reach the trees. The partial removal of 
old or unnecessary shoots may now take place, 
leaving only a little more growth that will be re- 
quired to furnish the next season's crop. It some- 
times happens that some of the shoots start into 
growth a second time, but as this invariably 
happens upon growths that are over-luxuriant, 
the consequences are very trifling, and may really 
do good as an outlet for the surplus sap. As 
the season advances let the leaves fall naturally 
and not brushed off as is sometimes done. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By W. Crump, Gardener to Earl Beauchamp, K.C.M.G., 
Madresfield Court, Worcestershire. 

Summer Flowering Bulbous Plants.— 

Various kinds of Gladiolus, Hyacinthus (Gal- 
tonia) candicans, and Watsonia Ardernei are 
sending up their spikes, which should be sup- 
ported to neat stakes. Gladioli of the early- 
ilowering section, such as The Bride, delicatis- 
sima and Peach Blossom, are very promising this 
year for a good display of flowers, as are also 
the later kinds, including Brenchleyensis, Groffs 
hybrids, America, Hollandaea, and princeps, all 
of which are splendid for supplying cut blooms. 
The flower-buds open in succession when the 
spikes are placed in water, so that the cut 
sprays remain attractive for a long time. In 
flower beds Gladiolus Baron J. Hulot associates 
well with Watsonia Ardernei, whilst the dark 
varieties of Gladiolus are very handsome when 
grouped separately. The Tigridias, too, are 
most beautiful plants, and although the flowers 
are very fugitive, fresh blooms open daily, so 
that a closely-planted bed is very attractive in 
summer : these plants will grow admirably on a 
Ihot, dry bank. 

Hardy Cyclamen. —The present month is 
the best time for planting hardy Cyclamens in 
grass, and they will grow in the partial shade 
■of trees, if it is not too dense. They do well 
with Ferns, which afford just sufficient shade to 
suit them. In preparing the site for planting 
employ plenty of old mortar and a quantity of 
humus, such as well-rotted leaf-mould. VVith 
the exception of C. europeans the corms of all the 
species should be planted shallowly. The Ivy- 
leaved Cyclamen. C. hederaefolium, is the best 
all-round species for massing, and it may also 
be employed as a groundwork for such spring 
bulbs as Scillas, Chionodoxa, Muscari, and 
Galanthus (Snowdrops). The foliage of the Sow- 
bread shows up the bright flowers of the other 
subjects, besides furnishing the ground between 
them. 

Alstromeria.— The shoots of these plants 
should be kept well thinned, removing all weak 
and superfluous ones as often as is necessary. 
Place twiggy shoots amongst the plants for sup- 
port or they may become damaged by storms. It 
5s not advisable to disturb the roots of Alstro- 



merias frequently, but old clumps send up a 
great number of shoots, hence the need for thin- 
ning them. A. aurantiaca and A. lutea are the 
easiest species to cultivate, although A. psit- 
tacina is not a difficult garden plant ; the blooms 
of all three species last well when cut and 
placed in water. 

Lilium.— During recent years Lilies have been 
greatly troubled with some pest, and their cul- 
tivation has been extremely difficult. The 
trouble has been most pronounced in soils border- 
ing on clay, probably because heavy land mili- 
tates against the ripening of the bulbs. 



THE "FRENCH" GARDEN. 

By Path, Aqoatias- 
Melons.— The warm weather during June has 
been all that could be desired. Ventilation could 
be given freely from 6 a.m. till 7 p.m., and left 
at night on several occasions. The plants set up 
to May 10 are now setting their fruits, and water- 
ing can be done more liberally — about three times 
weekly — while the weather is genial. For com- 
mercial purposes it Ls preferable to keep only two 
or three fruits on each plant, tiny must be even 
an size, of regular shape; and as far from the 
collar of the plants as possible. With the swell- 
ing of the fruits the growth of the wood will 
diminish, but the stopping to one leaf of all 
shoots and the thinning of overcrowded parts 
must be done regularly once a week, so as not 
to check the growth unduly, which would be the 
case when pruning at too long intervals. The 
first beds, planted early in April, will soon con- 
tain ripe fruits. It is essential to turn them 
over periodically, so that they may ripen evenly ; 
and they should be exposed to the full sun by 
removing all leaves growing round them. 

Crops Out-of- Doors.— When the Cauli- 
flowers from the manure beds have been mar- 
keted, the ground should be forked over, and two 
ur three beds thrown into one for setting the main 
batch of White or Winter Green Celery. Pre- 
vious to transplanting, all plants are to be 
examined, and any maggoty or diseased leaves 
removed. If any such are found it is advisable 
to dip the plants, as a preventive measure, in 
■ solution of 1 part copper sulphate and 100 parts 
water. The plants can be set 10 inches apart 
in the row, and 1 foot between. Radish or 
Spinach may be sown broadcast, or a row either 
nf ( !os Lettuce or Cabbage Lettuce can be planted 
between each row of Celery. These extra crops 
do extremely well, owing to the ample nutrition 
available and the frequent waterings required by 
tin Celery. They are ready early in August, 
when salading is generally scarce. Cauliflowers 
could be planted as a main crop 18 inches apart 
each way, but it is not so profitable as Celery 
owing to the heavy crops to be obtained from the 
field. The batch of Cauliflowers from the Cloche 
beds are now ready, and the plants must on no 
account be dry at the roots. A good drenching 
once a week is more advantageous than super- 
ficial waterings given more frequently. The 
ridge Cucumbers will now be established in their 
new quarters. Before the stems cover the 
ground the crop will greatly benefit by a good 
mulching. This helps to retain the natural mois- 
ture of the roots, and the fruits grow more evenly 
both in size and in colour. The growth is un- 
certain until the end of July, and extra attention 
is well repaid by the quantity of fruits early in 
August, when the best prices are obtained. The 
first batch of Endives is ready for blanching. 
This can be dono either by covering each plant 
with a 6-inch pot or by tying. The latter method 
is preferable as the centre is not so liable to 
decay if tying is resorted to. A heavy watering 
should be given the previous day. and as soon as 
the leaves are dry they should be gathered to- 
gether and tied loosely. As Endives take 10 to 
12 days to blanch, only what can be disposed of 
is tied as required. Vegetable Marrows have 
now been bearing fruits for a fortnight, and will 
produce a constant succession until the frosts. 
Owing to the fragility of the outer skin, the pack- 
ins of this crop" has to be done very carefully. 
Each fruit should be separately papered, and 
dry hay or straw placed between each layer of 
fruits. ' The marketing of Carrots and' Turnips 



from the open ground has just commenced, and 
these crops will be remunerative this season 
owing to the failure of the field crops, due partly 
to the late frosts, and partly to the hot weather 
in April. In the gardens where sufficient quan- 
tity of Witloof Chicory has been sown direct, 
thinning has now begun. If transplanting is 
contemplated, this operation can be delayed until 
the plants are of sufficient size to be set in their 
permanent quarters. As soon as the Tomatos 
have shown two or three trusses the plants should 
be stopped one leaf over the last truss. Feed- 
ing should be resorted to fortnightly to ensure 
heavy fruits. The main batch of Endive should 
now be sown for winter use. The curled variety 
seems to be losing favour among growers, and 
certainly the Batavian (or plain leaf) variety is 
hardier, keeps for a longer period, and can stand 
ordinary frost, which renders it crisper and more 
tender. The first sowing should be made about 
July 5, and the second a week later. The plants 
are not to be pricked out until set in their final 
quarters; and seeds should be inserted very 
thinly. 

Cucumbers.— Ventilation can now be given 
over a longer period ; and as the plants are grow- 
ing more freely, the soil must be kept in a moist 
condition. In the case of such prolific varieties 
as Rochforts and Covent Garden it is necessary 
t . thin the fruits when they are 3 or 4 
inches long, keeping only those of straight and 
even shape. The fruits growing on the leader 
should also be disregarded, as they weaken the 
growth. 



THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. 

By J. G. Weston, Gardener to Lady Northcotb, 
Eastwell Park, Kent. 

Strawberries.- Although these gardens 
escaped the severe frosts which were experienced 
in many parts of the country when Strawberries 
were in bloom, our plants have suffered from 
drought, and many of the berries on early vane- 
ties did not develop, the early crop being quickly 
over. The present season has shown the ad- 
vantage of placing the litter along the rows early, 
for. acting as a mulch, it is of great value in 
helping to retain moisture in the soil. The new 
variety, King George V., is under trial here; it 
was a few days earlier when forced than Royal 
Sovereign. The berries are soft and not likely 
to travel well when packed ; but the plants are 
very healthv and have a vigorous constitution. 
The later varieties, including Givon's Late Pro- 
lific, Waterloo, Fill Basket, Latest of All, and 
Laxton's Latest show great promise for a splen- 
did crop, but if drought continues the roots will 
need watering or many of the berries will 
shrivel. 

Strawberry Runners. -It is usual to 
plant Straw-berry runners in the autumn, and 
autumn-planted Strawberries should not be 
allowed to fruit the following season. But they 
may be allowed to develop runners, which make 
splendid plants for forcing, there being no 
fruits to exhaust the energies of the parent 
plants. The work of securing the plantlets 
should be commenced as soon as they are suffi- 
ciently advanced. A convenient method, and 
one usually followed, is to layer them into small 
pots, which enables them to be removed from 
the bed at an early date, to be either planted 
out or potted for forcing. The compost for 
layering may consist of sweet loam mixed with 
a little manure from a spent mushroom bed and 
a small quantity of bone-meal. It is not neces- 
sary to crock the pots— some of the rougher par- 
ticles of loam or dung placed in the bottom will 
be all that is necessary in this direction. Pi Z* 
may be used for layering or the runners may bo 
kent in position by placing stones on them. It 
is "not recommended to use excessively rich soil, 
for though the plants might grow very fast and 
make large leaves in a rich compost, they would 
not be so suitable either for potting or for 
planting in beds as more compact specimens. 
The ideal runner is one with a stout, single 
crown, moderate leaf stalks and a good root 
system, for such plants ripen well in the autumn 
and fruit well the following season. During dry 
weather damping the plants overhead in the 
evening will encourage the development of roots. 
Only a few runners should be secured from e'ai h 
plant and the others cut off. 



12 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 4, 1314. 



EDITORIAL NOTICE. 

ADVEBTISEMENTS should be sent to the 
PUBLISHES. 41. Wellington Street. 
Covent Garden, WC- 
Editors and Publisher. - Our correspondents 
would obviate delay in obtaining answers to 
their communications, and save us much time and 
trouble, if they would kindly observe the notice 
printed weekly to the effect that all letters relat- 
ing to financial matters and to advertisements 
should be addressed to the Publisher ; and that 
all communications intended for publication, or 
referring to the Literary department, and all 
plants to be named, should be directed to the 
Editors The two departments, Publishing and 
Editorial, are distinct, and much unnecessary de- 
lay and confusion arise when letters are mis- 
directed. , 

Special Notice to Correspondents- — the 
Editors do not undertake to pay for any contribu- 
tions or illustrations, or to return unused com- 
munications or illustrations, unless by special 
arrangement. The Editors do not hold themselves 
responsible for any opinions expressed by their 
correspondents. 

APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 

TUESDAY, JULY 7— 

Nat. Rose Soc. Sh. at Botanio Gardens, Regent 6 

Park. Wolverhampton Floral Fete (3 days,). Scottish 

Hort. Assoc meet. 
WEDNESDAY, JULY 8— 

Elstres Hort. Soc. Sh. West Surrey Hort. Soc. Sh. 

at Oamberley. Weybridge Fl. Sh. 
THURSDAY, JULY 9-. ' ' . 

Finohley Hort. Sh. Potters Bar and Dist Sh. 
FRIDAY, JULY 10— 

Burp St. Edmunds Sweet Pea and 1 Rose Sh. 

Average Mean Temperature for the ensuing week 

deduced from observations during the last *itty 

Years at Greenwich, 62.4°. 
Actual Temperatures :— 

London, Wednesday, July 1 (6 p.m.): Max. 90° , 
Min. 65°. 

Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, London, Thursday, July 2 
(10 a.m.); Bar. 29.8; Temp. 74°. Weather- 
Dull. 

Provinces, Wednesday. July 1 : Max. 86°, Bath ; 
Min., 50° Scarborough. 

8ALE8 FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 

WEDNESDAY— ,„,„„,, . 

Sale of the first portion of the Mailfleld Collection 
of Orchids, at " Marlfield," West Derby, Liverpool, 
by Protheroe and Morris, at 1. 

FRIDAY— , „ 

Established Orchids and Dwarf Japanese Trees, at 
67 and 68, Cheapside, E.C., by Protheroe and 
Morris, at 12.45. 



The results obtained 
Experiments with by trials of bacterised 
Bacterised Peat, peat at Kew and else- 
where (see Gardeners' 
Chronicle, Vol. LV., pp. 204, 454) have 
created a widespread interest, and have 
led to series of further trials, which are 
being made at the present time in different 
parts of the country. Of these experi- 
ments those undertaken by Messrs. Sut- 
ton and Sons' at their trial grounds at 
Reading have been planned on a compre- 
hensive scale, and carried out with great 
care. Inasmuch as many of the experi- 
mental plants have not yet completed their 
growth, it is not possible at the present- 
time to sum up the whole of the results 
which have been obtained. Nevertheless 
the results in certain cases are so definite 
that it appears desirable to put them on 
record now. Messrs. Sutton and Sons' ex- 
periments fall into two series. In one 
series the ' manurial value of bacterised 
peat has been tested on plants growing in 
the open ground, and in the other on 
plants growing in pots and boxes. 

In the open ground series of experi- 
ments the plants under experiment have 
not been watered, whereas the plants grow- 
ing in boxes or pots have received regular 
supplies of water. To appreciate the re- 
sults which have been obtained this fact 
must be borne in mind, as must also the 



cognate facte that the period during which 
the plants have -been growing has been 
one of extreme drought — only one heavy 
rain and a few light showers having 
fallen— and that the soil in that part of 
the Reading Trial Grounds in which the 
experiments were carried out is both light 
and poor. 

The procedure adopted in the open 
ground experiment is as follows: — 

A piece of ground was divided up into 
five strips— A, B, C, D, E, each of which 
was treated in one or other of the follow- 
ing ways: — 

A. Control : no manure. 

B. Top-dressed with Professor Bottom- 
ley's bacterised peat at the rate of 8 oz. 
per square yard. 

C. Farmyard manure dug in at the 
rate of half a barrow-load per 10 square 
yards, and also — after the plants were up 
— a top dressing of bacterised peat, 8 oz. 
per square yard. 

D. Ordinary peat together with sul- 
phate of ammonia — 8 oz. per square yard. 

E. Farmyard manure dug in, and ordi- 
nary peat moss soaked in sulphate of am- 
monia, 8 oz. per square yard. 

The strips A — E were divided cross- 
wise each into plots of 10 square yards, 
and each of these plots carried one of 
some thirteen different crops, including : 
Potatos, Peas, Onions, Turnips, Mangels, 
Cabbage, various Clovers, Alsike, Lu- 
cerne, Sanfoin, Grasses, Bartonia aurea, 
Acroclinium, and Nasturtium. 

The relative amounts of growth of these 
several crops on the different strips were 
inspected and recorded on June 26. The 
informal jury which made the inspection 
consisted of Mr. Martin H. F. Sutton, 
Mr. Giles (who had carried out the ex- 
periment), Professors Bottomley and V. 
H. Blackman, and ourselves. In the 
case of each plant, say Potato, the A, B, 
C, D and E plots were put in order of 
merit. In order to express the results 
succinctly and concretely marks have 
been assigned to the plots : 5 for first, 4 
for second, 3 for third, 2 for fourth, and 
1 for last plot. Summing up the marks 
we get in order of merit: — 
Plot C, 61 (out of a possible 65); plot 
E, 57; plot B, 39; plot A, 36; plot D, 34. 
As practical gardeners will have 
divined already the winners in the com- 
petition are the plots which received 
dung — C and E. The plot (C) which re- 
ceived bacterised peat as well just beats 
that on which the dung was supplemented 
by untreated peat moss soaked in sul- 
phate of ammonia Plots C and E, how- 
ever, are so close that it is not possible 
to assert confidently that the addition ol 
bacterised peat is responsible for the small 
difference between them. Similarly, 
though plot B, which received bacterised 
peat, stands 3rd, it is so near plots A 
and D that no certain inference can be 
drawn as to any beneficent effect pro- 
duced by the dressing (8 oz. per square 
yard) of bacterised peat. 

Nevertheless, the experiment deserves 
to be put on record if only because it 
shows in emphatic manner that there was 



a limiting factor at work : that is to say, 
a factor which controlled and determined 
the growth of the crop and overmastered 
all other factors making for luxuriant 
growth. That factor is evidently the re- 
stricted water supply. When, however, 
we turn to the second series of experi- 
ments, in which artificial watering com- 
pensated for lack of rain, very dif- 
ferent results are to be observed. 
For example, in the first experi- 
ment of this series Lettuce and Radish 
were grown in garden soil and watered 
with one or other of the following : Water 
only, guano water (1 oz. per gallon), 
water extract of bacterised peat. The 
yield in the case of Lettuce showed (in 47 
heads) an advantage of 2J lbs. in favour 
of bacterised peat, the actual numbers 
being : Bacterised peat, 47J lb. ; guano 
water (1 oz. to 1 gallon), iih lb. ; water 
only, 45 lb. With Radishes the yields ob- 
tained by the use of guano " water " and 
bacterised peat both show about an equal, 
albeit small, increase over that obtained 
with water only ; the numbers being (for 
307 roots in each case) : Guano water, 6 lb. 
15 oz. ; bacterised peat, 6 lb. 14i oz. ; 
water only, 61b. 8 oz. In a second experi- 
ment, Radishes — chosen because of the 
readiness with which the growth and 
weight of the experimental plants may be 
compared — were grown in pots with ordi- 
nary pit sand. Each lot of 8 pots was 
watered (1) with water only, (2) with 
water extract of bacterised peat, (3) with 
guano water. The yields obtained by 
guano and bacterised peat .'extracts are 
nearly equal, and, of course, greater than 
that .given when water only was applied. 
The weights are : Guano extract Ctops), 
2 lb. 2i oz., (roots), 1 lb. 5 oz. ; bacterised 
peat extract (tops), 1 lb. 14i oz., (roots), 
1 lb. 5 h 07. ; water (tops), 1 lb. 2 oz., 
(roots), 12 oz. Here the advantage of 
guano over bacterised peat extract is pio- 
nounced. 

In a third set of this series Radishes 
(96 per box) were grown in ordinary soil 
in boxes 1 yard square and treated as in- 
dicated in the following table: — 

Total 
Roots. Tops. Weight. 
Control. lb. oz. lb. oz lb. oz. 

Two boxes (average) 11 ... 8i-.. 1 31 

Farmyard manure, small dressing 12 ... 12 ... 1 8 
Guano (J oz. beforp) sowing and 

i oz. top dressing) 14 ... 8*... 1 6* 

A well-proved fertiliser (14 oz. 
before sowing and 1£ oz. top 

dressing) 1 ... 11 ... 1 11 

Nitrolim (3 oz. Tier box before 

sowing) : 1 3 ... 12 ... 1 15 

B.irl.'rised peat. (4 oz.) 1 84... 13J... 2 6 

Bacterised peat (8 oz.) 1 5 ... 11 ... 2 

The result is remarkable in several ways. 
It shows, first, that bacterised peat is of 
high manurial value; second, that the in- 
crease affects both roots and tops (leaves) 
but the former more than the latter ; and, 
third, that — as has been observed in other 
experiments — a lighter dressing of bac- 
terised peat is somewhat more effective 
than is a heavier dressing. Incidentally, 
the experiment goes to show that nitrolim 
— containing, as it does, both nitrogen and 
lime in combination, is a fertiliser which 
deserves a good trial on garden crops. 

To sum up: The thorough and careful 
experiment carried out by Messrs. Sutton 



Jul* 4, 1914] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



13 




FIG. 9.— CATTLEYA IRENE. EXHIBITED AT THE HOLLAND HOUSE SHOW. 
(See Awards by E.H.S. Orchid Committee, p. 15.) 



14 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 4, 1914. 



leads to the conclusion that -whereas bac- 
terised peat, used in the relatively small 
quantity in which it can be used effec- 
tively, does not appear to exercise a bene- 
ficent action on the water-holding capacity 
of the soil, it has valuable manurial pro- 
perties, and these properties do not 
appear to be limited to the provision of 
nitrogen. 

Those who have most experience with 
the carrying out of experiments will be 
most careful not to attach undue weight 
to any single experiment. More trials 
.ire wanted before a final pronounce- 
ment can -be made as to the manurial value 
of bacterisecl peat. Nevertheless, the evi- 
dence obtained by Messrs. Sutton confirms 
and extends the results reached by the 



bury, G.C.V.O., and Balls Park, the seat of Sir 
George Faudel Phillips, G.C.I.E., The 
journey to and from Hertfordshire will be made 
by motor-car. Particulars may be obtained on 
application to Mr. R. Hooper Pearson, hon. sec. 
National Rose Society's Show at 
Regents Park.— We regret that in the last 
issue, owing to an oversight, the date- of this 
show was given wrongly as July 4. The correct 
date, namely, Tuesday, July 7, was announced 
under "Appointments." 

Conferences at the White City.— We 

are informed that the Border Carnation and 
Gladiolus Conferences, which were intended to 
be held at the Anglo-American Exhibition at 
Shepherds Bush, on July 18 and August 12 re- 
spectively, have been abandoned. 

Mrs. Villiers-Stuart.- Those who were 
present at the Horticultural Club recently when 




K ■,;. 10.— VCYLSTKKEARA INSIGNIS I FLOWERS CREAM-WHITE WITH BROWNISH SI'. us. 

(See E.H.S. Orchid Committe's Awards, p. 15.) 



earlier experiments at Kew and elsewhere, 
and gives ground for the conclusion that 
bacterised peat is destined to prove of 
value to horticulturists. 

Into an account of the experiments 
which Messrs. Sutton and Sons are con- 
ducting with radio-active substances we 
cannot now enter ; suffice it to say that so 
far as those experiments have yielded re- 
sults it does not appear that the influence 
of these substances is very considerable. 



Coloured Plate.- The subject of the 
Coloured Plate to be published with the next 
issue 16 Clerodendron splendens. 

Horticultural Club: Annual Ex- 
cursion.— The Horticultural Club will have 
i-ta annual excursion on Wednesday, July 15, 
when the members and friends will visit Hat- 
field House, the seat of the Marquess of Salis- 



Mrs. Patrick Villiers-Stuart gave her address 
.,u " Indian Gardening " will be pleased to know 
1 bat the Royal Society of Arts has awarded Mrs. 
Villiers-Stuart the Society's Silver Medal for 
her work in connection with the subject of the 
lecture. 

Annual Excursion. —The annual excur- 
sion of Messrs. Sutton and Sons took 
place on Friday, June 26. The places 
i Li :, .1 were Ramsgate and Margate. Two trains 
were chartered, the first leaving Reading at 
7 a.m., and the second following fifteen minutes 
later. Arrived at Margate Sands station, 
the excursionists dispersed in various direc- 
tions, some visiting Ramsgate, Broadstairs, 
Birchington and Westgate, while others pre- 
ferred to stay in Margate and Clifton- 
ville to take advantage of the many amuse- 
ments which these popular seaside resorts 
offer.' The trip to Westgate was especially 
attractive, as the Admiralty had stationed here 
some half-dozen seaplanes, and several flights 



were made during the day. The first train left 
at 7. fa, and the second at 7.25. Reading was 
reached at 10.35 and 10.55 respectively. The 
party numbered nearly 1,000, being reinforced 
by the start from the new trial grounds at 
Langley. Among the members of the firm who 
travelled with the party were Mr. Leonard 
Sutton and two of his sons, Mr. and Mrs. 
Martin H. F. Sutton and family, and Mr. and 
Mrs. E. P. F. Sutton. 

Scholarships in Agricultural and 
Veterinary Science.— The Board of Agri- 
culture and Fisheries propose to award the fol- 
lowing scholarships, tenable for three years from 
October 1 next. Three Agricultural Science 
Scholarships of the value of £150 per annum, 
open to students who have graduated with 
honours in science at a British University. Can- 
didates will be required to produce evidence of 
lrigh proficiency in one of the sciences — chemis- 
try, botany, zoology, or physiology — and to give 
an undertaking that they will study one of these 
sciences m its applications to agriculture at in- 
stitutions approved by the Board. Two Veter- 
inary Research Scholarships of the value of £150 
per annum, open to students who have obtained 
the diploma of the Royal College of Veterinary 
Surgeons. Scholars will be required to prosecute 
research in veterinary science in institutions ap- 
proved by the Board. Three Veterinary Scholar- • 
ships of the value of £100 per annum, open to 
students who have graduated with honours in 
science at a- British University, and tenable for 
three years at a veterinary college in the United 
Kingdom. Applications for any of the fore- 
going scholarships must be made not later than 
July 17 on a form to be obtained on application 
from the secretary, Board of Agriculture and 
Fisheries, Whitehall Place, London, S.W. 

Tobacco - Growing in Morayshire. —A 

report has just been issued by Mr. Alexander 
Pardy, the representative of the Aberdeen and 
North of Scotland College of Agriculture in 
Morayshire, of his last year's experiments in 
Tobacco-growing in that county, for the purpose 
of gaining information as to the likelihood of the 
plant being suitable as a crop in the district. 
Four varieties, viz., Copper King, Yellow Prior, 
Improved Prior, and Irish Gold, were raised by 
Mr. Wiseman, The Nurseries, Elgin, who under- 
took the rearing under heat, and hardening off 
before finally sending them out to the experi- 
menters. About 250 plants were distributed be- 
tween four farms — Myreside, Dyke, Wester Alves, 
and Wester Kintrae — where they were grown 
mostly under field conditions on clean land. An 
extended period of very dry weather prevailed 
just after they were planted out, and, as no par- 
ticular care was taken of the young plants, they 
made poor progress. Where they were planted 
in well-prepared and richer soil they did capitally, 
and sufficient evidence was forthcoming that with 
good care and management they are likely to 
succeed in the district. At Myreside 13 plants 
weighed 30 lbs. after being cut for 24 hours. 

Fruit Crops in Holland.— The Board of 
Agriculture and Fisheries has received a report 
from H.M. Acting Consul-General at Rotterdam 
Telating to the condition of crops on 
June 1, from which it appears that fruit 
does not promise to be abundant in Hol- 
land this year. Blossom was plentiful, but 
frosts, drought, and in some instances pests had 
occasioned much damage. Apples are good in 
most districts of Guelderland, in Walcheren 
and in Zealand, moderate in the Upper Betuwe, 
the provinces of Limbiirg and Groningen, and 
in the Westland, and fairly good in the south 
of Utrecht, around Nymegen and in North 
Brabant. Pears are moderate in the south and 
north of Limburg, South Boveland, in the 
Upper Betuwe and several other districts, and 
fairly good or very good elsewhere. Plums are 
fairly good in the Westland district, rather bad 
in the south of Limburg, and mostly satisfac- 
torv elsewhere. 



July 4. 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



15 



Exhibition at Holland House. 

June 30, July 1, 2. 



HETY. 



r p HE Summer Exhibition of the Royal Hor- 
I ticultural Society opened on Tuesday last 
^ in the grounds attached to Holland 
House, Kensington, the residence of Mary, 
Countess of Ilchester, mid continued for three 
days. On many occasions tliese Holland House 
shows have been marred by showery weather, 
but Mils year discomfiture was caused by the un- 
usual heat. The thermometer all the week 
registered well above 80°, and on Thursday there 
were some reports of 90° in the London district. 
The great heat served not only to wilt 
and wither the exhibits, but to make an 
inspect inn of the tents a discomforting un- 
dertaking. The show itself was a magnificent 
success, being the best of the series. It opened 
auspiciously, for amongst the first visitors wire 
Queen Alexandra, the Dowager Empress Marie 
of Russia, and King Manoel ol Portugal. 

The splendid exhibit of Japanese Irises shown 
by Messrs. Wallace on the banks of a water 
garden was awarded the Coronation Cup offered 
for the best exhibit in the show. The fruit 
trees in pots were of more outstanding merit 
even than usual, and Orchids were as good as 
we have seen them at this show, which is held 
too late in, the season to equal Chelsea. Roses, 
Carnations, and most other cut flowers suffered 
from the tropical conditions, but Sweet Peas 
seemed but little affected. Ferns and Stove 
Plants in pots were quite at home in the ereal 
heat, and the former were especially good. There 
was a vast wealth of all kinds of hardy plants 
and flowers, and one or two rock gardens. 

A special tent was devoted to the displaj of 
horticultural sundries, as insecticides, w 
and the like are termed. 

Although everything appeared to pass so 
smoothly, it must be remembered that these 
great shows involve a vast amount of extra 
work and responsibility, and the thanks of all 
are due to the Secretary. Rev. W. Wilks, and 
his assistant, Mr. Gaskell, the Superint. 
Mr. S. T. Wright, and the members of the office 
staff, including Mr. Frank Reader. 

Orchid Committee. 

Present; Sir Harry J. Veitch (in the chair) 
and Messrs. Jas. O'Brien (hon. secretary), F. J. 
Hanbury. J. Wilson Potter, W. Bolton, F. 
Sander. W. H. White, R. Brooman White, S. W. 
Flory, W. H. Hatcher, A. Dve, J. E. Shill. J. 
Cypher, W. Cobb, ft. G. Thwaites, A. A. 
McBean. H. G. Alexander. Stuart Low, E. Ash- 
worth, G. F. Moore, W. P. Bound, R. A. 
Rolfe, C. Cooksoni, and Sir Jeremiah Colman, 
Bait. Thirty plants were entered to go before 
the Committee, which resulted in 10 Awards. 

AWARDS. 

First-Class Certificate. 

Cattleya Trent [Suzanne Hye de Crom x 
Moasiae Wageneri) (see fig. 9;, from .7. Gubney 
Fouler. Esq.. Pembury (gr. Mr. J. Davis). 
One of the finest of white Cattleyas, the flower, 
notwithstanding that the plant which bore it was 
very small, being large and of fine shape, pure 
white with chrome-yellow markings in the lip. 

Miltonia vexillaria illustris, from Messrs. 
Sander and Sons, St. Albans. One of the 
superb seedling forms raised by the firm. The 
handsomely-shaped flowers were of a soft, rosy 
lilac, with a striated, red mask at the base of the 
lip. the lines radiating into the front. 

Odontoma Oleverleyana (M. vexillaria Leo- 
poldii x Odm. Rolfeae), from Messrs. Mansell 
and Hatchet:, Rawdon, Leeds. A most remark- 
able cross, with the flowers flatly arranged as in 
Miltonia, white, evenly spotted with bright rose 
and having a mask of red lines at the "base of 
the lip. 



Awards of Merit. 
Cattleya Warscewiczii Miliar, from Lieut. - 
Col. Sir Geo. L. Holford, K.C.V.O., Weston- 
birt, Tetbury (gr. Mr. H. G. Alexander). A 
grand flower, Uie broad, deep-rose sepals and 
petals extending 8 inches, the proportionately 
large labellum intense ruby-crimson with light- 
yellow disc in the centre. 

Odontoglossum eximium Solum, from Messrs. 
Charlesworth and Co. A very showy Odonto- 
glossum of fine shape, the flowers being clear 
claret-red, with a silvery-white margin. 

Odontoglossum Invincibli [Denisoniae x 
eximium), from Messrs. Sander and Sons. A 
superb flower, and one of the largest. The seg- 
ments were heavily blotched with dark violet, 
the white ground colour showing through the 
blotches and at the margins. 

Miltonia Sanderae var. Enchantress, from 
Messrs. Sander and Sons. A most delicately 
tinted flower, the colour being soft carmine-rose 
on white, the mask having thin orange-red lines. 
Laelio-Cattleya Aphrodite "«/' Queen, from 
Messrs. Stuabt Low and Co., Jarvisbrook, 
Sussex. Flowers large, the petals very broad, 
pure white, the finely expanded labellum deep 
violet-crimson. 

Vuylsteheara insignia (Miltonia Bleuana x 
Odontioda Charlesworthii) (see fig. 10), from M. 
Firmin Lambeatj, Brussels. A most remarkabl< 
cross adhering in form to Miltonia. Flowers 
cream-white, with a line of brownish spots in the 
petals, and a radiating mask of lines on the lip. 
I't nantht ra pulehella, Rolfe, from Monsieur 
A. A. Peeters, Brussels. A singular plant im- 
ported with R. Imschootiana and like a rudimen- 
tary form of it. The branched spike 1 i 

numerous small yellowish flowers tinged with 
red and bearing red spots at the tips of the 
petals. 

Groups. 
The groups of Orchids occupied the central 
stage running from end to end of the large tent. 
In reviewing these it must be remembered that 
there are fewer subjects available for mid- 
summer shows than at the May shows ; also that 
small-flowered species are of little use to give 
character to the groups, consequently through- 
out most of the exhibits the main features an' 
given by Laelio-Cattleya Canhamiana in ereat 
variety, with a smaller number of L.-C. Aphro- 
dite and allied hybrids. In Cattleyas the specie* 
of the 6how is C. Warscewiczii Sanderiana, which 
in size, fine colour, and good shape leaves noth- 
ing to be desired, and its floriferous character 
saves it. from the reproach of being shy-flower- 
ing, which some other sections bear. 

Lieut. -Col. Sir Geo. L. Holford, K.C.V.O., 
Westonbirt, Tetbury (gr. Mr. H. G. Alexan- 
der), staged a beautiful group, well sustaining 
the excellence of Westonbirt Orrhids. The centre 
was of very lightly -arranged, deep-red RenantheTa 
Imschootiana overhanging the drooping white 
racemes of Thunia Marshalliana, and beside them 
were excellent clumps of Vanda teres, two 
Aerides odoratuim which had been at Westonbirt 
in the early days of the collection ; Anguloa. 
Cliftonii, and other showy species ; Miltonia 
vexillaria and hybrids, and a good selection of 
Odontoglossums. But the group was domi- 
nated by the many superb forms of Cattleya 
Warscewiczii. some 30 plants of which were 
shown, each with a good proportion of blooms 
and ranging from the richly-coloured varieties, 
Meteor, Monarch and Low's variety, to the large, 
pure white C. Warscewiczii alba Firmin Lam- 
beau, which is famous as securing a Gold Medal 
and First-Class Certificate at the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society, July 16, 1912, a fine plant of 
it with five flowers being now shown. Cattleya 
Dupreana wis represented by four specimens, 
the best of which was Westonbirt variety : < 
Herode and other hybrid Cattleyas; four varie- 



ties of L.-C. Lustre, including the dark 
variety Budda. The Brasso-Cattleyas included 
B.-C. Euterpe, a distinct form raised at Weston- 
birt ; and of Sophronitis crosses Sophro-Laelio- 
Cattleya laeta was present in three pretty speci- 
mens. Laelio-Cattleya Corncrake (Gwennie x 
Mossiae Reineckiana) was a distinct novelty. 
(Silver-gilt Cup.) 

Sir Jeuemlah Colman, Bart., Gatton Park, 
Reigate (gr. Mr. Collier), staged an effective 
group including slender Oncidiunis, with in In ids 
of Odontoglossum Edwardii, Epidendrum 
O'Brienianum, E. Boundii in the higher parts, 
on each side fine Odontoglossum cris- 
pum and hybrids, many of which were raised at 
ii. \ ery effective in the group were 
batches of scarlet Odontiodas and well-grown 
Miltonias, which included a good example of the 
varieties, Cobbiana and alba; also M. Bleuana 
with 9 spikes. Cirrliopetaluni pulehruni, 
Nanode.s Medusae, and some Pleurothallis, etc., 
were noted. (Gold Medal.) 

Messrs. Sandek and Suns, St. Albans and 
Bruges, staged a very fine group contain 
,ieat variety, both in species and hybrids. 
High up in the middle was an arrangement of 
the line white Dendrobium Sanderae, Uie flowers 
bearing thin violet lines on the lip. Arranged 
over them was an elevated stand of Miltonia 
vexillaria of the large-flowered deep-rose tint, a 
pretty arrangement of smaller species occupying 
the front. Each end was carried up with a large 
number of fine specimens of the true original 
type of Cattleya Warscewiczii oanderiana, giv- 
ing masses of bright rose-coloured flowers with 
ruby-crimson labellums and pale yellow discs. 
Laelio-Cattleya Canhamiana and other Laelio- 
Cattleyas were well represented, two fine novel- 
ties being L.-C. Brugensis (L.-C. Martinetii x 
L.-C. luminosa), a very fine and richly coloured 
flower, and L.-C. Gottoiana Imperator (L. tene- 
brosa x C. Warneri), a large, dark flower of 
excellent quality. The home-raised Miltonias 
gave a varied display, M. Sanderae var. 
Enchantress and M. vexillaria illustris 
being • very distinct. The group contained 
many fine Odontoglossums, the best being 
the new O. Invincible (Denisoniae x exi- 
mium), a grand flower in every respect, white 
with large, dark purple blotches. Another good 
novelty was Aerides Hc/ulletianum Sanderae, 
with two long spikes of creamy-white flowers, 
with a yellow tint on the sepals and petals, and 
practically an albino of the 6pecies. (Gold 
Medal.) 

Messrs. E. H. Davidson and Co., Orchid Dene, 
Twyfoid, staged a very pretty group, the higher 
centre of which was of excellent plants of Cat- 
tleya Warscewiczii, on each side being Cattleya 
Mendelii of a very distinct type, some nearly 
white and one having pink sepals and petals and 
wholly pure white lip. At the ends were two 
stands of mingled white Phalaenopsis Rimestad- 
iana and red Renanthera Imschootiana, and the 
body of the group contained good Laelio- 
Cattleyas and Cattleyas, a very dark hybrid be- 
tween C. Vulcan and C. aurea being conspicuous. 
Among Odontoglossums were the beautiful 
0. Aireworth Orchid Dene variety, a model 
shape and of fine colour, and 0. eximium Orchid 
Dene variety. Other good plants were Odon- 
tioda Thwaitesii Purple Emperor, and Sophro- 
Cat'tleya Saxa Orchid Dene variety, sa'.mon-pink 
with yellow disc. (Silver Cup.) 

Messrs. Stuart Low and Co., Bush Hill Park 
and Jarvisbrook, Sussex, staged an effective 
group, at the back of which were various On- 
cidiunis, Dendrobium Dalhousieanum, Vanda 
teres, and other tall-growing species. Pro- 
minent objects in the middle part were a line 
specimen of Cvrtopodium punctatum and On- 
cidium serratum. Cattleyas were a feature, two 
very large and dark C. Warscewiczii; and a good 



16 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 4, 1914. 



lot of C. Mossiae, including a line white form, 
being specially noteworthy. A small batch of the 
elegant Oncidium pulchellum, with scarlet Odon- 
tiodas and blotched Odontoglossums, were well 
arranged, and two raised stands of Phalaenopsia 
and Renanthera Imschootiana gave a good effect 
of depth to the group. Laelio-Cattleya Aphro- 
dite Our Queen and The Don were two superb 
forms, and another good plant was L.-C. Mar- 
tinets Black Prince, a richly-coloured variety. 
(Large Silver Cup.) 

Messrs. Mansell and Hatcher, Rawdon. 
Yolks, arranged an elegant group, the highest 
point of the centre being a fine specimen of 
Aerides odoratum with 8 spikes, arranged with 
good Odontoglossums and fronted by excellent 
forms of Laelio-Cattleya Canhamiana, L.-C. 
Martinetii and a few fine L.-C. Aphrodite, the 
new variety, The President, being far the best 
and fine in shape and colour. Cattleya 
Mossiae, C. Mendelii and C. Warscewiczii 
were well represented ; as were also various 
Odontiodas, Miltonias, and good hybrid Odonto- 
glossums. Odontonia Cleverleyana (M. vexillaria 
Leopoldii x 0. Rolfeae) was a good novelty, and 
Cattleya Enchantress (intermedia alba X cho- 
coensis alba) adds another white form to the use- 
ful hybrid Cattleyas. Dendrobium acuminatum, 



Messrs. Charlesworth and Co., Haywaids 
Heath, staged a selection of fine specimens, 
among which were noted the magnificent Odon- 
toglossum Aiglon var. Majesticum, heavily 
blotched with dark violet. Among Laeho- 
Cattleyas, L.-C. Cowanii Yellow Prince had 
pretty yellow flowers with ruby-red lip ; L.-C. 
llottoiana grandis was very large and dark in 
colour; L.-C. Canhamiana alba Had pure white 
sepals and peta'-6 ; Miltonia vexillaria Queen 
Alexandra was a fine white ; and other novelties 
were shown. (Silver Cup.) 

Mr. C. F. Waters, Deanlands Nursery, Bal 
combe, staged a group of very good Cattleyas, 
Odontoglossums, Laelio-Cattleyas, etc. (Silver 
Flora Medal.) 

Mr. Harry Dixon, Spencer Park, Wands- 
worth, had an effective and well-arranged group 
in which Cattleya Warscewiczii and other Cat- 
tleyas were well displayed, in the front being a 
good patch of Cochlioda Noezldana. Good 
Laelio-Cattleyas and hybrid Odontoglossums were 
also shown. (Silver Banksian Medal.) 

Messrs. Armstrong and Brown, Tunbridge 
Wells, arranged a group of pretty hybrid Odon- 
toglossums, scarlet Masdevallias, Cattleyas, 
and Laelio-Cattleyas, all well grown and finely 
flowered. 




Fig. 11. — campanula garganica w. h. paine. 
(See Awards by R.H.S. Floral Committee.) 



the white Trichopilia Backhouseana, the singular 
bright-red Cryp'tochilus sanguineum. Promenaea 
xanthina, Phaius Cooksonii and several species 
of Anoectochilus were also noted. Phalaenopsis 
Rimestadiana was effectively displayed, and the 
whole group specially well arranged. (Large 
Silver Cup.) 

Messrs. Flory and Black, Orchid Nursery, 
Slough, had a group, conspicuous for the 
large quantity and admirable quality of their 
Veitchian strain of Laelio-Cattleya Canhamiana, 
all the forms being good, and some remarkably 
distinct, having much broader sepals and petals 
than usual, from white to lilac, with deep, ruby- 
crimson lips. Other large-flowered Laelio-Cat- 
tleyas included L.-C. Aphrodite, L.-C. Violetta, 
L.-C. Rubens, and one of the new type of 
L.-C. Medina, a form which secured a First- 
Class Certificate at Chelsea this year. A 
number of fine plants of Disa. Luna were 
furnished with tall spikes of rose-purple flowers, 
arranged in two clumps. Some good Laelio- 
Cattleya callistoglossa, L.-C. Gladiator, the new 
L.-C. Constance (Mossiae xbletchleyensis), L.-C. 
Sunset (L.-C. Pallas x C. Schroderae), a charm- 
ing flower with a great resemblance to the famous 
C. Schroderae The Baron, peach-blossom shade 
of pink with orange-coloured centre to lip ; some 
bright Odontiodas, and a rare selection of hand- 
eome-leafed Anoectochilus. (Large Silver Cup.) 



J. Gurney Fowler, Esq. , sent a very fine form 
of Laelio-Cattleya Canhamiana alba. 

W. Waters Butler, Esq., Southfield, Edg- 
baston (gr. Mr. Jones), sent Cattleyas Wars- 
cewiczii Southfield variety and the C. Clymene 
Southfield variety, both good flowers. 

R. Brooman White, Esq., showed Odonto- 
glossum crispum Chancellor of the Exchequer, a 
small form of the old type. 

H. Dundee Hooper," Esq., Ardvar, Torquay, 
showed a plant of the original form of Odonto- 
glossum coronarium, with a very strong spike of 
many brown and yellow flowers. 

Floral Committee. 
AWARDS. 

First-Class Certificate. 
Hypericum laeve rvbrum. — A shrubby Hyperi- 
cum with corymbs of orange-red flowers, irom 
Asia Minor. The leaves are grey-green, linear, 
about an inch in length, and borne sparsely on 
the brown, twiggy stems. The plant flowers 
freely, and the inflorescence is a dense mass* of 
bloom, but the individual flowers are only about 
half an inch in diameter, and have but small, 
ovate petals. Its great beauty lies in its colour, 
which is set off by the clusters of yellow 
stamens. The plant has withstood the last two 
winters at Sealand, but until further tried must 



be placed with half-hardy shrubs requiring the 
shelter of a south wall. The plant had reached 
lg foot in height. Shown by Messrs. Bees, 
Liverpool. A few days earlier than the show we 
received specimens of this species from Mr. : 
Hay, Superintendent of Ureeiiwicn ruDiic Park, 
where it flowered on June 20. 

Awards of Merit. 

Pose " Waltham Scarlet." — This is a brilliant 
single H.T. variety, with flowers of an intense 
rose-red, set off finely by the clusters of yellow 
anthers. It is not beautiful in the bud stage 
on acoount of the shortness of the petals, but its 
freedom and rich colour should make it a valu- 
able addition to single bedding Roses. The 
flowers are about 3 inches in diameter. Shown 
by Messrs. W. Paul and Son, Waltham Cross. 

Iris Kaempferi "Mikado." — This large- 
flowered Japanese Iris is one of the best of the 
pink shades. The ground colour of the petals 
is almost white, but it is delicately and richly 
veined and shaded with soft rose, which varies 
in depth of colour according to the age of the 
flower. The standards are purple-rose, and the 
style arms the same colour as the ground of the 
falls. It is thus one of the single or three- 
petalled varieties. Shown by Messrs. R. Wal- 
lace and Co. 

Campanula garganica '.' W . H. Paine" (see 
fig. 11). — A delightful form of this little Alpine 
Campanula, in which the star-shaped flowers have 
heliotrope rays but a clear white centre. It has 
the glabrous, cordate toothed leaves of the type. 
A wonderful pan was shown. The growths 18 
inches across and climbing 9 inches above the 
soil were almost covered with the blue flowers. 
Shown by Messrs. Watson and Son. 

Gladiolus "Mrs. Atkinson" (see fig. 8). — 
This is an early-flowering variety derived from 
Xe Plus Ultra. It has the good habit and 
branched spike of G. ramosus, but the colour is 
a soft salmon-pink, with crimson blotches on 
the lower petals, so that it may be regarded as 
an improved form of Ackermannii, or Sarnaan 
Gem. Shown by Mr. C. E. Blampied. 

Sweet fleas " The President."- — The flowers are 
rich orange-scarlet, shaded in the wings with 
carmine-rose. The carriage of the flowers is bold 
and fine, and they are borne mostly in threes, but 
it is the brilliant colouring of this seedling that 
gives it its chief merit. Shown by Messrs. A. 
Dickson and Sons. 

Gladiolus " Radiance." — An early-flowering 
variety with very large orange-scarlet flowers, 
borne in spikes each carrying about 12 buds. The 
flowers expanded are 4 inches in diameter, and 
on the lower segments show a scarlet blotch, 
cent red with a whitish, purple-edged tongue. The 
upper petals are very broad, and the habit 
seemed vigorous and free. It has something of 
the habit of insignis, but is probably derived 
from Ne Plus Ultra. Shown by Messrs. E. H. 
Wheadon and Sons. 

Amaranthus "Dr. Martin." — This is a very 
showy variety for bedding or pots. The young 
leaves and growths are bright carmine, contrast- 
ing strongly with the outer halves of the older 
leaves, which are dark purplish brown. Young 
plants were shown in 3-inch pots, and massed to- 
gether. They were very bright and effective. 
Shown by Mr. W. B. Upjohn, Worsley Gar- 
dens, Manchester. 

Carnation "Cordon Douglas" (see fig. 7). — 
A bright crimson border variety, not very 
fragrant, but of magnificent form, with 
large, smooth, well-disposed and not over- 
crowded petals. The calyx is good and 
the habit vigorous, and it is probably the best of 
its shade of colour, which belongs to the lighter- 
coloured crimsons of which Mrs. George Mar- 
shall is perhaps the best known. Shown by Mr. 
J. Douglas. 

Sweet Pea "Mrs. Hugh. Wormald" is a very 
distinct bicolor with pale cream wings and soft 
creamy-pink standards. It is one of an interest- 
ing batch raised from Elsie Herbert X Sunproof 
Crimson. The flowers were borne mostly in 
threes, and the standards showed a habit of re- 
flexing, but these are defects which will be reme- 
died by garden culture; the flowers shown were 
field-grown. It is a very charming and striking 
novelty. Shown by Messrs. Hobbies, Ltd. 

Carnation "Chelsea." — A white ground fancy 
variety richly splashed with rose-pink, with 



Joly 4, 1914] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



17 



flowers of good form and size ; this is a valu- 
able addition to the perpetual-flowering fancies. 
Shown by Mr. A. F. Dutton, Iver. 

Botanical Certificate. 

Lysinotus " Willmottac." — An interesting 
dwarf shrub with lilac-blue Pentstemon-like 
flowers and ovate-lanceolate leaves rather too large 
in proportion to the size of the plant to give 
it much merit as a rock garden shrub. It was 
exhibited by Miss Willmott, Great Warley. 

Roses. 

Messrs. W. Cutbush and Son, Highgate, 
staged a corner group of Roses, Carnations, and 
other flowers in the large tent. These flowers 
lend themselves well to effective grouping, and 
the exhibit made a pretty floral picture. The 
ground was furnished with dwarf polyantha 
Roses — Baby Tauseudschom, Orleans, Mrs. W. 
Cutbush, Jessie, and other varieties, with 
standards here and there. One very effec- 
tive group was of Erna Teschendorf, with a 
Phoenix Palm in the centre. At the back were 
banks of Carnations, also groups of Cannas, 
with Palms as a setting. Souvenir de la Mal- 
maison and Perpetual-flowering Carnations were 
freely represented in. the exhibit, the centre- 
piece being of choice " Malmaison, " varieties. 
{Silver Banksian Medal.) 

Messrs. W. Paul and Son, Waltham Cross, 
were the exhibitors of a magnificent floor group 
of Roses. A delightful feature consisted of 
numerous "shower" standards, the drooping 
sprays being a mass of blossoms ; the varieties 
Lady Gay, Exce'sa, and Crimson Rambler were 
especially good. On the floor were baskets of 
exhibition blooms, whilst the centrepiece was 
a fine " bush" standard of the single Hiawatha 
grouped about with epergnes of Pharisaer. Con- 
spicuous places were afforded the new variety 
Queen of Fragrance, which won the Cup offered 
by Messrs. Clay and Sons for the best new Rose 
" possessing the true old Rose scent," and the 
pretty single Waltham Scarlet, which secured an 
Award of Merit. The yellow Roses appeared 
to withstand the tropical conditions well, and 
Rayon d'Or especially. Other varieties that 
attracted attention were Prince de Bulgarie, 
Lieutenant Chaure and Liberty, two fine red 
varieties, ; Senateur Mascurand, Dean, Hole, 
Joseph Hill, Ophelia, Ladv Ashtown, lime. Jules 
Grolez, and Chateau de Clos Vougeot, which ha6 
rich colouring of a crimson-maroon shade. (Gold 
Medal.) 

Messrs. Paul .and Son, Cheshunt, exhibited 
a floor group of Roses near the entrance to the 
large tent. Numerous pillar plants were staged 
at the back. The exhibition blooms in baskets 
left little to be desired, and they represented a 
choice selection. Liberty, Miss A. de Rothschild, 
Mrs. W. J. Grant, Sunburst, Lieutenant Chaure, 
Hugh Dickson, and Duchess of Wellington had 
remained fresh and bright in the great heat ; the 
yellow 6orts were especially good, a fact which 
we noticed in other exhibits. The group was not 
crowded, a fault too common with exhibits of 
Roses. (Gold Medal.) 

Messrs. Hugh Dickson, Belfast, gave a 
special interest to their group by the inclusion 
of some good seedlings. Gorgeous (cream and 
pink). Ethereal (a large single white), and 
Golden Gem (buff yellow), were among the best. 
The group, too, is worth mentioning as one of 
those in which no attempt had been made to 
overcrowd the space allotted, so that one could 
enjoy the beauty of individual blooms. (Silver 
Flora Medal.) 

Mr. Chas. Turner, Slough, exhibited Roses 
in variety. He showed his novelties : Pearl, a 
seedling from Brunonis, of climbing habit, 
with large trusses of white, single blooms; and 
May, a hybrid Wichuraiana, having rose-tinted, 
single flowers and glossy foliage. Of the older 
sorts there were good blooms of Frau Karl 
Druschki, Rayon d'Or, Duchess of WeiUington, 
Lyon Rose, and Gottfried Keller. (Silver-gilt 
Banksian Medal.) 

Messrs. Stuart Low and Co., Bush Hill Park, 
Enfield, showed very finely an admirable collec- 
tion., and we were struck by their freshness at. 
a late hour on the first day, when so many of 
the Rose exhibits were withering. The variety 
Mrs. Chas. Russell was magnificent and very 
much admired. Chateau de Clos Vougeot. Rayon 
d'Or, Geo. Dickson, Willowmere. Leslie Holland 



and Mrs. A. Carnegie were also in good form. 
(Silver Flora Medal ) 

Messrs. A. Dickson and Sons, Newtownards, 
staged Red Letter Day, Ed. Bohane, Lady Ply- 
mouth and H. V. Machin in a collection of 
Irish-raised varieties. Mrs. Foley Hohbs was 
fine and the group was rich in shades of yellow. 
(Silver Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. Hobbies, Ltd., Dereham, made 
generous use of the Wichuraianas budded as 
standards, but being perched on tabling they 
were less effective than usual. Pharisaer, Rayon 
d'Or, Pink Pearl, Melody and other good sorts 
were well shown, and we also noted Effective, 
.the new fragrant pillar Rose. (Silver Banksian 
Medal.) 

Messrs. G. A. Buntard and Co.. Maidstone, 
showed a few 'exhibition, varieties in boxes, but 
the feature of the group was its fine mass of 
Rayon d'Or, surrounded with Sunburst and 
other decorative Roses. (Silver Banksian Medal). 

Mr. E. J. Hicks, Hurst Twyford, Berks, 
staged a small group with considerable variety, 
but one's attention was rightly concentrated on 
the newer Roses, Mrs. Chas. Reed (cream and 
pink), Mrs. Geo. Norwood (bright clear pink, 
fragrant), and Princess Mary (crimson single). 
(Silver Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. Ben Cant and Sons, The Old Rose 
Gardens, Colchester, exhibited a brilliant collec- 
tion, quality and novelty being finely balanced. 
The single pink pillar Rose Cupid was particu- 
larly lovely, and there were wonderful batches 
of the glowing, rose-scarlet Augustus Hartmann 
and the flesh-coloured Hon. Mrs. R. C. Gros- 
venor. Melody, Rayon d'Or and Marquise de 
Sinetv were also noted as excellent. (Silver- 
gilt Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. W. and J. Brown, High Street, Stam- 
ford, included good masses of Mrs. Herbert 
Stevens and the Duchess of Wellington, but at 
the time of our visit in the afternoon of the first 
day the heat had destroyed the quality of what 
had been an interesting collection. Messrs. 
Brow'n also showed a group of hardy flowers. 
(Silver Flora Medal.) 

Mr. Geo. Prince, Longworth, showed blooms 
prettily arranged in baskets with a background 
of ramblers as pillars. The soft pink Josephine 
Nicholson, Irish Fireflame, Lady Pirrie and 
Rayon d'Or we noted as above the average. 
(Silver Flora Medals.) 

Messrs. Morse Bros.,, Woodbridge, arranged 
a small bank of Roses, in which Old Gold and 
Irish Fireflame showed prettily. (Bronze Flora 
Medal.) 

Mr. Walter Easlea, Eastwood, Leigh-on-Sea, 
had a number of good Roses. Lieut. Chaure, 
Lady Bowater and Louisa Breslau were worth 
noting for their fine colour ; Ed. Mawley. Sun- 
burst and Fireflame also found place in the col- 
lection. 

The Rev. L. Chalmers-Hunt, Willian Rec- 
tory, Letchworth, showed a small collection of 
Roses, interesting because the only collection 
staged by an. amateur, and a group of Sweet 
Peas. (Silver Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. Jackman, Woking, used Rayon d'Or. 
Lady Pirrie. Lyon and other little known Roses 
in bold masses above boxes of exhibition blooms. 
(Silver Flora Medal.) 

Mr. R. C Notcutt, Woodbridge, had a pretty 
arrangement of standard Wichuraianas with an 
edging of Erna Teschendorf and Ellen Poulsen, 
dwarf Polyanthas. Miss Alice de Rothschild 
was shown especially finely. Mme. Herriot, 
Lt. Chaure and Harry Kirk were also noted a« 
good. (Silver Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. H. Lane and Son, Berkhamstead, 
used a few dwarf Polvanthas and other kinds 
around a centrepiece of Mme. Ravarv. 

Messrs. Frank Cant and Co., Colchester, ar 
ranged Wichuraianas loosely among a low ground 
of H.T.s and exhibition Roses. Lyon, Duchess 
of Wellington, Juliet and Lt. Chaure were fine, 
while among new seedlings we noted the fra- 
grant Beulah. (Silver-giltFlora Medal.) 

Carnations. 

Mr. Chas. Turner, Slough, exhibited Sou- 
venir de la Malmaison Carnations in variety. 
The group was arranged with good effect, and 
the blooms were of excellent Quality. There were 
bold clumps of such well-known varieties as 
Princess of Wales, Mrs. Trelawny, salmon- 
scarlet : Irene, pink ; Thora, white with cream 



centre; Calypso, white faintly suffused with 
pink ; and Maggie Hodgson, crimson. The group 
was bordered with the prettv dwarf cluster Rose 
Jessie. (Silver Flora Medalj 

W. M. Gott, Esq., Trenython, Par Station, 
Cornwall (gr. Mr. G. Hillman), showed Souvenir 
de la Malmaison Carnations in variety. There 
were large batches of the varieties Mrs. Tre- 
lawny, Duchess of Westminster, Irene, Sir 
Chas. Freemantle, and others. (Silver Banksian 
Medal.) 

Messrs. Young and Co., Hatherley, were 
awarded a Silver Cup for an exhibit of Carna- 
tions of the perpetual-flowering type. Thev 
showed the new variey Lady Nunburnholme, like 
May Day, but much deeper pink ; a big group 
of Cecilia, one of the best yellow sorts; Mrs. 
Raphael, a . perpetual variety, with cherry-red 
flowers, and others. 

Messrs. W. Wells and Co., Merstham, Surrev, 
exhibited several novelties. Snowstorm was 
especially good, by far the finest white in the 
exhibit; White Wonder, Peerless, a new variety 
of cerise colour; Champion, scarlet -and-yellow 
Prince. (Bronze Flora Medal.) 

Mr. H. Lakeman, Thornton Heath, staged 
border varieties. The pale vellow ground fancy, 
Lieut. Shackleton, was specially fine, and there 
was quality evident in Lady Hermione, Salome, 
and other favourites. A few perpetual varieties 
were used at the back of the group. (Silver 
Banksian Medal.) 

Mr. A. F. Dutton, Iver, Bucks, arranged one 
of the most satisfying groups from the artistic 
point of view. He was satisfied with a few good 
varieties, and then staged them effectively in 
white baskets. Mrs. A. F. Dutton made a" fim 
centrepiece. Chelsea was given an Award. Mar, 
mion, Harlowarden, Niagara and Beacon wero 
other good varieties. (Silver-gilt Flora Medal.) 

Mr. H. Burnett, Guernsey, showed very 
beautifully grown flowers of Mrs. C. F. Raphael, 
Sunstar, Enchantress, Supreme, R. F. Felton, 
Carola, and other standard sorts. His stand is 
always worth attention for its fine colour and 
quality. (Silver Flora Medal.) 

Mr. C. Englemann, Saffron Walden, built up 
a group finely from the ground level with large 
vases of Marmion, Variegated Carola, Scarlet 
Carola, Mrs. C. F. Raphael, White Wonder,, etc. 
round a centrepiece of, the cerise-pink Pioneer. 
The blooms were finely grown, and the arrange- 
ment an effective one. (Gold Medal.)'" 

Mr. E. J. Wootten, Fairoak. Eastleigh, staged 
a group of perpetual-flowering varieties. (Bronze 
Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. Stuart Low and Co., Bush Hill Park, 
with a free use of Nephrolepis fronds and As- 
paragus made an artistic display of a collec ,; on 
of tarnations, principally Malmaisons. Princess 
of Wales and the dark magenta-crimson Cleo- 
patra were outstandingly good. (Silver Bamksian 
Medal.) 

Begonias. 

Messrs. Blackmore and Langdon, Twerton-on- 
Avon, Bath, showed superb Begonias of the 
tuberous-rooted section. The wide range of 
colouring of soft tints characteristic of these 
flowers, the large size of the blooms and excel- 
lent quality of the plants stamped this exhibit 
as one of the highest merit. Some delightful 
hanging baskets, furnished with such pretty 
varieties as Rose, Cactus, Lena, red, and Coral- 
lina, salmon, especially appealed to us as having 
great value for greenhouse and conservator} 
decoration. Of the larger sorts, Princess 
Victoria Louise, soft pink ; F. W. Walker, scar- 
let ; Florence Nightingale, white ; Mrs. J. B. 
Blackmore, an exceedingly prettv variety with 
waved, deep salmon-coloured petals ; Countess of 
Waldegrave. a new variety of the "Rose" 
type of shell-pink colour ; Grand Monarch, crim- 
son, also new ; Mrs. James Douglas, yellow ; 
Mrs. Peter Blair, white, with a faint tinge of 
rose colour; and Mrs. G. Lovelock, with in- 
curved and waved ivory-white petals. (Gold 
Medal.) 

Mr. A. Ll. Gwillim, Sidcup, Kent, showed 
good Begonias of the tuberous-rooted section. In 
the centre was a bank of the fine yellow variety, 
Margaret Gwillim. and we also noted as being 
especially good Mrs. H. Harris, apricot-salmon ; 
Mrs. Boddington, crimped petals of soft pink 
shade, forming a rosette-like flower; and Mrs^ 
J. G. Gwillim, rosy-salmon. (Standard Cup.) 



18 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 4, 1914. 



Messrs. T. S. Ware, Ltd., Feltham, staged 
one of their admirable exhibits of tuberou6- 
rooted varieties. Such sorts as Mrs. BUkey, 
Daffodil and Gladys were very pretty in hang- 
ing baskets, but the bulk of the group consisted 
of the salmon-orange coloured variety, King 
George V., the soft pink Lady Cromer, and other 
choice exhibition flowers. (Silver Cup.) 

Mr. W. S. Edwardson, Elsdon, Sidcup, 
showed an interesting batch of home-raised Be- 
gonias. Apricot shades predominated, and some 
of the varieties are worth propagating for their 
fine form. (Silver-gilt Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. Stuart Low and Co., Bush Hill Park, 
staged an interesting collection of tuberous Be- 
gonias. Although not notable for their size, some 
very fine colours were included — e.g., Mr6. Stone- 
ham and Margaret Gwillim in the yellows; Sir 
Garnett, the deepest crimson-scarlet, and Snow- 
drop, May Pope and F. Nightingale, good whites. 
New Holland plants, Hydrangeas, Statice pro- 
fusa and other greenhouse plants, were also 
shown by this firm. (Silver-gilt Banksian 
Medal.) 

Sweet Peas. 

Messrs. Sutton and Sons, Reading, made a 
large display, in which quality, quantity and 
tasteful arrangement were admirably balanced. 
Black velvet shields were used to display the 
choicer varieties, and intermediate columns of 
other sorts were linked together with sprays of 
Smilax. The orange-colouied variety, T. Steven- 
son, formed a fine centrepiece, though hardly de- 
serving in other respects to be singled out from 
the large number of varieties equally well grown. 
(Gold Medal.) 

Sir Randolf Baker. Bart., Ranston, Bland- 
ford (gr. Mr. A. E. Usher), showed some of the 
best flowers in the show in a simpie but telling 
arrangement, W. P. Wright. Edsom Beauty, 
and R. F. Felton were displayed in tall columns 
running to the roof of the tent, Barbara and 
King Manoel formed fine terminal masses, while 
the centre was formed of Clara Curtis. (Gold 
Medal.) 

Messrs. Dobhie and Co., Marks Tey, had an 
outstandingly fine group in which culture vied 
with newer varieties to catch the eye first. 
Dobbie's Orange, cream and new mauve, were 
very fine. Ilftiminator, Frilled Pink, Marks Tey, 
and Virgin White also stood out well. In the 
front of the group the flowers were densely 
packed in bowls, and the looser arrangement 
behind led to a free, bold grouping in piled-up 
masses at the back. (Gold Medal.) 

Messrs. Hohbies, Ltd., Dereham, included 
some very pretty seedlings. Mrs. Hugh Wor- 
mald (see new plants) caught everybody's eye 
as a distinct 'break, but Mrs. Fred Kelley, a 
blue picotee-Spencer, and Mrs. Fred Arcy, a 
pink-flushed cream, are other 1914 novelties 
which were much admired. (Standard Cup.) 

Messrs. Alex. Dickson and Sons, Ltd., 
Newtownard's, staged some very finely-grown 
flowers. The President was given an award (sec 
new plants), and we admired such varieties as 
Seamew (pale lavender), Orchid (pale mauve) 
and Dragonfly (lavender and cream), which were 
not. to be seen elsewhere in the show. The 
arrangement was also a novel one, attracting 
attention. (Silver Cup.) 

Messrs. J. Carter and Co., Raynes Park, 
showed a good collection of standard sorts. Mrs. 
Heslington, II. F. Felton, T. Stevenson, and 
Florence Nightingale were a few that we noted 
for their good colour. (Standard Cup.) 

Messrs. Barr and Sons, Covent Garden, 
W.C, and Mr. G. Stark, Great Ryburgh, also 
showed collections of Sweet Peas. 

Messrs. Robt. Sydenham, Ltd., Birmingham. 
in a collection emphasised the value of the orange 
Robert Svdenham with Norvic (white), and Lady 
Evelyn Eyre (soft pink). (Bronze Banksian 
Medal.) 

Mr. J. D. Webster, Chichester, staged Sweet 
Peas with Madonna Lilies. 

Lord North, Wroxton Abbey, Banbury (gr. 
Mr. E. R. .Tones), sent some finely-grown flowers, 
including Barbara, Doris Usher, Lavender George 
Herbert, Queen of Norway, and Edsom Beauty 
— some of the finest stems in the show. 
(Standard Cup.) 

Messrs. E. W. Kino and Co., Coggeshall, ar- 
ranged a huge temnle-like display of flowers, 
with pillars and arches of choice varieties built 



up from the ground. Anglian Princess Mary 
(mauve), Lilian, and Anglian Cream were noted 
as specially fine. (Silver-gilt Cup.) 

Messrs. -S. Bide and Sons, Farnham, in- 
cluded a number of interesting novelties. 
Phyllis Bide seemed very close to Dobbie's 
Orange. Violet Crabbe, King White, Barbara 
and R. F. Felton were also shown well. (Silver- 
gilt Banksian Medal.) 

A Silver Medal was awarded to Mr. J. Box, 
and a Bronze Flora Medal to Messrs. Ed. Webb 
and Sons for exhibits of Sweet Peas. 

Ferns. 

Messrs. J. Hill and Son. Edmonton, ex- 
hibited a large group of tender Ferns in the 
principal tent. Many of the plants were large 
specimens, and all were splendidly cultivated. 
Some had prettily tinted fronds, including Adian- 
tum tinctum, A. macrophyllum and Pteris 
aspericaulis. A noble specimen of Platycerium 
gTande was in the finest condition, the 
" antlers," as the fertile fronds are known, 
being especially good. There were large plants 
of Davallia pentaphylla, Asplenium margina- 
tum, with broad, divided leaves, each segment 
being as large as a frond of Scolopendrium vul- 
gare ; Davallia fijiensis robusta, Gleichenia 
semivestita, Polypodium Knightiae, with long, 
arching fronds, each like a beautiful plume ; 
Polypodium quercifolium and Nephrolepis 
amabilis. a crested Fern, with dark-green 
fronds. A tall tree Fern — Cibotium Schiederi 
— had a spread of fronds 14 feet wide, this 
being the giant of 'the collection. (Gold Medal.) 

Messrs. H. B. May and Sons. The Nurseries, 
Edmonton, also put up a magnificent exhibit of 
exotic Ferns in i , tent. The finest plant 

in this meritorious exhibit was a specimen of 
Polypodium Vidgenii ; the arching fronds are 
finely cut, and of a, beautiful shade of green, 
each arising clear of its fellow 'to form a large 
rosette. Its rival was the beautiful Polypo- 
dium Knightiae. Trained to tripods some 12 
feet high were plants of Lygodium japonicum, 
and these served as foils. Others noted were 
Platycerium grande, Adiantum Veitchii, with 
rose-tinted fronds ; Nephrolepis elegantissimus, 
Davallia splendens, Pellia rotundi folia, the round 
pinnae a dark, metallic shade : Davallia tenui- 
t'olia Veitchii, with golden-green leaves like 
delicate tracery; Blechnum corcovadense, Poly- 
podium Mandaianum, a "giant" with glaucous 
fronds, and Adiantum peruvianum. (Gold 
Medal.) 

Mr. W. A. Manda, St. Alba.ns, sent a group 
of Ferns, in which prominence was e,iven to Poly- 
podium Mandaianum and the newer Nephro- 
lepis. (Bronze Flora Medal.) 

Trees and Shrubs. 

Messrs. Waterer, Sons, and Crisp, Ltd., 
Liverpool Street Arcade, London, showed some 
of their choicer Rhododendrons, which were 
notably good for the time of year. We noticed 
Gomer Waterer (white, flesh edge), Beauty of 
Bagshot (large flower, flesh white, richly 
blotched with olive on rose), Countess of 
Tankerville (pink), and Lady Hillingdon (white). 
.Some noble specimens of KaJmia latifolia 
occupied the centre, and the whole group was 
prettily relieved by the delicately cut foliage of 
varieties of Acer palmatum. (Included in the 
award of Silver-gilt Cup.) 

Messrs. Geo. Jackman and Son, Woking, 
showed varieties of Clematis of the high standard 
associated with this firm. (Silver Flora Medal.) 

The Donard Nurseries, Newcastle, Co. 
Down, showed the Edinburgh Escallonia. with 
Olearia ilicifolia and other little known shrubs, 
but the feature of the group was the Lepto- 
spermums, L. Nichollsii and L. Boscawenii both 
being shown well as small flowering plants. 
(Silver Flora Medal.) 

Mr. G. Reuthe, Keston, Kent, showed many 
interesting and little known shrubs. We noted 
Prostranthus lasianthus, Styrax japonica, 
Philesia buxifolia, Crinodendron Hookeri and 
Berberidopsis corallina. 

Mr. Chas. Turner. Slough, staged a mixed 
collection of cut sprays of flowering shrubs, of 
which Ceanothus, Philadelphia, Spiraea, 
Weigela and Rhus formed the principal genera. 
Fagus sylvatica asplenifolia and variegated Elms 
and Maples represented an interesting series of 



trees notable for their foliage. (Bronze Flora 
Medal.) 

Messrs. Paul and Son, Cheshunt, showed an 
interesting collection of cut flowering sprays, 
though overcrowding prevented their due appre- 
ciation. Elaeagnus longipes in fruit was good. 
Amorpha fruticosa, Spiraea assurgens, Ligustrum 
multiflorum and Paul's purple-leaved Almond 
were also noteworthy. 

Messrs. James Veitch and Sons, Ltd., Chel- 
sea, showed Elaeocarpus reticulatus, as small 
trees, the branches studded with the pretty 
white, fringed flowers. It is a native of Aus- 
tralia, and will succeed out of doors in such- 
favoured parte as Cornwall and Devon. 

Hardy Flowers. 

Japanese Irises (I. Kaempferi) have never 
been so finely shown before in this country as 
in the group of Messrs. R. Wallace and Co., 
Colchester. A stream garden had been designed 
covering nearly one thousand square leet: 
Trollius chinensis, Iris Delavayi, Rodgersia 
tabularis, the newer Astilbes and Water lilies 
were included in the planting scheme^ 
which had been prettily planned to cover 
both banks of the water, access to the further 
bank being afforded by large, flat stones 
crossing the water in Japanese fashion. But 
the whole scheme was dominated by tho 
magnificent forms of I. Kaempferi, some of 
which reached 5 feet in height. We counted over 
100 flowers of Morning Mist, each of which 
would have covered a dinner plate, and through- ■ 
out the 25 distinct sorts this high standard 
of quality was sustained. The variety Mikado 
received an Award of Merit. Other choice 
ii ;u ned forms included The Geisha (a finer 
flower than the Mikado), Mandarin, Purple 
Emperor, White Wings, Rosy Dawn, and Re- 
cumbent Dragon. Tfie massing and grouping 
of the colours had been carried out with great 
taste, and this exhibit was awarded the Corona- 
tion Challenge Cup as the best exhibit in the 
Show. (Gold Medal.) 

Messrs. Wallace also showed a large collection 
of Delphiniums, Eremuri, Lilies, and seedling 
Hemerocallis in one of the smaller tents and some- 
alpine plants. (Silver Banksian Medal.) 

Messrs. Baker, Cndsall, Wolverhampton, 
showed a large collection of English Irises and 
Delphiniums. A representative selection of the 
Irises would include Mont Blanc (pure white), 
Jeanne d'Arc (splashed lavender), Bleu Celeste 
(pale lavender), Queen Regent (pale blue falls, 
purple standards) and L'TJnique (purple). 

Messrs. G. Jackman and Son, Woking, staged 
effectively some bold clumps of hardy herbaceous 
plants. The Delphiniums were good : Galega 
Niobe is a fine white form ; Wahlenbergia vincae- 
flora, Helenium cupreum. Scabious and Ver- 
bascum were well shown. (Silver Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. J. Cheal and Sons. Crawley, sup- 
ported a bank of flowering and foliage shrubs 
(Veronica. Acer. Rhododendron, etc.) with a 
low w-all in shallow, bedded stone planted suit- 
ably with wall plants and a bolder piece of rock- 
work in the foreground, which give suitable 
sites for Erythraeas. Genistas, Campanulas, 
Thymes and Sedums. Vases of Hvdrangeas gave 
a terrace-like effect to the wall, but the design 
was hardly simple enough, we thought, for so 
confined a space. 

Messrs. Waterer, Sons, and Crisp, Ltd., 
Liverpool Street Arcade, E.C., led from a fore- 
ground of rookwork planted with Campanulas, 
Hvperieum Coris, Euphorbia dulcis vnriegata, 
Wahlenbergia croatica and other good plants to 
a boldly nlanted background of Delphiniums and 
other tall herbaceous plants, in which distinc- 
tive place was given to some good seedling 
Eremuri in pale shades of vellow and buff. All 
the plants were interesting, but there was some- 
thing discordant in the overtopping of the 
Alpines by the stronger border plants, which 
marred the character of the group. (Silver gilt 
Cup.) 

Messrs. T S. Ware, Ttp.. Feltham. also 
made the same convenient- but inartistic ns» of 
rockwnrk as a foreground to p. disnlav of her- 
baceous nlants in the rear. Lavatera. thnrin- 
niaca fOlbia), Saneuisorba ritchense. Circium- 
arachnoideum, Astilbe simplicifolia p.nd Cam- 
panula, nlasknna were a few of the good distinc- 
tive plants. 



July 4, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



19 



Miss Hopkins, Mere Gardens, Shepperton, 
showed a low bed of herbaceous flowers with a 
rook garden most appropriately placed at one 
•end, with a number of choice little plants to 
furnish it. 

One of the prettiest pieces of rockwork in the 
Show was that of Messrs. J. Piper, Bayswater, 
which filled one of the corners of the large tent. 
Campanulas and Pinks in rocky ledges, Pratias 
-and Thymes in the crevices of steps, Acan- 
tholimon and Sedum in rocky faces and masses 
of Wahlenbergia and Pentstemon in broad 
pockets all appeared in proportion and well 
placed. The bold rockwork backed by Pines on 
the right fell on the left to a little pool planted 
-with Japanese Irises, Typhas, and Bamboos. 
(Standard Cup.) 

Messrs. Barr and Son, Covent Garden, 
arranged a distinct and pleasing group of her- 
baceous plants. A background of Delphiniums, 
Eremuri, and other border flowers led on one 
side to a foreground of Salvias, Heucheras, 
Linums, and Brodiaeas, with a fine patch of Wat- 
sonia humilis, while on the opposite end above a 
pool of Water Lilies, Japanese Irises and other 
tall waterside Irises carried out a bolder idea 
in planting. (Silver Knightian Medal.) 

Mr. Amos Perry, Enfield, showed how effec- 
tively Delphiniums can be massed in separate 
colours. He had many fine forms, but we speci- 
ally noted King of Delphiniums, lilacina, Corry, 
Netty, and F. F. Fox. In the foreground a 
■wider variety of subject was allowed, and place 
found for a pretty race of single garden Pinks 
(Mrs. Logan and Mrs. Perry were the best), for 
Hemerocallis Baronii (a very vigorous pale yel- 
low), Lilium parvum, L. Grayi, and other 
American species ; Ostrowskia magnifica and 
Water Lilies. Hardy Ferns formed a pleasing 
edge and groundwork. In another tent Mr. 
Perry had a special collection of hardy Ferns 
and some forms of Osmunda regalis cristata, 
Athyrium Filix-foemina and Polystichum angu- 
lare divisilobum were very beautifully shown. 
(Silver Cup and Silver-gilt Flora Medal). 

Messrs. J. Carter and Co., Raynes Park, de- 
signed a water garden in restful colours. Birches 
and dwarf Bamboos added their slender greenery 
to the turf groundwork, and masses of simple 
eolour were provided by large clumps of about a 
dozen distinct kinds of Iris Kaempferi, of which 
Yvette Guilbert (deep blue), Albertina (double 
■white), and Admiration (splashed purple), were 
very pleasing. The middle of the group was 
broken to allow the passage of the stream by a 
stone bridge, wbich led to what might be termed 
an, overflow garden of Irises in the open. (Silver 
Cup). 

.Mr. Maurice Prichard, Christchurch, staged 
an admirable collection of hardy border and rock 
plants in the centre of the large tent. Space 
will not allow us to enumerate the long list of 
good plants we noted, but we may pick out as 
of special interest a beautiful tall white Poterium, 
with hanging spikes, Hypericum cuneatum, Lava- 
tera Olbia, Sedum pilosum, and Linum flavum, 
with soma well-grown Delphiniums and Japanese 
Irises. (Silver-gilt Banksian Medal.) 

Mr. James Box, Lindfield, Haywards Heath, 
had a distinctive arrangement of Delphiniums 
and Irises above a pool of Water Lilies. The 
lesser-known plants included Digitalis lanata, 
D. grandiflora, Orchis foliosa, and Campanula 
glomerate superba, but the collection* was a 
varied one, and showed good cultivation. (Silver 
Cup.) 

Messrs. Harkness, Bedale, Yorks, made es- 
pecial use in their display of herbaceous plants 
of their new hybrid Verbascums. Lady Allison 
is a magnificent yellow variety. International 
and Lady Haveloek Allan are lovely buff yellows, 
with enormous flowers and spikes. The rich 
shades of Oriental Poppies were well used to 
make more effective the noble spikes of the Mul- 
leins. (Silver Banksian Medal.) 

Messrs. Phillips and Taylor, Lily Hill Nur- 
series, Bracknell, had one of those groups of 
quiet colours and restful lines, on which the eye 
especially delights to rest after feasting on the 
gaudy reds and pinks of Sweet Peas and Carna- 
tions. It was a collection of Reeds and Rushes 
and fine flowers of Water Lilies, to which a touch 
of stronger colour was given by Trollius yunnan- 
ensis and Verbascum vernale. 

Messrs. Kelway and Son, Langport, made a 
speciality of Delphiniums. Monarch of All (dark 



purple), Star of Langport (pale blue, white eye), 
James W. Kelway (dark violet purple, white 
eye), and Dusky Monarch (deep heliotrope) 
would have compared favourably with any spikes 
in the show. (Silver Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. G. and A. Clark, Ltd., Dover, also 
made good use of bold clumps of Delphiniums, 
including a number of new seedlings, but their 
exhibit had a wider range, and covered the whole 
field of plants for the mixed border. Gilia 
coronopifolia and Eremurus Bungei were shown 
well. (Silver Cup.) 

Mary Countess op Ilchester, Holland 
House, showed an interesting collection of 
nearly 200 pans of Saxifrage, Sedum, and Sem- 
pervivum, with some good fruiting plants of 
Xertera depressa. (Standard Cup.) 

Messrs. G. Bunyard and Co., Maidstone, ar- 
ranged a group which, though not very large in 
extent, compared favourably with anything in 
the show for its excellent quality. The Rev. E. 
Lascelles and The Alake, among the Del- 
phiniums, were splendid, and other outstand- 
ing plants were Campanula tyrolensis (a dark 
blue pusilla), Calceolaria Kayii (hardy during 
tin' last two winters), Verbascum pannosum, and 
hybrids, and Erigeron Edina. (Silver Gilt Bank- 
sian Medal.) 

Meters, linn and Co., Bath, showed some 
good Gaillardiae with Phlox* s and Delphiniums. 

Messrs. Fred Smith and Co., Wocdbridge, 
showed some good Verbascums. Smith's hybrid 
was one of the best yellow varieties we have seen, 
though we should like it tried side by side with 
Harkness' hybrid, for better comparison. .Malva 
(Lavatera) OlMa, Oenothera Fraseri, and several 
good Delphiniums gave fine patches c-f colour. 
(Silver Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. B. Ladhams, Ltd., Southampton', 
showed a good race of garden Pinks, with their 
new Erigeron B. Ladhams, a fine form of the 
double Campanula persicifolia grandiflora and 
other herbaceous plants. (Silver Banksian 
Medal.) 

Messrs. Gilbert, Dyke, Bourne, Lincolnshire, 
staged a remarkable batch of Martagon Lilies. 
White and pink varieties were very beautiful, as 
also were deep-coloured forms of L. dalmaticum 
and L. Cattaniae; but the whole were so densely 
packed at a uniform level that it was impos- 
sible to admire them as plants of individual 
beauty and merit as they deserved. 

Messrs. Bees, Ltd., Sealand, Chester, showed 
some good Delphiniums and hardy herbaceous 
plants, but it was their new and rare plants 
that gave distinction and quality to their collec- 
tion. We specially noted Primula pseudo-capi- 
tata (stouter and a better perennial than P. 
capitata, a new Chinese plant), Hypericum laeve 
rubrum (see Awards of Merit), Trollius patu'.us 
and patulus Bees' var., Primula angustidens 
(a much superior P. Poissonii), Dracocephalum 
Bullatum, Patrinia palmata, and Armeria Bees' 
Ruby. These plants enabled one to overlook the 
fact that the " rocks " were made of cork. (Silver 
Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. Barrie and Brown, King William 
Street, E.C., showed Viscarias and English 
Irises. 

Messrs. Thompson and Charman, .Bushey, 
Hertfordshire, showed some excellent plants. 
The new Verbascum Warley Hose overshadowed 
the rest, but Gilia coronopifolia, Polemonium 
flavum, Gentiana lutea, and Campanula lactiflora 
alba are seldom seen in finer condition. (Silver 
Flora Medal.) 

Mr. Frank Lilley, Guernsey, showed an ex- 
cellent batch of bulbous plants. Dierama 
(Sparaxis) pulcherrima and pendula, early Gladi- 
oli, Watsonias, Ixias, etc., all showed fine cul- 
ture. 

Messrs. R. H. Bath,. Ltd., Wisbech, showed 
Paeonies, English Irises, and other hardy herba- 
ceous plants, but their specialities were fine 
clumps of the new Astilbe Philadelphia and some 
lovely clumps of 6uch newer Delphiniums as Sir 
Geo. Newnes, Clara Stubbs, and Le Danube. 

Me6sr6. Paul and Son, Cheshunt, showed 
Heucheras, Paeonies, and other border plants. 
Mr. Howard Crane, Highgate, showed his 
charming little race of Violettas. While other 
florists are working for large flowers he is aim- 
ing at small and very dainty varieties. The 
arrangement in shallow pans of wet sand was 



pleasing and in harmony with the natural dis- 
position of the floweis a few inches only above 
ground level. (Silver Flora Medal.) 

Mr. James Douglas, Edenside, Great Book- 
ham, showed a beautiful selection of his Book- 
ham border Carnations. "Gordon Douglas" 
(see fig. 7) won an Award of Merit (see p. 16). 
Greyhound, Fujiyama, Hercules, Brockham 
Gem, and Mrs. R. Berkeley covered a rich range 
of self colours. These were shown with the 
Bookham Tace of garden Pink6. (Silver Bank- 
sian Medal.) 

Mr. Seagrave, Sheffield, showed Violas finely 
in about 50 distinct sorts. They were shown in 
sprays, and included some finely-coloured novel- 
ties. (Silver Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. Pulham and Son, Newman Street, 
London, in a small tufa rock garden, showed 
some very pretty seedling Pinks among dwarf 
shrubs and other plants suitable for the Alpine 
garden. 

Mr. H. Hemsley, Crawley, showed his pretty 
strain of hybrid Snapdragons, with Dorycnium 
hirsutum, Heeria elegans, and other little-known 
plants. (Silver Banksian Medal.) 

The Burton Hardy Plant Nursery. Christ- 
church, included some pretty and little-known 
rock plants. Myosotis azorica, Dianthus Atkin- 
sonii, Campanula excisa, Viola bosniaca, and the 
dark blue form of Campanula pusilla are worth 
noting. 

J. S. Arkwright, Esq., Kinsham Gardens, 
Presteign (gr. Mr. Bevan), sent a fine batch of 
his hybrid Lychnis X Arkwrightii. The plants 
showed great vigour and a considerable range 
in the depth of colour in their scarlet flowers. 
(Silver Banksian Medal.) 

Messrs. Gonn and oons, Olton, showed Phlox 
decussate in choice varieties. A good colour 
selection included Elizabeth Campbell (pink), 
F. A. Buchner (white), Ellen Willmott (laven- 
der), Rijnstroom (rose), and Coquehcot (scarlet). 
Mr. If. J. Jones, Ryecroft Nurseries, Lewis- 
ham, also showed Phloxes in exceptionally good 
form. To the above should be added Dr. Char- 
cot, G. A. Strohlein, General van Heutsz, and 
some good self-coloured seedlings in pink and 
rose colours which are not yet named. A good 
strain of Canterbury Bells in white, blue, and 
pink was also included. (Silver Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. Blackmore and Langdon, Twerton 
Hill Nurseries, Bath, showed an unrivalled 
batch of choice Delphiniums. Daniel Osiris 
(mauve-blue, white eye), Robert Cox (deep vio- 
let-blue), Lavanda (heliotrope), Henri Moissan 
(deep purple), Harry Smethan (rich blue semi- 
double), and the remarkable full double Lieut. 
Vasseur, with pale mauve-blue flowers, deserve 
a place in every collection. (Silver-gilt Banksian 
Medal.) 

Mr. Vernon T. Hill, Langford, Bristol, in a 
small area included some very choice little 
plants. Campanula gargaw/ia W. H. Paine was 
given an Award of Merit (see fig. 11), and 
Asperula ciliate and Teucrium pyrenaicum de- 
serve to be singled out for mention. 

The Guildford Hardy Plant Nursery 
showed a small group of shrubs and herbaceous 
plants. Spiraea Kneiffi, Scabiosa ochroleuca and 
Ferula gigantea were distinctive plants. (Silver 
Banksian Medal.) 

Messrs. W. Cutbush and Son, Highgate, 
arranged a refreshing, cool group of blues and 
greens, dominated by Delphiniums and Japanese 
Irises, but given a touch of relief by the yellows 
of Trollius and Oenothera, and the white of 
Gillenia. 

Mr. R. Tucker, George Street, Oxford, in- 
cluded many Alpine gems in a small compass. 
The Campanulas were especially rich, and C. 
speciosa and C. Mollis, we believe, were in no 
other group. Ruta patavina, Pratia linneaeoides 
and Sedum Sempervivum were other choice sub- 
jects. (Silver Banksian Medal.) 

Mr. W. J. Godfrey, Exmouth, staged his well- 
known strain of Canterbury Bells in shades of 
pink, mauve and purple, with a miscellaneous 
collection of Scabious, Delphiniums and bedding 
plants. (Silver-gilt Banksian Medal.) 

Mixed collections of herbaceous flowers were 
also shown by the following firms: — 

Mr. G. W. Miller, Clarkson Nurseries, Wis- 
bech, who had Delphinium The Alake ami Cam- 
panula humosa especially good. (Silver Bank- 
sian Medal.) 



20 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 4, 1914. 



Mr. G. Gibson, Deeming Bar. Bedale, showed 
some good Poppie6 and Gaillardias. (Silver 
Banksian Medal.) 

Mr. R. C. Notcutt, Woodbridge, who showed 
the white forms of Static* Suworowii, double 
Hesperis matronalis and Scabiosa caueasica. 

Messrs. Whitelegg and Page, Chislehurst, 
who gave a feathery effect to their exhibit by 
the free use of Astilbes and Heucheras. (Silver 
Banksian Medal.) 

Mr. A. Campbell, Pannal, Harrogate, a small 
rock garden, with Erythraea diffusa, Azalea 
ro?aeflora and other good plants. (Bronze Flora 
Medal.) 

Messrs. W. Wells and Son, Merstham, 
showed Delphiniums and Gaillardias. 

The Dulwich Chrysanthemum and Horti- 
cultural Society and the Swanage Horti- 
cultural and Industrial Society, who showed 
hardy border flowers in va6es. 

Mr. G. Stark, Great Ryburgh, with a new 
6train of Kniphofias. (Silver Banksian Medal.) 

Mr. T. H. Gaunt, Farsley, Leeds, Sedums, 
Campanulas and yellow Linums in pots. 

Mr. Wm. Arkwright, Sutton Scarsdale, 
Chesterfield, sent an interesting series of copper, 
bronze, and maroon Violas, representing varying 
depths of red colouring on a yellow ground. 
Some of them should make very pretty garden 
plants. 

Mr. H. Newman, Woodford Road, Watford, 
showed large masses of the new border Pink 
"Challenger." (Bronze Flora Medal.) 

Mr. W. Iceton, Putmey, showed a fine bank 
of Lily-of-the- Valley. 

Exhibits Staged in the Open. 

The Hon. Vicary Gibbs, Elstree (gr. Mr. E. 
Beckett), exhibited a collection of trees and 
shrubs raised from seed collected in China. 
Very few were in flower, but many subjects were 
nf unusual interest, and we noted Liriodendron 
Lhinense, Styrax Wilsonii (in flower), Hydran- 
gea Sargentiana, Viburnum theiferuim, Fr'axinus 
1392, Liquidainbar formosana var. monticola, 
and Aeseulus Wilsonii as amongst the most 
distinct. (Silver-gilt Medal). 

Mr. J. Wood, Boston Spa, Yorks, built the 
largest and most effective of the rock gardens. 
Making good use of the mountain Yorkshire lime- 
stone, with which he always seems at home, he 
designed a garden governed by quiet lines. In 
front was a low stretch of outcropping stone 
covered with dwarf Campanulas, Sedums, etc.. 
which towards the back rose simply in a few 
broad ledges planted with Nepeta, Hypericum, 
Heuchera and Saxifrage. Summer had largely 
restricted the use of flowering Alpines, but to 
the north end of the group an attempt was made 
to balance this by introducing a small pool, out 
of harmony, indeed, with the general plan, but 
an opportunity for displaying Iris Kaempferi. 
Water Lilies and other ' water-loving plants. 
(Silver Cup.) 

Mr. Clarence Elliott, Stevenage, showed an 
interesting group of dwarf Alpines in a suitable 
setting of the grey Cheddar stone and granite 
chips. The genus Campanula was especially 
well represented with a lovelv mass of C. pusilla 
Miss Willmott. and with C. Raddeana, C. G. F. 
Wilson, C. pulla, and C. barbata. Erythraea, 
Scutellaria. Mentha and Thymes gave pleasing 
variety. (Silver Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. R. Wallace and Co., Colchester, 
planted a steeply-sloping bank of Cheddar stone 
near to the entrance to the private gardens. 
Erodiums, dwarf, shrubby Hypericums, and 
Campanulas contributed most to the pretty effect, 
although numbers of lesser-known genera were 
included. (Silver Cup.) 

The Ightham Alpine Nursery, Sevenoaks. 
built up a small rock-group on tabling. Vivid, 
a choice dark form of Dianthus neglectus, and 
the quaint little Slieve Donard forms of 
Viola tricolor, with Thymes, Saxifrages and 
Calaminthas formed the foundation of the plant- 
ing plan. 

Messrs. H. B. May and Sons, Dyson's Lane 
Nurseries, Edmonton, epitomised a number of 
simple bedding schemes near to the Secretary's 
tent. Thus Verbena King of Scarlets was used 
under Abutilon Savitzii in one bed, and in 
another one of the new hybrids of Fuchsia ful- 
gens overhung the pink Pelargonium Ladv 
Ilchester; Lantanas, Heliotropes and other bed- 



ding plants were used in the same manner. 
(Silver Banksian Medal.) 

Messrs. Stuakt Low and Co., Bush Hill 
Park, Enfield, showed a fine set of pot Figs. 
(Silver Knightian Medal.) 

Messrs. Kent and Brydon, Darlington, in a 
very limited area contrived to show a large num- 
ber of choice little-known rock plants in a set 
ting of grey mountain limestone. Scutellaria 
lupulina, Malvastrum lateriteum, Aletris farinosa 
and the dwarf Fagus Cunninghamii, with ever- 
green Azara-like foliage, were noted among 
Linaria alpina, Campanulas, Hypericums, and 
other better-known plants. (Silver Banksian 
Medal.) 

Mr. L. R. Russell, Richmond Nurseries, 
Surrey, arranged a rich collection of golden and 
variegated tree Ivies around a centrepiece formed 
by the bold-cut foliage of Aralia mandshurica 
fol. var. In the foreground a little pool was 
furnished with cool-looking Bamboos, Funkias 
and Irises. Actinidia chinensis, Vitis Henryana 
and other climbers found place among a num- 
ber of other good shrubs. (Standard Cup.) 

Messrs. James Carter and Co., Raynes Park, 
in a group connecting with their main exhibit 
in the large tent, continued the richly-planted 
border of Iris Kaempferi under Bamboos. A 
centrepiece was made of the double blue Peach- 
leaved Campanula and the cup-and-saucer 
variety of the white form of it. (Silver Cup.) 

Messrs. Piper, Bayswater, showed a valuable 
collection of trimmed Box and Yew in many 
quaint shapes, with Japanese pygmy trees and 
Maples in pots. (Silver Banksian Medal.) 

Mr. G. Reuthe, Keston, showed an interest- 
ing collection of little-known shrubs and trees, 
rich in Himalayan Rhododendrons and plants 
generally regarded as hardy only in the south- 
west. On a small rock garden, on tabling, he in- 
cluded Rhodocistus Bartolinii, Campanula fene- 
stellata, Saxifraga squarrosa, with such better- 
known and showier subiects as Orchis foliosa. 
(Silver Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. Cheal and Son, Crawley, showed 
trained' and clipped Box and Yew for the formal 
garden. Yews trained as sailing ships were ad- 
mirable specimens of the topiarv art. (Silver 
Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. W. Cutbush and Son, Highgate, con- 
tributed a collection of the cut-bushes so fre- 
quently associated with their name. Animals 
and birds in Box predominated, but two tall 
columnar Yews formed magnificent specimens. 

Messrs. Liberty, Regent Street, London, 
showed dwarf Japanese trees in pots, and the 
much-admired little model gardens of Japanese 
workmanship, with various examples of garden 
pottery and furniture. 

Messrs. John Forbes, Ltd., Hawick, in their 
well-known position near to the entrance, staged 
fine Phloxes, Pentstemons, and Delphiniums. 
(Silver Banksian Medal.) 

Messrs. W. Fromow and Son, Chiswick, ar- 
ranged an excellent collection of Japanese 
Maples, varieties mainly of Acer palmatum and 
A. dissectum, but with a few other distinct. 
leaved species and variegated Aralias. They 
formed at the same time one of the largest and 
most distinct of the outdoor collections, and in 
the great heat experienced on the first day nf 
the show gave a pleasant, cool relief in their 
delicatelv-cut And softly-coloured foliage, after 
the brilliance of the flowers under canvas. (Stan- 
dard Cup.) 

The Guildford Hardy Plant Nursery, 
Guildford, showed a small collection of Alpines 
and rock shrubs on tabling. Perhaps its most 
instructive feature was the rich collection of 
Sedums and Sempervivums. but colour and in- 
terest were given by Wahlenbergia dalmatica, 
Hypericum empetrifolinm, .Tasione humilis and a 
finely-flowered clumn of Nierembergia rivularis. 
(Bronze Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. Whitelegg and Page, Chislehurst. de- 
signed a pleasing rock garden exhibit. Its 
lines were governed bv the admirable grev moun- 
tain limestone emploved, but one's attention was 
drawn from the design to the duality of the 
plants, which were above t^e average ;n fresh- 
ness and variety. Cortusa villosa. Alvssum pyre- 
nairu™'. Campanula pusilla alba. C. Raddeana. 
and Sa.xifraga cotyledon var. pvramidalis at- 
tracted attention. (Silver Flora Medal). 

Messrs. Pulham. Newman Street, London, 
constructed a small paved terrace-court with 



well-proportioned balusters and flower vases in 
Pulhamite stone. The paving used was rectangu- 
lar, certainly more restful in the restricted area 
than the " crazy " pattern, and here were placed 
bird baths, sundials, figures and other garden 
ornaments in stone in which this firm specialises. 
(Silver-gilt Banksian Medal.) 

Stove Plants. 
Mr. L. R. Russell, Richmond, showed splen 
did exotic plants with ornamental foliage, mak- 
ing a very handsome group. As comer pieces 
were tall plants of Acalypha hispida (Sanderiana) 
with the long red inflorescences well developed ; 
whilst in the centre — in the foreground — were 
plants of Nertera depressa, covered with the 
coral-red berries. Fine plants of Dracaena Vic- 
toria, Maranta insignis, Dracaena Margaret 
Storey, with broad leaves tinted with rose and 
yellow ; Alpinia Sanderiana, Caladiums, Medi- 
nilla magnifica superbiens, Mussaenda frondosa, 
with broad, white bracts setting off the corymbs 
of golden flowers, and choice Crotons are some 
of the more noteworthy plants. (Silver Cup.) 

Miscellaneous. 

Messrs. R. and G. Cutht>ert, Southgate, 
staged a bank of indoor-flowering plants in the 
large tent, the grouping for colour effect meriting 
praise. A bank of Standard Pelargoniums of 
the variety Galilee had on the one side finely- 
flowered plants of Streptosolen Jamesonii and 
on the other Standard Fuchsias, with a graceful. 
Humea elegans as a foil, and grouped about 
with Viscaria Brilliant. Along the front were 
clumps of Delphinium Blue Butterfly, Ivy- 
leaved Pelargoniums, and Viscaria oculata 
coerulea. At points of vantage were patches 
of Scarlet Crassulas, and a free use was made 
of Ferns and Palms for greenery. (Silver Flora 
Medal.) 

Messrs. H. Cannell and Sons, Eynsford, were 
awarded a Silver Banksian Medal for an exhibit 
of Zonal Pelargoniums and Roses. 

Mr. Philip Ladds, Swanley Junction, showed 
a good selection of the newer Zonal Pelargoniums 
and other bedding plants. (Silver Banksian 
Medal.) 

Mr. H. N. Ellison, Bull Street, West Brom- 
wich, showed greenhouse Ferns and Cacti. 
(Bronze Flora Medal.) 

Col. the Right Hon. Mark Lockwood, Rom- 
ford (gr. Mr. Cradduck), showed a large group 
of about 100 pot6 of Fuchsias. They were young 
plants in 5 and 6 inch pots mainly, and repre- 
sented an enormous number of varieties, but 
their uniform size and indiscriminate arrange- 
ment were not conducive to artistic effects, 
play. (Standard Cup.) 

Mr. G. R. Smith, New Thundersley, Essex, 
staged Cacti and succulents. (Bronze Flora 
Medal.) 

Mr. A. H. Cole, Camberwell New Road, 
London, showed Pelargoniums and Carnations, 
but the staging never appeared to have been 
completed and the varieties were unnamed. 

Mr. Vincent Slade, Taunton, exhibited Zonal 
Pelargoniums. (Silver Flora Medals.) 

Messrs. Cannell and Sons, Eynsford, showed 
Pelargoniums, Roses and herbaceous plants. 
(Silver Banksian Medal.) 

Messrs. Jarman and Co., Chard, showed their 
strain of Sweet Sultans, with Carnations, Roses 
and Sweet Peas. (Bronze Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. John Peed and Son, West Norwood, 
put up well-grown and representative batches 
of Caladiums and Stre.ptocarpus. The mauves, 
blues and pinks in the latter showed an excellent 
large-flowered strain. (Silv.er Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. W. and J. Godfrey, Exmouth, staged 
a unique collection of Show and Regal Pelar- 
goniums. Each plant was a specimen, and the 
varieties were associated with taste. 

Messrs. Carter, .tage and Co., London Wall, 
showed Dahlias, Violas and Pelargoniums. (Sil- 
ver-gilt Banksian Medal.) 

Mr. James MaoDonald. Harpenden, arranged 
a group of ornamental Grasses. (Silver Bank- 
sian Medal.) 

Fruit. 

Messrs. T. Rivers and Son, Sawbridge- 
worth, had one of the finest exhibits of pot 
fruit trees we have seen at an exhibition. All 
the trees were carrying splendid crops of choice 
fruit, which included Apples. Pears, Figs, 
Plums, Peaches, Nectarines and Cherries. The 



July 4, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



21 



brightest fruits were Lady Sudeley Apples. 
There were a dozen or more splendidly-cropped 
trees of this early variety. Pineapple Nec- 
tarines looked very tempting, the fruits being 
very finely finished. The small Cherry trees 
were laden with ripe fruits of the varieties May 
Duke, Frogmore Bigarreau, Early Rivers, 
Governor Wood, and others. Choice Plums 
were seen in Reine Claude, Comte Althan, 
Belgian Purple, Jefferson, Late Orange, aiud 
Early Transparent Gage. The Peaches in- 
cluded Sea Eagle, Peregrine, and Kestrel. (Sil- 
ver-gilt Cup.) 

Messrs. James Veitch and Sons, Ltd., Chel- 
sea, showed splendid fruit trees in pots, those 
trained as espaliers being strikingly good. A 
triple cordon tree of Plum Jefferson was laden 
with fruits from top to bottom. Peaches, Nec- 
tarines and Plums formed the principal sub- 
jects, and there were several trees of a sort, but 
all were of a uniformly high quality. A selec- 
tion of the varieties included, Nectarines, Early 
Rivers, Precoee de Croncels and Lord Napier, 
of Peaches, Peregrine, Hale's Early and Kestrel, 
Plums, Early Transparent Gage, and of Apples, 
Lady Sudeley. (Gold Medal.) 

Messrs. G. Bunyard and Co., Ltd., Maid- 
stone, showed pot fruit trees, but the Apples 
and Pears were not quite ripe, and this fact 
detracted somewhat from the effect. We were 
greatly impressed with the excellence of two 
vines of Foster's Seedling Grape in pots, each 
carrying 14 well-developed bunches. Cherries 
were also good, the fruits hanging in dense clus- 
ters on trees of Turkey Heart, Noir de Schmidt, 
Montreuse de Mezel, Frogmore Bigarreau, and 
other varieties. Baskets of Strawberries looked 
very tempting, and there were also ripe Nec- 
tarines, Peaches and Figs. (Silver Cup.) 

Messrs. T. S. Ware, Ltd., Feltham, also 
showed pot fruit trees, for which a Silver 
Knightian Medal was awarded. 

Messrs. Ed. Webb and Sons' fine exhibit of 
flowers contained sixty fruits of Melons in the 
centre. International is a particularly handsome 
fruit, finely netted on the skin and said to possess 
excellent flavour. Peerless, Ringleader, Best of 
All, New Favourite (pointed out for its quality, 
but not 60 handsome as some), and Pride of 
Stourbridge are a selection. (Silver Knightian 
Medal.) 

Messrs. Laxton Bros., Bedford, showed 
Strawberries in perfect condition' — King George, 
The Bedford, The Queen, The Laxton, Givon's 
Late Prolific, etc. Without knowing their season 
and flavour it would be hard to choose the be6t 
from such fine sorts. (Silver Cup.) 

The Bucks Tresco Nurseries, Ipswich, sent 
some trusses of their new Tomato, Bucks Tresco, 
to show its wonderfully heavy cropping qualities. 

Cultural Commendation. 

The Earl of Portsmouth, Whitchurch, 
Hants, (gr. Mr. R. Perry), was recommended 
this award for dishes of the Cherries Noir de 
Schmidt and Black Tartarian. The fruits were 
of extraordinary size and attracted very general 
comment. 

Vegetables. 

The Hon. Vicary Gibbs. Elstree (gr. Mr. E. 
Beckett), sent a representative collection of the 
vegetables for which his garden has become 
famous. Peas, Tomatos, Cauliflower, Artichokes, 
Aubergines, etc. , were shown in first-class quality 
arranged in large dishes or columns or pyramids 
against a pale green ground. (Gold Medal.) 

Sir Daniel Gooch. Hylandw. Chelmsford 
(gr. Mr. W. Heath), showed an admirable collec- 
tion of vegetables in baskets. (Standard Cup.) 

Horticultural Sundries. 

As usual at the Holland House Show, the 
sundries formed an interesting adjunct, illustrat- 
ing the many points at which gardening is in 
touch with other industries. In the main these 
were grouped in a separate tent at the west of 
the grounds, but several of the most important 
were placed outside. 

Mr. H. W. Cashmore, 96, Victoria Street, 
Westminster, showed some admirably modelled 
figures in lead of modern design with wrought 
ironwork. Mr. T. Crowther, 282, North End 
Road, Fulham, exhibited antique work with old 
garden ornaments. 



Garden furniture and pottery was exhibited 
by Messrs. Castle's, Coldrum, Dryad Works, 
Hughes, Bolckow and Co., H. Jones, The 
Knox Guild, The Leyton Timber Co., Messrs. 
Liberty, Maggs, D. Roberts, and T. Syer. 

Sprayers and insecticides were shown by 
Messrs. Cooper and Nephews, Four Oaks Co., 
Messrs. Hartjen, Jeyes, Lloyd, Price, 
Robinson, Sanitas, Ltd., The United Brass 
Founders, Ltd., Messrs. Voss, and E. A. 
White, Ltd. 

Frames, garden lights, and devices connected 
with covering and heating were shown by Messrs. 
Chase, The Folding Span Light Co. 4 The 
French Cloche Co., Handd?rames, Ltd., The 
Pullen Burry Co., and Messrs. A. Roberts. 

Garden pictures, plans, photographs, etc., were 
represented by exhibits from the Misses E. Adte, 
M. Coombes, E. Eggar, Farrer, M. Groves, M. 
Linnell, F. Pilkington, M. Schloesser, E. 
Stock, and Warrington, also from Mrs. 
McTurk, Mr. Robert Hughes, and Messrs. 
Thomson and Charman. 

Among other exhibits of horticultural interest 
were those from The Acme Patent Ladder Co., 
Mrs. Burn, Messrs. Drew Clarke (ladders), 
Mr. Vernon Hill (slug traps), Mr. A. Johnston 
(loam), Mr. A. Key (lawns), Miss Mitchell 
(garden baskets), Mr. Pattisson (turf renovators, 
etc), Mr. Philcox (ladders, etc.), Mr. J. 
Pither (Mushroom spawn), Mr. Prentice 
(fertilisers), Mr. H. Scott (loam), The Union 
of South Africa and Mr. E. Westmacott 
(South African produce). Messrs. Wakeley (Hop 
manure), Mr. Walters (steel garden stakes), and 
Mrs. Webb (nesting boxes). 



THE LUNCHEON. 

The members of the Society's committees and 
the judges of the show were entertained at lun- 
cheon on the opening day. In proposing the health 
of the Members of the Committee, and of the 
Judges, the President (Field-Marshal Lord 
(irenfell of Kilvey) said that many people, even 
Fellows of the Society, did not realise how 
many Committees there are working for the 
Society in the cause of horticulture. The pre- 
sent was a suitable occasion to draw attention 
to this point, as three new Committees had re- 
cently been added to the list. 

Lord Grenfell proceeded as follows : — First 
we have the Wisley Development Committee — 
a committee consisting of eminent scientific and 
practical men, who have been appointed to advise 
the Council of the directions in which Wisley, 
and the work being done there, practical, scien- 
tific, and educational, can be made more gener- 
ally useful and beneficial to the .gardening in- 
terests of the country. This committee, though 
appointed less than twelve months ago, has 
held sixteen meetings besides many other sec- 
tional discussions, and has presented an invalu- 
able report, which the Council is endeavour- 
ing to translate into action as far and as 
speedily as circumstances permit. Tile Council 
is exceedingly fortunate to have received 
such a large amount of assistance and excellent 
advice from Professor Bailey Balfour, of 
the Royal Society, and Regius Professor 
at Edinburgh, to whom the thanks of the whole 
gardening community are due. We are also 
equally fortunate to have been able to secure 
the services of Dr. Keeble, of the Royal Society, 
to undertake the chief direction and carrying 
into effect of what we hope, and fully expect, 
lo prove to be the great improvements, prac- 
tical, scientific and educational, which are now 
commencing at Wisley. 

The Committee, which under the express sanc- 
tion of the Board of Agriculture is dealing with 
the question of a National Diploma in Horticul- 
ture, has now received Mr. Runciman's approval 
of the scheme, and only last week held the first 
examination under it. 

Then there is the Parliamentary Committee, 
which has been established to watch any mea- 
sures introduced into Parliament in any way 
affecting horticulture, and to suggest desirable 
measures or propose amendments to existing 
regulations. This Committee has presented re- 
ports to the Council on the subjects of (1) seed- 
testing stations, (2) subsidies from public funds 
fo co-operative organisations, (3) railway rates 



and conditions, and (4) the sale of wet coke by 
weight, on all of Which subjects the Council has 
taken prompt action. 

Then we have our Scientific. Committee, which 
has done such admirable and valuable work for 
fhe Fellows ever since its establishment in 1868. 
After that we have our Fruit and Vegetable 
Committee, which is the oldest of all our Stand- 
ing Committees, having been established in 1858, 
and having thus attained its 56th year of age. 
Next comes our Floral Committee, which is only 
one year junior to the Fruit and Vegetable Com- 
mittee, and for 30 years these two Committees 
sufficed for the needs of the Society, and have 
done most useful and excellent work. 

But in process of time the attention of a few 
amateurs concentrated itself to such an extent 
on the collection of Daffodils that it became neces- 
sary to establish another committee ; and this 
was done in 1885, and its scope subsequently en- 
larged to include Tulips as well as Narcissi. 

Our youngest Standing Committee, the 
Orchid, promoted in 1889, has been very far 
from being the least energetic or hard-worked. 
The development of Orchid growing during the 
last 25 years has been phenomenal, and the rais- 
ing of hybrids seems likely to increase in future. 

Last, but by no means least in the matter 
of expenditure, comes the Library Committee, 
appointed in 1910 to enlarge and extend our 
magnificent collection of books called The Lind- 
ley Library. And though so recently consti- 
tuted the Council has, on the advice of this 
Committee, expended no less than £2.500 in the 
purchase of new books and the binding of old 
ones, some of the new ones being as old as 
1616 and 1664. 

These are our Committees. And magnificent 
work they are, one and all, doing, and great is 
the debt which the Council, and the Society, 
and the whole horticultural world owes to them 
for the gift of their time and their judgment. 
To say that none of them ever err would assume 
them to be superhuman, but though they, and 
the Council also, sometimes make mistakes, I 
venture to say the errors bear but an infinitesimal 
proportion to the good results they achieve. 

Then, besides our Committees, at Chelsea, at 
Holland House, and at one or two other special 
shows — we have our judges, and greatly are we 
indebted to them. 

The surprising thing is that all these genetle- 
men forming our Committees and acting as our 
Judges give their services freely, being glad to 
co-operate with our good old Society in promot- 
ing the Art we all love so well — the Art of Horti- 
culture. 

Lord Grenfell then paid a high tribute to the 
splendid work of the secretary, Rev. W. Wilks. 
To him the Fellows were largely indebted for the 
success the society had attained. 

The Rev. W. Wilks, M.A., referred to the able 
manner in which Lord Grenfell filled the office 
of President, and his great courage in taking up 
the post after so aFle and eminent a President as 
the late Sir Trevor Lawrence. He was giving 
away no secret when he stated that all the mem- 
bers of the Council were glad to sit under him. 

The Rev. J. Jacob responded for the Commit- 
tees and Judges, and referred particularly to the 
desirability of furthering the interests of the 
library. 



Publications Received.— Babylonian Dates 
for California. By Paul B. Popenoe.— Pomona 
College Journal of Economic Botany, Vol. I II., 
No. 2. — Journal of Agriculture, University of 
California, Vol. I., No. 9. — Bulletin of Miscel- 
laneous Information from Royal Botanic Gar- 
dens, Kew. Appendix II., 1914. Catalogue of the 
Library, additions received during 1913. — Bird 
Studies. By W. P. Westell. (The Cambridge 
University Press.) — Bee-Keeping for Profit. 
By W. S. Morley. (Cassell and Co., Ltd.) 
Price Is. 6d. net. — Annval Report of the Secre- 
tary for Agriculture, Nova Scotia, for 1913. 
(T. C. Allen and Co., Halifax, N.S.)- Report of 
Experiments on Spraying Potatos for the Pre- 
vention of Potato Disease or Late Blight. 
By T. Milburn and R. G. Gaut ; Scheme of 
Agricultural Education and Weather Observa- 
tion*, for 1913. (Lancashire Education Com- 
mittee.) 



22 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 4, 1914. 



SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. 
Scientific Committee. 

June 16.— Present : Sir J. T. D. Llew- 
ellyn, Bart., V.M.H.. in the chair; Messrs. W. 
Fawcett, A. Worsley, W. C. Worsdell, E. M. 
Holmes. J. P.. Kamsbottoni, G. Wilson, and 
F. J. Chittenden (lion. sec). 

Fascialed Daisy. — Mr. Worsley said that the 
fasciated Daisy which he sent to the last meet- 
ing comes true from seed. 

Doubling in Claytonia sibirica. — Mr. Wors- 
dell reported that he had examined the double 
Claytonia, which was shown at the last meet- 
ing, and found the doubling to be due to 
multiple dichotomy or fascial ion of the flower, 
i.e., the flower branches into a number of 
equivalent secondary flowers. These are of 
various grades of imperfect development, 
possessing no calyx, and sometimes no corolla. 
Some of the secondary flowers consist only of a 
small pistil and one or two stamens, and are 
stalked. The branching takes place within the 
calyx of the primary flower, which is thus com- 
mon to the whole. In some flowers almost the 
only abnormality consists in the presence of an 
extra corolla within the normal one, the whorl 
of five stamens being present. In others 
petalody of some of the stamens has occurred. 

" Wild Almond " from the Cape. — Mr. W. C. 
Worsdell exhibited the very hairy fruits of the 
so called "Wild Almond" of the Cape, Bra 
bejum stellulifolium. The fruits contain a 
single seed, which has a flavour similar to that 
of the common acorn. The plant belongs to the 
Proteaceae. 

Leaf spots produced by red spider. — Mr. 
E. M. Holmes showed foliage of Prunus vir- 
giniana which had been attacked by red spider 
with the result that bright red spots had been 
produced upon it similar in appearance to those 
regarded as due to "burning" or sun-scorch. 

Cabbage root maggot. — Several specimens of 
Brussels Sprouts, Cauliflower, etc., from various 
sources were shown attacked by the Cabbage 
root maegot, which appears to be very pre- 
valent this year 

Warts on vine leaves. — From Lowestoft came 
vine foliage showing numerous small swellings 
on the lower surface, the result of enlargement 
of cells in the tissues of the leaves following 
the keeping of the plants in a too close, moist, 
warm atmosphere. 

Enlargement of cotyledons. — Mr. Chittenden 
showed a seedling Tomato about three months 
old in which the plumule and buds axillary to 
the cotyledons had been damaged early. He 
drew attention to the great increase in size and 
especially in thickness of the cotyledons which 
follows this kind of damage. He also showed a 
seedling of Radish abont three weeks old which 
had been damaged by the removal of plumule 
and one cotyledon, in which the remaining 
cotyledon had enlarged to about three times the 
size of those on uninjured plants. In the case 
of the Radish a couple of apparently adven- 
titious buds were developing about the base of 
the cotyledonary petiole. There was little 
difference in the si?.e of the root9 formed by the 
normal and damaged Radishes, but the root 
development in the case of the Tomato was 
slight. 

Seedless Apples. — Mr. Chittenden also showed 
photographs of Apple Duchess of Oldenburgh, 
which had set in bags so H>Pt the flowers were 
not exposed to cross pollination, to illlustrate 
the fact that some Apples were capable of set- 
ting seedless fruits under these conditions, while 
when exposed to cross pollination seed was set 
in the normal way. 

Lesser Narcissus flu. — Mr. Chittenden also 
showed a specimen of Narcissus bulb sent him 
bv Mr. Backhouse, with a number of the larvae 
of t'>e lesser Narcissus flv feeding in the neck 
of the lmlb under such circumstances as left 
little doubt that they were tlrp originators of the 
attack, not merely followers feeding on damaged 
tissue due to some other and earlier attack. 



CITY OF LONDON ROSE. 

June 25. — The second annual exhibition of 
this soci"tv was held at the Cannon Street Hotel 
on the 25th ult. The competition was exceed- 



ingly good in nearly every class, and most of 
the exhibits reached a high standard of excel- 
lence. The greatest improvement in these re- 
spects was to be seen in the open amateurs' 
class, where Mr. Oswald Twines won the Chal- 
lenge Trophy with splendid blooms. In the 
nurserymen's classes Messrs. Alex. Dickson and 
Sons clearly outclassed their competitors. 

Nurserymen's Classes. 

48 blooms, distinct. — Messrs. Alex. Dickson 
and Sons, Newtownards, Ireland, again won 
the Nursery men's Challenge Trophy with a won- 
derfully good collection of blooms. The pale 
or blush-pink coloured Roses, such as Miss 
Connor (a charming new Rose;, Oberhofgartner 
Terks, A. Lmdsall, and Yvonne Vacherot, were 
especially beautiful, as also were such reds as 
Edouard Bohane and H. V. Macliin, and the 
Lyon Rose; 2nd, Messrs. B. R. Cant and Co., 
Colchester, whose blooms had evidently en- 
countered stormy weather, showed excellent 
specimens of Mrs. Andrew Carnegie, Yvonne 
Vacherot, Augustus Hartman, Juliet and Mil- 
dred Grant ; 3rd, Messrs. D. Prior and Son, 
Colchester. 

12 Varieties, 3 blooms of each.- — In this rather 
trying class Messrs. Alex. Dickson and Sons 
were an easy 1st. They not only showed 36 
splendid blooms, but the colour arrangement was 
exceedingly effective. Their prncipal varieties 
were Mildred Grant, Lady Ashtown, Edouard 
Bohane, Florence Pemberton, and Lyon Rose; 
2nd. Messrs. C. and W. Burch, Peterborough, 
who included magnificent blooms of Mrs. Amy 
Hammond; 3rd, Messrs. B. R. Cant and Co. 

18 Tea and Noisette Roses, distinct. — The ex- 
hibits in this class were of only moderate 
quality, most of the bjooms being weather- 
stained. Messrs. D. Prior and Son won the 
1st prize ; their best blooms were of Madame 
Jules Gravereaux and Maman Cochet ; 2nd, 
Messrs. Alex. Dickson and Sons, who showed 
the vane-ties Mrs. Edward Mawley and Mrs. 
Foley Hobbs in good form. 

18' bunches, distinct. — The 1st prize was 
awarded to Messrs. F. Cant and Co., who were 
the only exhibitors. The vases of Goldfinch, 
Rayon d'Or, Irish Elegance, and Gustave Regis 
were very beautiful. 

Baskets of Roses. — These were not quite so 
good as is usual with this class. The 1st prize 
was won by Messrs. Alex. Dickson and Sons, 
whose 7 baskets were filled with such sorts as 
Irish Fireflame, Red Letter Day, and Conway 
Jones ; 2nd, Messrs. Chaplin Bros., Waltham 
Cross. 

New Roses. — Although the class for 12 blooms 
of Roses introduced within the past three years 
did not contain any blooms of superlative excel- 
lence the winning collection of Messrs. Alex. 
Dickson and Sons included good blooms of H. 
V. Machin, Duchess of Sutherland, Lady 
Greenall and Lady Barham. Messrs. Chaplin 
Bros., who were placed 2nd, showed Leslie 
Holland and Geo. Dickson in good form and 
colour: 3rd, Messrs. B. R. Cant and Co. 

Open Amateurs' Classes. 

As in the nurserymen's class the Challenge 
Cup was won by the holder. This year Mr. 
Oswald Twines," Bedford Road, Hitchin, exhi- 
bited an even better collection than last year. 
Of the 24 blooms, in distinct varieties, Mildred 
Grant, Bessie Brown, Mrs. Edward Mawley, 
Mrs. Foley Hobbs, and Mrs. J. Laing were 
splendid. Mr. G. C. Sawday, Beechfield, Wok- 
ing, won the 2nd prize with a collection which 
included fine blooms of Mildred Grant, William 
Shean, J. B. Clark, and Dean Hole. 

Mr. G. C. Sawday showed the finest collection 
or 12 blooms of exhibition Rosee, including a 
splendid bloom of Mildred Grant, whilst Avoca 
and Dean Hole were also very good ; 2nd, Rev. 
F. R. Burnside, Great Stambridge Rectory, 
Roc .h ford. 

The City of London Championship Trophy, 
which is for open competition and offered 
for the best 12 blooms of exhibition 
Roses, was won by Mr. H. L. Wet- 
tern with a splendid set of blooms; 
those of Mine. Jules Gravereaux and Dean Hole 
were magnificent ; 2nd, Mr. John Hart, who 
showed the best, exhibit of 6 varieties — 3 blooms 
of each sort ; those of Elizabeth and Mildred 
Grant were very fine. 



The chief award in the class open to growers- 
of fewer than 1,000 plants was won by Mr. C. 
Leslie, Epcombe, Hertingfordbury, whose very 
fine collection included Bessie Brown, Mildred 
Grant, Dean Hole, and Y'vonne Vacherot; the 
last-named being judged the best bloom in 
classes 9 to 17 won the Silver Medal of the 
N.R.S. 

Metropolitan Classes. 

The Championship Trophy offered for compe- 
tition amongst members growing Roses within 
eight miles of the Royal Exchange was won 
by Mr. A. E. Coxhead, 40, Ambleside Avenue, 
Streatham, whose 12 blooms included good speci- 
mens of J. B. Clark, Mrs. Stewart Clark, John 
Ruskin, and Florence Pemberton. The best ex- 
hibit of 6 blooms was shown by Mr. A. Wilkin- 
son, Granville Road, North Finchley, whose 
chief specimens were of Florence Pemberton, 
Mrs. M. Soupert, and Mrs. J. Laing. 

In the classes for Roses grown within five 
miles of the Royal Exchange Mr. R. de Escho- 
fet, Dulwich, won the chief award ; his blooms of 
Margaret, Florence Pemberton, and Mrs. T. 
Roosevelt were of good size and quality. 

Decorative Classes. 

The exhibits in these classes were especially 
fine, and showed a marked advance on those of 
last year. The 12 bunches of Roses, distinct, 
shown by Mr. H. L. Wettern, were of equal 
merit to any similar exhibit that we have seen. 
The chief varieties were American Pillar, Gold- 
finch, Tea Rambler, Lady Hillingdon, and 
Duchess of Wellington. 

The bowl of Roses arranged by Mrs. A. 0. 
Brown, Prokes Lodge, Reigate, was a particu- 
larly charming effort; the combination of Rich- 
mond and the foliage of Rosa rubra was very 
pleasing. This lady also showed the best vases 
of Roses, which were arranged with equal skill. 

NON-COMPETITIVE EXHIBITS. 

Messrs. Wm. Paul and Son, Waltham Cross : 
Mr. Walter Easlea, Leigh-on-Sea : Messrs. Paul 
and Son, Cheshunt ; and the Rev. J. H. Pem- 
berton contributed honorary exhibits of Roses. 



RICHMOND HORTICULTURAL. 

June 24. — The fortieth annual show of the 
above society was opened by the Duke and 
Duchess of Teck in the Old Deer Park, Rich- 
mond, Surrey, on this date. Owing to the May- 
frosts and the recent severe storms the exhibits 
were not of such high quality as during the past 
few years; the falling on was particularly 
noticeable in the classes for Rose and Sweet Pea. 
Fruit was better shown, and although the exhi- 
bits of vegetables were not so numerous as usual 
the quality generally was exceedingly good. 
It is interesting to record that the energetic 
hon. secretary, Mr. W. J. Cook, is the present 
Mayor of the borough. 

OPEN CLASSES. 
Groups or Plants. 

The premier group exhibited by Lady Max. 
Waechter, Terrace House, Richmond (gr. Mr. 
H. Burfoot), although a trifle methodical in ar- 
rangement contained a number of well-grown 
plants of useful size, and was bright and attrac- 
tive. The chief flowering plants were Hippeas- 
trums, Lilium, Carnations, and Gloxinias ; 2nd, 
Mrs. Brown de Berry, Oaklands, Wimbledon, 
with a heavier arrangement, which, however, 
contained some very good pot Salpiglossis, Coleus 
and Dracaena Lindleyana. 

The semi-circular groups, as provided for in 
class 3, were not quite so attractive as in 
former years. Dr. Lacroze, Roehampton (gr. 
Mr. F. Cresswell), won the 1st prize. His group 
was rather sombre in appearance, but the ground- 
work of Adiantum cuneatum and the several 
Orchids were highly meritorious ; 2nd, K. J. 
Messom, Esq., Strawberry Hill (gr. Mr. F. 
Taylor) ; 3rd, Mr. C. Burge, Teddington, whose 
arrangement was the most ambitious, but lack- 
ing in detail. 

The two exhibitors in the class for 6 Palms 
exhibited large and healthy specimens. Mrs. 
Brown de Berry won the 1st prize, and Lady 
Max Waechter was 2nd. The 1st prize collec- 
tion of 6 Orchids was exceptionally good; Dr. 
Lacroze included Laelio-Cattleya Canhamiana, 
L.-C. Ascania x C. Mendelii and Odontoglossum 
erispum. Mrs. Spknce. East Acton (gr. Mr. H. 



July 4, 1914. ] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



23 



Knightley), and Mrs. V. Arbuckle, Richmond 
•(gr. Mr. L. Lawrence), won the prizes for 6 exotic 
Ferns in the order named, and these positions 
■were reversed in the class for 6 fine foliage plants. 
•The Caladiums shown in class 7 were of splendid 
quality, all the plants being well furnished with 
large and beautifully-coloured leaves. 1st, 
Lionel Warde, Esq., Petersham (gr. Mr. A. 
Allnm) ; 2nd, Mrs. Arbuckle. The 6 Coleus 
with which Mr. L. Warde won the 1st prize 
■were models of high-class cultivation and train- 
ing, and Mrs. Spence was equally successful 
•with 6 Fuchsias. Mrs. V. Arbuckle, showing un. 
usually fine specimens, was awarded the 1st prize 
for 4 Aspidistras ; and Mr. L. Warde won the 
1st prize for 6 tuberous Begonias, whilst Mr. G. 
Atklns was similarly successful with 9 Strepto- 
carpus. 

Roses and Sweet Peas. 

Richmond in the past possessed a great repu- 
tation for the exhibits of cut Roses ; then came 
the inevitable lean years, when it seemed that 
the glory had departed, but during the past 
three years the Rose exhibits more than regained 
their former importance. But although through 
unfavourable climatic conditions this very high 
standard was not maintained this year there 
were many beautiful blooms on view. 

The principal class was for 48 distinct varie- 
ties, 3 blooms each. The 1st prize was won by 
Messrs. R. H. Harkness and Co., Hitchin, 
whose exhibit attracted a deal of admiration. 
The outstanding varieties were Kaiserin A. Vic- 
toria, Dean Hole, Lady de Bathe, Caroline Test- 
out, Mildred Grant, White Killarney, Edward 
Mawley, and Bessie Brown ; 2nd, Messrs. F. 
Gant and Co., Colchester, whose blooms lacked 
the substance and form of the former; the ex- 
ceptions were those of Caroline Testout, Lohen- 
grin, and J. B. Clark. 

Messrs. W. and J. Brown, Peterborough, won 
the premier ; ward in the class for 24 varie- 
ties, 3 blooms of each, where he showed splendid 
triplets of J. L. Mock, J. B. Clark, Mrs. Theo- 
■dore Roosevelt, William Shear, and Florence 
Pemberton ; 2nd, Messrs. R. H. Harkness and 
■Co., who staged good sets of Caroline Testout, 
Bessie Brown, Countess of Caledon, Killarney 
and Elizabeth. Messrs. W. and J. Brown also 
won 1st prize with 12 varieties in 3 blooms of 
each. Showing the variety J. B. Clark in splen- 
did form, Messrs. W. and J. Brown won the 1st 
prize for 12 blooms of any one variety, H.P. or 
H.T. ; and Mr. Hy. Drew, Longworth, who 
showed Mrs. Cornwallis West in good condition, 
was 2nd. 

The best 12 Tea Roses of any one variety 
proved to be the set of Mrs. Foley Hobbs shown 
by Mr. John Picg, Royston ; and Mme. Jules 
■Gravereaux by Messrs. G. and W. Burch was 
placed 2nd. 

In the amateurs' classes Mr. G. Sizmur, 
Ottershaw, won the 1st prize for 24 blooms dis- 
tinct; and Mrs. Peters Wood, Weybridge, was 
similarly successful with 12 varieties. The best 
collection of 9 varieties of Sweet Peas was 
shown by Mr. A. W. Perkin ; this exhibit, 
which clearly outpointed the others, included 
especially good vases of King Manoel, Rosabelle, 
and Sunproof Crimson and Melba. 

The exhibits of hardy herbaceous flowers pro- 
vided one of the best features of the show. 
Mr. L. 'Warde's winning collection of 24 
bunches, included Clamatis erecta, Iris anglica. 
■and Lilium croceum ; 2nd, Messrs. W. and J. 
Brown. 

I OB \tive Classes. 

The centre of the large Rose rent was occu- 
pied with the table decorations, which were 
very attractive. The 1st pri^e, arranged by 
Mrs. A. R. Bide, Farnham, which consisted of 
Gerbera hybrids and Asparagus plumosus nanus. 
was especially dainty and charming. In the 
class which required 3 vases of flowers Messrs. 
Robinson, Carshalton. who used pink Carna- 
tions and Gladiolus, also made a very effective 
display. 

The basket of plants which won the 1st prize 
for Mr. L. Warde was an exceedingly success- 
ful effort. Messrs. W. and J. Brown won the 
1st prize for a basket of Roses. 

Fruit and Vegetables. 

Sir W. Greenwell, Marden Park, Wolding- 
ham (gr. Mr. W. Lintott), who was the only 
• exhibitor, was awnrded the 1st prize for a splen- 



did collection of fruit, in which the Eminence 
Melon, Foster's Seedling and Black Hamburgh 
Grapes, Early Rivers Nectarine, and Brown 
Turkey Figs were of very high quality. Mr. J. 
B. Hilditch won 1st prizes for Melons and 
Peaches, and the Marquis of Ripon for Cherries. 
The collections of vegetables, although fewer 
in number than usual, were nearly all composed 
of exceedingly good produce. Three 1st prizes 
for collections were won bv Miss Langworthy, 
Hollyford, Berkshire (gr. Mr. T. J. Brown). 

Non-Competitive Exhibits. 
The following awards were made to exhibi- 
tors : Gold Medal to Mr. L. R. Russell, 
Richmond ; Small Gold Medal to Messrs. W 
T. Ware, Ltd., Feltham ; Silver-gilt Medal 
to Mr. W. Thompson, Sheen; Silver Medals to 
Messrs. J. Jackman and Son, Woking ; Messrs. 
W. and J. Brown ; J. Naylor and Son, Long 
Ditton ; Henry Newman, Watford ; and H. E. 
Fordham, Twickenham. 



CROYDON HORTICULTURAL. 

June 24. — The forty -seventh annual summer 
show of this society took place on Wednesday, 
June 24, in the Park Hill Recreation Grounds. 
The weather was extremely fine and the attend- 
ance of visitors in consequence very gocd. the 
receipts being far in excess of those of previous 
years. Roses were very well 6hown both in the 
amateurs' and the nurserymen's sections, and the 
exhibits were numerous. For forty-eight dis- 
tinct varieties, Messrs. B. R. Cant and Sons 
obtained 1st prize and won outright the Croy- 
don Challenge Cup. Messrs. D. Prior and Ron, 
Colchester, were placed 2nd with a veiy credit- 
able exhibit. In the class for twenty-four dis- 
tinct varieties, Messrs. Chaplin Bros., Ltd., 
of Waltham Cross, were awarded the 1st prize, 
and Mr. Geo. Prince, of Longworth, the 2nd. 
Mr. Prince won 1st prize in the class for twelve 
blooms of the same variety, Messrs, Chaplin 
Bros, being placed 2nd. A class for nine novel- 
ties evoked keen competition among the nur- 
serymen. Messrs. B. R. Cant and Sons obtained 
the 1st prize, and Messrs. D. Prior and Son 
the 2nd. In the class for twelve bunches of 
garden Roses Mr. Geo. Prince was placed 1st, 
Mr. Ernest Hicks, of Wallingford, obtaining 
2nd place. Messrs. Frank Cant and Co. were 
disqualified by reason of having staged too many 
trusses, but a special Silver Medal was awarded 
to their group for excellence of quality and dis- 
play. A new class for five baskets of cut Per- 
petual Roses created a good deal of interest, and 
those of Messrs. Chaplin Bros, and Messrs. D. 
Prior and Sons were respectively 1st and 2nd 
of a very good collection of exhibits. In the 
amateur class for twenty-four blooms of distinct 
varieties, Dr. T. E. Pallett, of Earl's Colne, 
won the Silver Cup, Mr. H. L. Wettern, 
who won it last year, being second on this occa- 
sion. A Silver Medal was awarded for a bloom 
of Lady Barham in Dr. Pali.ett's collection. 
For nine Rose6 of a single variety. Mr. G. Cub- 
nock Sawday, Beechheld, Weybridge, obtained 
l6t prize ; and for eighteen Teas cf not fewer than 
twelve varieties, Mr. F. Slaughter, Steymng, 
was placed 1st, a Silver Medal being awarded to 
his bloom of Comtesse de Nadaillac. Keen com- 
petition was evoked by a class, new to this 
societv, for dinner-ta.ble decorations of Ro6es, 
restricted to ladies. Mrs. H. L. Wettern ob- 
tained 1st prize with a really beautiful table, 
and Mrs. A. E. Brown, Brokes Lodge, Reigate, 
who was placed 2nd, arranged her exhibit with 
no less ta6te. In the class for stove plants, the 
Silver Cup was won by Mr. F. C. Bause, nur- 
servman, Portland Road, South Norwood. His 
collection was a magnificent one and well de- 
served the award. 

For groups of plants arranged for effect. F. 
Dyer, Esq., J.P. (gr. J. Randall). Park Hill 
Row, Crovdon, carried off the 1st prize ; a"d for 
a group of stove plants, F. Link, Esq., J. P. (gr. 
J. Slater), was placed 1st. In the classes for 
gardeners there were not quite so many exhibits 
of frui'6 and vegetables as usual, but there were 
several groups of distinct merit. Sweet Peas 
were particularly well shown, and th°re were a 
number of creditable exhibits. For twelve 
bunches, in the open ela r s, F. H. Franks, Esq. 
(gr. N. Humphrey), Loampits, Tonbridge, won 



the 1st prize. In the cottagers' classes there 
was a slight falling off, owing partly to the 
destruction by hail a few days before the show 
of large portions of the crops. Several non-com- 
petitive groups were well staged, among otheTe 
one by Mr. C. Blick, of Hayes, and one by Mr. 
H. Lakeman, of Thornton Heath, both of whom 
showed Carnations. Mr. T. Butcher, Croydon, 
showed a group of plants and specimens of floral 
decoration. Messrs. J. Cheal and Sons, Craw- 
ley, and Messrs. G. Bunyard and Co., Maid- 
stone, showed fine collections of hardy her- 
baceous flowering plants. Among the sundries 
there were several interesting exhibits. Messrs. 
Jeyes displayed their well-known horticultural 
specialities, and Messrs. Robinson Bros, showed 
Carmona fertiliser and Alpha sprayers. The 
show was a particularly successful one. During 
the day a number of the flowers were 6old, the 
proceeds from thi6 source (over £4) being given 
to the Royal Gardeners' Orphan Fund. The 
grounds of Alderman Allen, J. P., which adjoin 
the Park Hill recreation ground, were thrown 
open for inspection, and the privilege was 
much appreciated by the visitors. 



BIRKENHEAD AGRICULTURAL. 

June 24 and 25. — The exhibition of the above 
society occupied two days ano proved very suc- 
cessful, the Roses and Sweet Peas especially 
being of exceptional merit. For a collection of 
Ferns and Selaginellas, occupying 20 square feet, 

D. Macphee, Esq., Arrowe Park, Cheshire, was 
awarded 1st prize, and F. W. Bagshaw, Esq., 
Woodcote, Rock Ferry, 2nd. For one stove or 
greenhouse plant in bloom Mr. Macphee again 
took the lead, and also for six stove plants. For 
three Ferns, Mr. Bagshaw took first place, and 
also obtained the same position for a single speci- 
men — a fine Nephrolepis. For two Fuchsias, an<i 
also for three tuberou6-rooted Begonias, J. H 
Kenion, Esq., Roselands, Rock Ferry, wa£ 
awarded the 1st prize. Herbert Harding, 
Esq., Stanton, Bebington, won the 1st prize 
for three Pelargoniums, and for twelve cut blooms 
of Roses. For eighteen vase6 of Sweet Peas 

E. M. Allen, Esq., Formby, was placed Ist 
with good spikes of Margaret Atlee, R. F. Fel- 
ton, and others. In the class for twelve Carna- 
tions, Messrs. Page and Whitley, Boughton, 
Chester, obtained 1st place. Miss Newseam, 
Old Hall, Ormskirk, was successful in several 
classes, one being that for table decorations, in 
which Rose6 were used with pleasing effect. The 
class for a collection of fruit and vegetables wa£ 
unfortunately not contested, there being only 
one exhibitor (Mr. Macphee). There were 
several very fine non-competitive exhibits. A 
Gold Medal was awarded to Messrs. Bees, Ltd., 
Sealand Nurseries, Chester, for Delphiniums and 
herbaceous flowere. The same award was given 
to Messrs. Young and Co., Cheltenham, for a 
fine exhibit of Carnations; to Messrs. R. Ker 
and Sons, Aigburth. for a table of Paeonies ; to 
Mr. A. F. Dutton, Iver, for Carnations ; and to 
Mr. J. Lee, Higher Bebington, for fruit trees 
in pots. Silver Medals were awarded to Mr. H. 
Middlehxtrst, Liverpool, for a fine collection of 
Iri6 ; to Mr. R. Wright, Formby, fcr Sweet 
Peas; and to Mr. S. A. Haines, Birkenhead, for 
miscellaneous cut flowers; a Bronze Medal being 
allotted to Mr. W. Maddocks, of Birkenhead, for 
Roses. Messrs. Dickson, of Chester, and 
Messrs. McHattie and Co., Chester, staged in- 
teresting displays of cut flowers in the main 
avenue. 



LAW NOTE. 



APPLE PULP IN RASPBERRY JAM. 

At the Marylebone Police Court recently^ a 
grocer was convicted for selling, to the prejudice 
of the purchaser, Raspberry jam which contained 
at least 10 per cent, of Apple pulp contrary to 
the Sale of Food and Drugs Act. 

Defendant had given notice to appeal at the 
London Sessions, but Mr. Bodkin, who appeared 
on behalf of the Marylebone Borough Council, 
which had instituted the prosecution, sad that 
the appeal had been abandoned, and he success- 
fully applied for costs. . 



24 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 4, 1914. 




Almond Twigs Blistered : E. Y. The plants 
are affected with Peach leaf curl, a disease 
due to the attack of the fungus Exoascus de- 
formans. Cut off all shoots that are attacked 
to sound wood at least 6 inches below the part 
diseased. 

Apple Trees Diseased : G. C. You are right 
in your diagnosis of the complaint — Sphaerop- 
sis is present. Your treatment is the correct 
one, and should prove effective provided you 
commence at an early stage. 

Black Currants with " Big Bud " : /. C. You 
are right, the disease affecting your Black 
Currants is "Big Bud." All the infected 
buds should be picked off and burnt, but 
spraying would be of no use this season, as 
it is too late. Next year, however, you might 
try that remedy. 

Canterbury Beld : A. E. 0. It is a common 
occurrence for the top bloom on a spike of 
irregular flowers, such aiS digitalis, to become 
regular ; a condition known as peloria. 

Carnations with Hard Centres : F. A. A. The 
malformed flowers exhibit prolification. From 
some cause or other the centres have continued 
growing, forming a large, bud-like growth, 
with leafy structures. 

Cherries and Figs Diseased : We cannot find 
any pest on the fruits themselves ; but 
probably the tree is diseased at. the Toots. 

Chrysanthemums Injured : A. E. G. The 
Chrysanthemums are infested with mites. 
Drench the plants thoroughly with a solution 
of quassia. 

Creosoted Boxes for Seeds : P. T. L. We 
should not advise you to use creosoted boxes 
for propagating purposes, as creosote is a 
powerful poison. Stockholm tar could, how- 
ever, be used for the some purpose without 
so much risk of injury. 

Damson Fruit : P. Beer. The diseased fruit, 
known as "pocket plums," is caused by a 
fungus exoascus prum. Collect and burn all 
diseased fruits to prevent further infection. 

Employment in London Parks : W. H. W. 
The best way to obtain employment in a ceme- 
tery would be to approach the superintendent 
direct. In the Horticultural Directory there is 
a list of the public parks and cemeteries, with 
the, names of the superintendents. If you 
desire work under the London County Coun- 
cil, you should apply to the Superinterwlnit , 
Parks Department, 11, Regent Street, 
London, W. 

Figs Failing : Y. Z. The cause of the failure 
of your Figs is to be found in the atmospheric 
conditions under which they are grown. There 
is too little ventilation, and this has favoured 
the growth of Botrytis, from which the trees 
are suffering. 

Fungi in Potting Soil : C. L. Sprinkle kainit 
over the compost and incorporate it thoroughly 
with the soil a month before the latter is re- 
quired for use 

" Fungus " on Lawn : W. N. The plant is not 
a fungus, but a lichen, and may be eradicated 
by soaking the grass with sulphate of iron, 
1 oz. in one gallon of water. Continue to apply 
the specific until all the foreign growth is 
killed. 

Gardeners' Association : Rose. The Associa- 
tion you are thinking of is probably the British 
Gardeners' Association. The secretary is Mr. 
Cyril Harding, Ulysses, Fortune Green, 
London, N.W. With reference to examina- 
tions, you should write to the Secretary, 
Royal Horticultural Society, Vincent Square, 
Westminster, S.W. 

Cloxinias Injured : G. W. E. The plants you 
send are injured by mites. They should be 
fell sprayed at once with a quassia solution, 
aking care to ensure its penetrating into the 
jrevices and between the hairs on the foliage. 



Grapes : W. B. F. It is too late to save your 
crop this year, ,but next year you should 
thoroughly spray the vines with Bordeaux mix- 
ture ((half strength) just before the flowers 
expand. 

Humea elegans : Roger Lear. The injury has 
been caused by an excess of moisture at the 
roots. 

Labour Required for 4£ Acres : F. B. You 
ask for advice as to the labour required 
for 4i acres of strong land, consisting of 
lawn, flower, and kitchen gardens, and also 
to look after cow, pigs and poultry. Much 
depends upon the extent of the lawn and the 
number of pigs and poultry. Probably, in 
ordinary circumstances three, men, with occa- 
sional extra help during the busy season, would 
be sufficient. 

Leaves from Plum Trees : Inquirer. No. 4 is 
affected with the silver-leaf disease. There is 
nothing to show what is wrong with the other 
specimens. 

List of Nurserymen and Florists : 0. B. The 
Horticultural Director;/, price Is. 3d. post 
free, contains a list of all the chief nursery- 
men and florists in the United Kingdom. It 
can be obtained from our publishing depart- 
ment. 

Manetti Stocks for Budding : Constant 
Header. You erred in planting so deeply as 
1 foot ; 6 inches would have been ample. Do 
not bud the stocks until August; in the mean- 
time keep the ground well hoed, and the plants 
will soon strengthen. When you are ready to 
bud the stocks hoe the soil away to a depth 
of a few inches to enable the bud to be in- 
serted within, say, 2 or 3 inches from the 
roots. Th3 soil should not be returned after 
budding, but instead, the buds should be 
allowed to remain exposed, binding them with 
Raffia in the usual manner. 

Melons Diseased : A. S. B. The Melon plant 
is affected with Cucumber mildew. It should 
be sprayed every fourth day with liver of 
sulphur in the proportion of 1 oz. to 4 gallons of 
water. — W. G. W. The fruits have been in- 
jured by insects at an early stage, and fungi 
have entered through the wounds. Take mea- 
sures to prevent fruit that is developing from 
becoming infested with insects. — Baker, The 
Grange. The root of the Melon ha6 been killed 
by a 'fungus known as Botrytis. In future, be- 
fore planting Melons you should sterilise the 
soil by heating or steaming it, or sprinkle it 
with kainit a month before it is used. 

Melons Failing : A. II. We have carefully 
examined the specimen sent, but fail to find 
any trace of fungus or other disease, and are 
at a loss to account for the cause of the 
failure. 

Names of Plants : Purity. Nos. 1 to 6 are gar- 
den Roses, which we do not recognise ; 7, Es- 
callonia rubra ; 8, Cotoneaster horizontalis ; 9, 
Veronica incana; 10, Erigeron philadelphicus. 
— Dendron. Echinocactus Eyresii. — Dublin. 
Roses : 1, Celine Forestier ; 2, Gloire Lyon- 
naise; 3, Pink Damask; 4. Mme. Lavalley ; 5, 
Flora ; 6, Reine Marie Henriette ; 7, Mme. Jos. 
Courbet.— Jas. W. Hubble. Rose Mme. Isaac 
Periere. — W. and S. Hordeum jubaitum. — 
G. J. W., Sussex. We believe the Rose 
to be the white De Meaux, one of the 
lovely old miniature Provence Roses. 
— F. A. E. Dendrobium Dalhousieanum, as it 
is generally called in gardens. The original 
name, however, is D. pulchellum. D. pulchel- 
lum of gardens is a dwarf, trailing species. — 
Rev. Thomas Boyd. Rose Edmond Proust 
(Wichuraiana). — F. L. Rhododendron (Aza- 
lea) calendulaceum var.— N. H. 1, Phalaris 
arundinacea variegata ; 2, Zephyranthes cari- 
nata ; 3, Anchusa sempervirens ; 4, Polemo- 
nium coeruleum album ; 5, Santolina Chamae- 
cyparissuis ; 6, Deutzia scabra fiore pleno. — 
II. Burton. Calycanthus floridus, Californian 
Allspice. — E. B. H. 1, Jasminuin floridum ; 
2, J. revolutum. 

Nectarines with Rusty Skins : S. J. The 
fruits have been punctured by insects at an 
early stage. Next season take measures to 
prevent infestations of sucking insects. 



Peach Fruits Spotted : F. D. E. The spotting 
is caused by a fungus, and will not disappear. 
Spray the plants next season as soon a6 the 
fruits have set with liver of sulphur. 

Peach Leaves Shrivelling : W. J. See reply 
to E. Y. under "Almond Twigs Blistered." 
The vine leaves are not affected with either 
fungous or insect pests. 

Phlox decussata : Somerville. The plants have 
been injured by eelworms at the roots, for 
which there is no cure. Burn the affected 
plants, and sterilise by baking the soil in 
which they have grown. 

Peach and Nectarine Leaves Turning Brown : 
G. H. T. The trouble has been caused by 
wrong cultural treatment, and is not due to 
either fungous or insect pests. 

Peas Unhealthy : F. W. N. The trouble is due 
to "stripe" disease, which is just making its 
appearance in the plants. No cure for this 
disease is known, but you should take the pre- 
caution to grow the plants in sterilised soil. 
If sown out of doors select a fresh site next 
year, as far removed from the old one as pos- 
sible. — M. C. Try the effect of watering the 
plants twice a week with sulphate of potash in 
solution, one oz. in each gallon of water.. — 
L. C. Water the plants with a solution of 
sulphate of iron, 1 oz. in 2 gallons of soft 
water at intervals of four days. 

Pansies Dying : M. G. The plants have been 
killed by the fungus Botrytis, which has 
entered at the roots. Secure fresh stock and 
plant in another part of the garden. 

Peach Leaves Diseased : P. C. S. Your trees 
are attacked with the shot-hole fungus, Cer- 
cospora circumscissa, and should be sprayed 
with the ammoniacal solution of copper car- 
bonate about every fourteen days, the recipe 
for which is as follows : — Mix the carbonate 
of copper, loz., and carbonate of ammonia, 
5oz., in a quart of hot water, and when quite 
dissolved add 16 quarts of cold water. The 
solution may be applied to quite young Peach 
leaves, as it will not harm them as would the 
Bordeaux mixture. 

Primula Seedlings : F. E. G. A suitable com- 
post for growing seedlings of the Primulas 
you mention consists of rich, fibrous loam, leaf- 
mould, and sharp sand, in equal parts. Prick 
the seedlings off into deep boxes, and grow 
them on in a cool, shady frame. 

Salvia argentea : J. Baker. This is probably 
the plant meant. It is a biennial, and may be 
sown at any time now, either in pots, or in 
■the open border. Large rosettes of white, 
woolly leaves are produced the first year, and 
I In' plant flowers in the early summer of the 
following year. 

Strawberry Plants : F. C. M. At an earlier 
staue the plants have been attacked by aphis, 
and a fungus has developed in the honey dew 
deposited by the insects. 

Tomatos : J. O. A thorough examination of the 
Tomato and leaf you send fails to disclose am 
fungus disease. The failure is probably due 
to some error in cultivation. — A. S. It is im- 
possible to name a variety of Tomato from a 
single fruit. 

Tomatos Diseased : //. E. H. Canker is the 
cause of the trouble. Soak the soil thoroughly 
with sulphate of potash in solution; 1 oz. in 
one gallon of water. 

Vine Leaves : /. D. and //. F. K. The trouble 
is due to some external cause ; no disease is 
present. Attend carefully to such cultural de- 
tails as ventilating the house and regulating 
the amount of atmospheric moisture. 

Various Plants Diseased : J. IF. G. The plants 
are all attacked by the fungus Botrytis. The 
disease is present in the soil, and was probably 
introduced with the manure. There is no cure 
for the plants which are affected with this 
disease. Sterilise the soil either by steaming 
or baking it. 



Communications Keceived .— w. F— H. V W.— 
E H-I B P E.-W. J.— P. N.-N. B.-C. C— 
Pea— W. fa. A— T. A. H. J — H. M.— L. M. B.— A. G.— 
W J — G H —A. E O.— F. C— " Burford "— F. B.— 
S ' a! w!— W. E. T— H. S.— H. G. B — H. Confer— 
Constant Reador— 6. A.— E. Bt— C. H.— .1. McN— M. S. 
— H. R.— A. M— R. H.— G. H. J— Ku Son. 



July 11, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



25 



THE 



(BavbtntTz Cljrmtirk 

No. 1,437.— SATURDAY, JULY 11, 1914- 





CONTENTS. 




Arnold Arboretum, the 


•.!". 


Plants, new or note- 




Aubergine, the .. 


37 


worthy— 




Biennials, hardj . . 


29 


i ithonna pachj poda 


■_'7 


Blight fungus in the soil, 




Syringa w iloanii 


27 


persistence of .. 


B7 






Books, notices of— 




11 Mies Hcnryi .. 


■J'.t 


Beginner s Garden 




\ allota purpurea 


80 


Bool 

My Garden in Summer 

Bulbs, piizes for. . 

Clerodendron splendens 

Cucumbers, bitter 

Daveuham ami the Gar- 
deners' Royal Benevo- 


28 
28 
37 
34 

44 


Pollen, to preserve 
Potato digger, a new 
Rockery, grass in the 
Rose Lady Waterloo 
R. H.s. Tulip Nomencla- 
ture Committee 


37 
37 

30 

:i7 

37 


lent Institution 


31 


Seeds, dead or alive : 


34 


Delphinium Emiliae .. 


30 


Societies — 




forestry, conference on 


87 


BritiBh Gardeners 




Gardeners' Company's 




Association 




present to the Lord 




Hort. Club 




Mayor 


■;: 


National Carnation 




Gardeners' Royal Benevo- 




and Picotee 


J7 


lent Institution 


37 


National Rose. . 


.;- 


Gardeners, young 


31 


National Sweet Pea . . 


37 


Efolland House Show 


34 


Royal Agricultural . . 


41 


Ivy stems, the severing 




Wolverhampton Floral 




of 


30 


Fete 


4" 


Vfetrosideros lucida 


31 


Underley Hall, visit to. . 


37 


Narcissus By, the lesser 


31 


Wasps 


31 


National Diploma of 




Horticulture examina- 




\\ atercress, a substitute 




tion .. .. 30 


:;i 


for 


:;. 


Obituary- 




week's work, the— 




Chamberlain, Joseph . . 


42 


Flower garden, the . . 


32 


( nthbert, G 


43 


Fruits under glass 


32 


Folkes, Henry . . 


VA 


Hardyfruitgarden, the 


18 


sangwin, W 


43 


Kitchen garden, the .. 


:;:; 


Peaches and Nectarines 




Orchid houses, the . . 


82 


in the open 


30 


Plants under glass 


83 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

< 'lerodendron splendens, (Coloured Plate. ) 

Cuthbert, George, portrait of the late 43 

Highbury, Birmingham, residence of the late Mi*. Joseph 

Chamberlain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 

Odontonia Cleverleyana i9 

Othonna decurrens, 27 ; <t. pachypoda 28 

Syringa vVilsonii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 



THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM. 

Impressions by the Hon. Vicary Gibbs. 

I AM just returning from a visit to the 
Arnold Arboretum, and I think it 
may interest some of your readers to 
have a short account of this delightful 
botanio garden, although no doubt abler 
]«?ns than mine have in past years dealt 
with the same subject in your columns. 

However this may be, if anyone wants 
to read a picturesque description, not only 
of the Arboretum and the work done there 
by its famous director, Professor Sargent, 
but also of the expeditions which he 
has organised to China in search of 
rare plants, he cannot do better than get 
a book called The Incandescent Lily, 
by Gouverneur Morris, whose charming 
style I can admire though I cannot 
emulate. If a more precise and pro- 
saic account be desired, it is to be 
found both in Harper's Magazine and 
in a comparatively recent number of 
American Country Life, but as these pro- 
ductions may not be readily available to 
English readers, I will try to while away 
the idle hours on shipboard during a calm 
passage by setting down a few notes of my 
own, which, if they have no other merit, 
will at any rate describe at first hand 
thing's worthy to be seen. 

The Arboretum is situated in Jamaica 
Plain, just outside Brookline, which is a 
suburb of Boston. Its acreage is about the 
same as that of Kew Gardens, but owing- 



to the fact that it lies in undulating 
country, with fine rolling hills, instead of 
in a flat river-valley, it has the appear- 
ance of being far bigger. Unlike Kew, 
the collection is confined to hardwood 
plants capable of growing out-of-doors, 
and neither Alpines, herbaceous plants, 
nor thoso requiring artificial heat are to 
be found there. Indeed, beyond a small 
propagating house, there is no glass to 
be seen. Unlike Kew, too, it is inter- 
sected by several broad driving roads, 
so that those who are infirm can see a 
great deal of the Arboretum without 
leaving their carriages. Automobiles, 
however, are not allowed in the grounds, 
and, I think, very properly, for their pre- 
sence would detract materially both from 
the security and enjoyment of students. 
for whom the gardens are primarily 
intended. 

The climate is, of course, much more 
extreme than ours, and it is no uncommon 
thing for the thermometer to fall 20° 
below zero; as against this the very hot 
summers ripen the wood perfectly, and 
enable plants to stand cold which would be 
fatal in England. Although the number 
of evergreens, outside certain hardy Coni- 
fers, which will stand a Massachusetts 
winter such as that of 1913-14 is very 
small, yet it is remarkable that some of 
the deciduous subjects come through the 
ordeal better than they would do in 
England north of London. For instance, 
take the case of Chionanthus virgin icus, 
popularly known as the Fringe Tree. 
This in the eastern states makes a large 
shrub, or sub-tree, is perfectly hardy, 
and when loaded with its feathery, white 
panicles of flower in early June is a 
glorious sight, yet at my home in 
Aldenham, Hertfordshire, it does not 
grow vigorously, nor ripen its young 
wood completely, and consequently 
does not flower in the same pro- 
fusion. The explanation of this plant, 
the deciduous Magnolias, the Styraxes and 
many other deciduous trees, doing so 
much better across the sea is simple, and 
is nothing more than the absence there of 
spring frosts. In America there is really 
no spring, and they plunge in a few days 
from piercing cold to burning heat. 
When I was there in May the thermometer 
was frequently well over 90 in the shade. 
Their winter is terrible, but the moment 
it is over it is done with for good, and 
every little twig is completely ripened, 
hence the wonderful way in which their 
plants flower and fruit. 

With us, however, we never know when 
we are safe from injury from cold, and 
when the sap is up even 3° or 4° of frost 
is more damaging to plants than zero in 
their dormant state. At Aldenham, for 
instance, there is not one month of the 
twelve in which we have not had to put 
up with frost in one or other of the last 
thirty years.* As a set-off to this ad- 
vantage for American horticulturists, the 
following common evergreens which adorn 
English gardens cannot stand the winter 



in the Arboretum : — Our Yew (Texus bac- 
cata), Mahonia, Barberry (Berberis Aqui- 
t'ulium), Box (Buxus of all kinds), our 
Holly (Ilex Aquifolium), all Laurels, i.e. 
Cerasus Pseudo-cerasus (for in America 
Laurel is the popular name given to 
Kalmia). and, of course, all Aucubas are 
absent. Roughly speaking, it may be said 
that though" the Mother Country is far 
ahead in the wealth and variety of its ever- 
greens, yet many of the deciduous shrubs 
grow better, and flower and fruit more 
freely in Eastern North America than they 
do with us. 

As an instance of this I may mention 
first of all the Syringas, which are deser- 
vedly most popular shrubs with our 
cousins. When I arrived these plants were 
at their best, and I can truly say that 
no one has seen Lilacs at their best 
who has not seen them in America. 
All the finest varieties are 
and they are usually massed 
and very carefully tended, 
dead flowers being removed, 
we are in the habit 
choice Rhododendrons. 



grown, 
together 
all the 
just as 
of doing with 
The individual 



* since my return home, and since this paper was written. 
I have learnt that on May XI or June 1 last we goffered from 
10 decree* of frost, which <lid «re;it damagi 



plants grow to a great size, and I 
saw really giant specimens of S. pekin- 
ensis and S. japonica. I believe 1914 was 
a particularly fine year for them, but 
certainly the blaze of colour produced was 
such that I could not have conceiv.ed pos- 
sible, and shall never forget. 

Other plants which I saw in flower, and 
in which we are far surpassed, are the 
Dogwoods and shrubby Honeysuckles ; the 
queen of the former is undoubtedly Cornus 
florida, and its variety C. f. rosea. This 
though it will live with us is generally a 
poor bloomer, but as I saw it, covered all 
over with big, flat, white, or clear rose- 
pink, flowers, was one of the most beauti- 
ful sights imaginable. 

When at Rochester in New York State 
a little later I saw a large plant of C. 
Kousa in flower, but though quite satisfac- 
tory it certainly cannot compete in size or 
brilliance of bloom with C. florida. C. 
Nuttalli, which is by some considered the 
best of all this family, I was not fortu- 
nate enough to see, and I believe it is con- 
fined to a more westerly region than any 
into which I penetrated. The shrubby 
Honeysuckles are almost as striking a 
feature as the Lilacs, and have one ad- 
vantage over them, that their fruit is 
very showy in autumn and winter. As 
they thrive perfectly well even if they do 
not attain quite the same size in England, 
we ought to make more general use of them 
than we have done hitherto. The kinds 
which I noticed growing in the Arboretum, 
and which struck me as most attractive, 
were Lonicera Ruprechtiana, with bright 
yellow flowers; L. Korolkowii floribunda, 
with pink flowers and markedly glaucous 
foliage; L. amoena; and L. tatarica 
lutea, both with showy pink flowers, and 
to these should perhaps be added L. 
Maackii, whose flowers are large and white. 

Another May flower which aroused my 
enthusiasm, though its blooms only last 
in beauty for three days, was Halesia 
tetraptera. Of course, as a shrub thfs is a 



26 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 11, 1914. 



well-known, old-fashioned plant in 
England, though now not often grown, 
being known here as the Snowdrop Tree, 
and there as Silver Bell; but not far from 
the entrance to the Arboretum, and on the 
bank of a beautiful lake, modestly named 
Jamaica Pond, I saw the tree form, which 
was quite new to me, some 20 feet high 
with a stem about 1 foot through. When 
loaded with its bright, white, hanging 
flowers it was indeed worth going, as I 
had gone, a long way to see it. 

Professor Sargent has been remarkably 
successful in retaining the natural appear- 
ance of the grounds while keeping plants 
of the same botanical order together, and 
so far as possible keeping closely allied 
Orders in conjunction (e.g., the Tulip 
Trees follow the various Magnolias). This 
has been achieved by judicious selection 
of the spot for planting the different 
genera, where they can both feel and look 
at home. Thus the Willows flourish on a 
marshy fiat, and the Conifers make a fine 
show on the steep sides of a grassy 
hill. Under the broad-leaved forest trees 
a natural undergrowth of Vaccinium, 
Sumach, Golden Rod, and various dwarf 
plants is encouraged, because not only does 
it turn a gorgeous colour in the fall, but 
has the practical advantage of conserving 
the leaves and saving cost of mowing. 

On entering the Arboretum one finds im- 
mediately on the right the Administration 
Building, presented by a generous citizen 
of Massachusetts named Horatio Hunni- 
well. It is an unpretentious but well- 
constructed, red-brick building, with every 
possible precaution against fire. It con- 
tains the offices of the professor and his 
various assistants, and an admirable her- 
barium. I was struck with the prompti- 
tude with which that distinguished 
botanist, Mr. Render, produced for my 
inspection dried specimens of the foliage 
of diverse rare Aesoulus at which I wanted 
to look. The nuts of all kinds of 
trees, preserved in bottles, form, I 
should fancy, an unsurpassed collection, 
and the excellence of the Arboretum ar- 
rangements was tested by the quickness 
with which my wish to compare all the 
different Hickory nuts was gratified. 

Although the late Mr. Hunniwell did a 
fine thing in giving this building, it is 
surprising how few rich Americans have 
interested themselves in this great national 
possession, and how few of them, compara- 
tively, whether rich or poor, know or care 
anything about it. Indeed, it is hardly 
an exaggeration to say that it is better 
known with us than its own country. 
Excellent as it is it is gravely in want 
of two important things — land and 
money. It is true that, as I have said, 
it is about as large as Kew, but the trees 
are young, the majority of them not more 
than 30 years old, and will soon want 
more room ; indeed, in places they are 
overcrowded already, and they grow much 
faster there than in England. I saw an 
Oak, believed to be a cross between our 
pedunculate and sessile forms, which was 
only IB years old, and which I should 
have judged from my English experience 



to be at least 30. it costs, too, far more 
to maintain trees properly there than 
here. Not only is labour more highly 
paid, but much more of it is essential 
owing to the plague of insects of various 
kinds, such as the gipsy moth, which is 
liable to attack almost any tree except 
the Ash and its relatives. The annual 
bill for spraying in the Arboretum alone 
is appalling, and in the case of healthy, 
robust fruit trees, such as the Apple and 
Cherry, if they are left unsprayed for 
three consecutive years they are not merely 
divested of leaf but killed outright by the 
tent caterpillar. I myself saw young 
Oaks of which the stem was so covered by 
a brown, hairy caterpillar, of which I 
do not know the name, that it was almost 
invisible. 

Furthermore, though the rainfall in the 
vicinity of Boston is much heavier than 
in that of London, it is much less evenly 
distributed, and a great deal of watering 




[Photograph by C. F. Ball 

Fig. 12. — syeinga wilsonii : coloub of 
flowers pink. 

is requisite to keep young or newly-moved 
plants in life. Again, the Arboretum 
being situated close to a great and in- 
creasing city like Boston, adjoining land 
is steadily increasing in value, and becom- 
ing ripe for building; although at the 
moment there is a fair amount which 
could be bought at a reasonable price, yet 
in a very short time there will be none 
available, and now, alas ! when it is to be 
got there is no fund from which a pur- 
chase could be' made. 

Although the Arboretum is worthy of 
being a national institution, being far 
away the greatest botanical collection of 
hardy plants in America and needing 
nothing but money to become the first in 
the world, yet I believe I am right in say- 
ing that it receives no national nor State 
subsid}'. In these circumstances it is de- 
voutly to be wished that some public- 
sp hired American should endow it with 
a sum which would put it out of danger of 



being neglected or falling into decay t 
that time (I trust far distant) when the 
marvellous energy and capacity of ite 
present director shall have ceased to be 
devoted to its upkeep. Professor Sargent 
is second to no man living in the services 
which he has rendered to horticulture. 
Not only is this great Arboretum mainly 
the creation of his brain, but he has or- 
ganised a succession of syndicates which 
have combined to send distinguished ex- 
plorers such as Wilson to out-of-the-way 
parts of China, Japan, Korea, and other 
places. 

Nor has he only done his collecting by 
deputy, but has himself travelled often 
and far and endured much hardship in 
the course of his fruitful botanical re- 
searches. Although his office work and 
correspondence are naturally heavy, by 
rising early and sitting late he manages 
to find time to be much in the grounds, 
keeping a sharp eye on the cultivation. 
Having been privileged to accompany him 
I can answer for it that he knows every 
corner of it, as if it were his own beauti- 
ful private garden in Brookline. 

Like all good gardeners the Professor 
is always ready to help his many friends 
with counsel as to how to plant or 
beautify their grounds, for both he and 
his son stand high in repute as landscape 
artists and designers. He is, too, most 
open-handed in the distribution of sur- 
plus plants and seeds, and speaking per- 
sonally I can only say that without his 
liberal help the Aldenham collection would 
be comparatively meagre. 

I suppose every collector has a speci- 
ality, and finds one genus more attractive 
than any other. Certainly in the Pro- 
fessor's case it is the Crataegus that stands 
first, and, per se nut per alium, he has 
literally searched " every hollow and 
dingle and dell " over the broad acres of 
North America in pursuit of them, and a 
large hillside at the farthest end of the 
Arboretum now displays the trophies of his 
zeal. I really do not know exactly how 
many he has introduced (indeed, some 
folk think that he has carried sub-division 
too far, on which point I am not compe- 
tent to express a judgment) ; but I do know 
that there were between 600 and 700 in 
flower this spring, and that great numbers 
were so distinct that the veriest tyro would 
not confuse them. The merits of this genus 
are so high and various that they ought 
as they become known to lead to heavy 
planting of American thorns on our side 
They are almost all perfectly hardy, con- 
stant, and profuse flowerers, with show^ 
fruits, and in many cases brilliant autumn 
colour. Against these charms there is but 
one fault to be set, viz., that there are too 
many of them. I will add the names of 
a few which were particularly fine when I 
saw them in flower this May : — Crataegus 
mollis, C. submollis, C. lauta, C. Arkan- 
sana, C. succulenta, C. viridis, C. prui- 
nosa, and lastly C. geneseensis, which I 
saw growing wild in the valley of the 
Genesee River after I had left Massachu- 
setts. Vicary Gibbs. 

(To he cnnrhirieri.) 



July 11, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



27 



NEW OR NOTEWORTHY 
PLANTS. 

SYRINGA WILSONII, SCHNEIDER, N. SP. 
Several new Chinese Lilacs flowered last May 
in the Glasnevin Botanic Gardens, and the best 
of all from a garden point of view was Syringa 
Wilsonii. Although the bushes are only 2i feet 
high they flowered freely, and the sweetly-scented 
drooping flowers of a soft salmony-pink colour 
were attractive, even at a distance. The 
panicles of flowers are terminal, from 3 to 5 
inches long ; the individual flowers are not quite 
half an inch long and closely set on the pedicels. 
In Plantae Wilsonianae they are said to be 
white or lilac. The leaves are narrowly oval, 
with pointed tips, from 2 to 3 inches long, 
glabrous on both surfaces save the veins, which 
are hairy. Syringa Wilsonii is said to grow from 
6 to 20 feet high, and was found by Mr. E. H. 
Wilson in Western Szechuan and Tachienlu at an 
altitude of 7,000 to 10,000 feet. Other new 
species of Lilac that flowered at Glasnevin in 
May included Syringa pinnatifolia, illustrated in 
Gardeners' Chronicle, April 18, 1914 (p. 269). The 
flowers are small and white, somewhat resem- 
bling some of the Privets. S. Sargentiana 
has acuminate leaves 4 inches in length by 
2^ inches in breadth, and a sturdy habit pro- 
mising to make a strong bush. The dense, 
nodding panicles of flowers are each some 
3 to 5 inches long. The flowers are purple-red on 
the exterior of the tube and brighter coloured 
within, being half an inch in length. F. Ball. 
Glasnevin Botanic Garden, Dublin. 

OTHONNA PACHYPODA.* 
The new Othonna described below is a plant 
of striking habit, as may be seen from the re- 
production of Mr. Lynch's photograph (fig. 14). 
The short, stout stem and the slender, trailing 
branches are remarkable in the genus. The 
plant photographed was collected by Professor 
Pearson on barren, stony ground in the Knechts 
Vlakte district, near ithe Varsch River, Western 
South Africa. It flowered at the Cambridge 
Botanic Gardens in December, 1912. Mr. Lynch 
also forwarded to Kew a piece of the bark from 
the main stem ; it consists of more than one layer 
and in texture resembles that of the Birch ; it 
is thin and translucent, and of a pale yellowish- 
brown colour. 

The genus Othonna is a member of the tribe 
Senecionideae, and belongs to a group of five 
genera which are with a few exceptions entirely 
South African. Its nearest allies are Euryops 
(about 30 species) and Gamolepis (14 species). 
On account of a false appreciation of the style 
the genus was for a long time considered to be- 
long to the tribe Cynaroideae ; but the style has 
neither the appendix nor the external ring of 
hairs nor articulation so characteristic of that 
tribe, and is quite like that of Senecio ; as the 
disk-flowers are sterile it remains undivided, as 
in most other flowers under similar circum- 
stances. The genus is distinguished from Sene- 
cio on account of this sterility of the disk flowers. 

• Othonna pachypoda, Hutchinson, sp. nov. Oaulis 
erecta, valde robusta. circiter 15 cm. alta. 3 cm. dia- 
metro ; rami_ numerosi. graeiies, dependents, usque ad 
60 om. longi, teretes, cortioe pallide brunneo obtecti, 
glabri. Folia sparsissima. lineari-spathulata vel lineari- 
oblanceolata, apice obtusa vel rotundata. 3.5-6.5 cm. 
longa, 48 mm. lata Integra, subcarnosa, glabra. 
Oapitula in corymbis 23 -Boris longe pedunculatis dis- 
posita ; ppdunculi primarii gracillimi, usque ad 15 cm. 
longi, pallide virides, glabri ; pedunculi eecondarii 2.5- 
4 cm. longi, pergraciles. Involucrum subcampanulatum. 
7 mm. longum ; bracteae plerumque 5, oblongo-lanceo- 
latae, obtusao, virides, margine anguste membranaceae. 
Flores radii plerumque 5, flavi ; corollae tubus cylin- 
dricus, 2.5 mm. longus, gilaber ; limbus anguste ob- 
longus, apice tridenticulatus, vix 1 cm. longus, 2.5 nun 
latus, 4-nervius, glaber ; stylus longe exsertus, ramis 
obtusis 2 mm longis ; achaenia oblonga, glabra; pappi 
setae numerosissimae, circiter 2 mm. longae. albescentes. 
Flores disci circiter 15, flavi ; corollae tubus interne 
cylindricus, superne anguste oampanulatus, 3.5 mm. 
longus, glaber; lobi 5, triangulari-lanceolati, 1.25 mm. 
longi ; antherae 1.75 mm. longae ; achaenia linearia, 
2.5 mm. longa, glabra ; pappi setae quam in floribue 9 
multo pauciores. South Africa ; Western Region ; Van- 
rhynsdorp Div. ; Knechts Vlakte district, near the Varsch 
River, Pearson, 6396. Type in Kew Herbarium. 



About 80 of the 90 species of the genus are 
confined to the Cape, and, like numerous other 
genera which have their headquarters there, a 
few stragglers spread into Tropical Africa to- 



It is an excellent plant for hanging baskets on 
account of its xerophytic nature, and conse- 
quently its resistance to extremes of moisture 
and temperature. The flower-heads are produced 




Fig. 13. — othonna decurrens ; flowers yellow. 



wards the east and west coasts, but mostly in 
Angola. Very few species are in cultivation in 
Europe, the one most universally met with being 
known under the name of 0. crassifolia, Harv. 



throughout the greater part of the year. L. H. 
Bailey (Encycl. Amer. Hort. 1901, p. 1.180) has 
changed the name of this plant to 0. capensis, 
and he points out the confusion in nomenclature 



28 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 11. 1914. 



arising from the use of the name crassifolia ap- 
plied to it by Harvey. A brief account of the 
synonymy is as follows : Linnaeus (Mantissa i. 
118) described an Algerian plant as Othonna 
crassifolia; but this was subsequently recognised 
to be congeneric with a Persian plant which was 
the type of the genus Othonnopsis founded by 
Jaub. and Spach. Later Harvey in dealing with 
the genus for the Flora Capensis used the name 
crassifolia for an entirely different plant from 
the Cape, overlooking the fact that this name had 
already been applied by E. Meyer to another and 
different species of Othonna. Although Meyer's 
plant was considered by De Candolle to be a 
variety of 0. amplexicaulis of Thunberg, there 
is always the chance in such instances that the 
reduction might not have been justified, and 
that the older application of the name might 
have to be revived. In such a case as this, there- 
fore, there is much to be said in favour of the 
American custom of " once a synonym always a 
synonym," and the writer considers that 
Othonna crassifolia should be called 0. capensis 
to avoid any further confusion. 

Many other species besides 0. capensis are well 
worthy of cultivation, and those especially which 
are provided with tuberous roots would not be 
at all difficult of introduction. Perhaps the most 
remarkable species in the genus is one discovered 
by Dr. F. C. Wellman in the Benguello district 
of Angola at an altitude of 5,000 feet. It was 
described by the writer in the Kew Bulletin, 
1907. p. 50, as O. decurrens, in reference to the 
decurrent leaves (see fig. 13). The stem is 
simple and stout, and about 1£ foot high, and the 
leaves are large and orbicular and placed in an 
erect position on and closely appressed to the 
stem, and when viewed from the back appear to 
be peltately attached. This plant is one which 
would probably succeed in a stove, and would be 
a useful addition on account of its remarkable 
habit. A somewhat similar species, but with 
more elliptic-lanceolate leaves and smaller flower- 
heads (0. disticha), occurs in the Transvaal. 

Description of the new species : — Stem erect, 
very stout, about 6 inches high and 1^ inches in 
diameter, branches numerous, slender, drooping, 
up to 2 feet long, terete, with smooth, pale- 
brown bark. Leaves very scattered, linear- 
spathulate or linear-oblanceolate, obtuse at the 
apex or rounded, lj-2^ inches long, 2-4 liln. 
broad, entire, somewhat fleshy, glabrous. Flower- 
heads 2-3 together, corymbose ; primary pe- 
duncles very slender, up to 6 inches long, pale 
green, glabrous ; secondary peduncles 1-1^ inch 
long, vrr; slender. Involucre somewhat cam- 
panulatj, 3£ . : .. . long; hi latt miutly 5, ob- 
long-!;. iu>] a le, (Itugo, grcrn. with narrowly 
membranous margins. Ray-no J«ers mostly 5, 
yellow ; corolla-tube cylindrical, 1£ lin. long, 
glabrous; limb narrowly oblong, tridenticulate 
at the apex, scarcely i inch long ; 1^ lin. broad, 
4-nerved, glabrous ; style much exserted, with 
obtuse branches about 1 lin. long; achenes ob- 
long, glabrous; setae of the pappus very 
numerous, about 1 lin. long, whitish. Disk 
flowers about 15, yellow ; corolla-tube cylin- 
drical in the lower, narrowly campanulate in the 
upper part, 2 lin. long, glabrous; lobes 5, 
triangular-lianceolaAe, § lin. long; anthers § lin. 
long ; achenes linear, glabrous ; setae of the pap- 
pus much fewer than in the ray-flowers. 
J. Hutchinson, Kew. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 

Mr. Bowles' Summer Garden.* 

Mr. 'Bowles' summer volume is like his former 
one, My Garden in Spring, very discursive and 
very instructive. Headers with a fastidious 
literary taste may resent the blend of familiarity, 
flippancy, and irrelevancy with which he ad- 
dresses them ; indeed, one begins to long foT a 

* My Garden in Summer. By E. A. Bowles, M. A. London : 
T. C. and E. C. Jack.) 1914. Price 59. net. 



page, or even a paragraph, without the per- 
petually recurring "I" and "my." It would 
have been so easy to cast many of the sentences 
so as to avoid the personal pronoun without mask- 
ing the personal experience. Howbeit, the 
author succeeds very well in conveying the im- 
pression of perambulating a singularly well- 
stocked flower garden with an intelligent listener. 
What though he splits an infinitive in impart- 
ing the secret of how to obtain the good form 
of Wistaria multijuga? The secret is invaluable, 
and should save many an amateur from that most 
aggravating experience, purchasing a plant, per- 
haps at a long price, and, after waiting perhaps 
years before it flowers, finding at last that he 
has been supplied with the wrong thing. It is, 
indeed, well to see a new species in flower before 
investing in it. The present writer has shared 
Mr. Bowles' experience with the dingy, dowdy 
Geranium platyanthum (p. 101). 

The cultural advice given in this book will be 
found most useful, especially in Tespect of some 
of the less common plants ; but the choicest para- 
graphs are those which reveal cryptic charac- 
teristics in plants which are by no means rare. 
For instance, not one gardener or amateur in a 
thousand (the present writer being in the ma- 




Photogruph by R. I. Lynch. 
Fig. 14. — othonna pachypoda, sp. n. : flowers 

YELLOW. 



jority till he read page 37) knows how to dis- 
tinguish between a water-loving Iris and one 
that demands well-drained soil — an important 
distinction in the treatment of new species. In 
writing of Iris fulva Mr. Bowles lets us into 
the secret : — " It is one of the Irises that pro- 
claims to the world at large its thirsty disposi- 
tion by the possession of dark spots in the leaves, 
best seen when a leaf is held up against the 
"light" (p. 37). Irises of dry ground, like I. 
germanica, have leaves of uniform green. Mr. 
Bowles is too frank to let it be supposed that 
he found out this peculiarity for himself. He 
proceeds to quote from the monograph of Mr. 
Dykes, to whom he attributes credit for the dis- 
covery. 

In the same generous spirit he treats of the 
structure of sepals in the Dog Rose, explaining 
how, of the five, two are bearded, two are 
smooth, and the fifth has one edge bearded and 
one smooth (p. 53). Instead of letting this pass 
fas pass it might for the majority of readers) as 
a piece of original observation he quotes from 
early botanists, when Latin was the universal 
language of science, to prove that they were per- 
fectly familiar with the peculiarity; but he goes 



on to give the result of his own genuine research 
into the purpose of that peculiarity. 

It is the same throughout the volume. Sand- 
wiched between passages of the wildest, often 
amusing, irrelevancy are pieces of information 
which will stick, or ought to stick, in the 
memory of every true gardener. Of the irrele- 
vancy here is a fair example : — 

" The single crimson [Rose] was one of the 
most precious of the many plant treasures that 
made up the first armful of plants that kind Dr. 
Lowe of Wimbledon gave me from his rich stoTe 
of varieties. Introduced to him by letter, I was- 
rather nervous of my first visit to the man who 
knew so much, who had made his collection of 
British Lepidoptera so complete that when over 
sixty he started to study and collect Coleoptera 
— that is to say, beetles, but not those that the 
cook calls beadles, and I love that silly story bo 
well you must please let me tell it, in case you 
like silly stories, too. ' I can't stop 'ere, mum,' 
said the new cook, ' the kitchen's that full of 
beadles.' And the prim missis replied, 'Any- 
way, cook, you should spell the word with a T. ' 
And the surprised domestic gasped, ' Lor ! mum, 
I never 'eard 'em called teadles before ! ' " 

More germane to horticulture is a comment 
upon the florist's choice of names for varieties. 
Dealing with the different forms of Chrysanthe- 
mum maximum the author launches into one of 
his wayward digressions :— 

" Next I rank Edward VII., and a variety of 
it called Edward VII. Improved, which I always 
feel sounds rather disrespectful to a great 
memory ; though not so bad as a description I 
heard of a diseased Potato, which ran : ' Ed- 
ward VII., badly warted, and the skin showing 
pink between the black warts.' I must digress 
further to have a grumble at the awful results 
that sometimes follow on the bestowal of a per- 
son's name on a plant. One would think it 
harmless enough to allow a new Carnation to 
be named for one, as Americans say ; but I found 
in a Carnation list some years ago descriptions 
something like these : — ' Miss Evangeline Tom- 
kins, very free, pale flesh, with large crimson 
spots'; 'Mrs. Rory O'More, deep red inclining 
to purple, of full habit, but warranted not to 
burst.' And I have lately seen with a shock 
that, as a Delphinium, I am ' over 6 feet high, 
but have a large black eye which is very telling. 
Stock limited.' If the latter refers to Bank 
stock, I am sorry to say it is but too true." 

Gardening is a grave, sometimes a melancholy, 
business, so one may be grateful to a writer 
who imparts a little levity into his discourse 
thereon. 

A reviewer, however, is not to be lulled into 
harmlessness by any number of jokes, old and 
new, so in parting with Mr. Bowles' cheerful 
chapters this reviewer begs to remind him that 
Alfred the Great was not "his Majesty" (p. 4), 
Henry VIII. being the first English monarch 
to assume that inflated style. His predecessors 
on the throne were content to be addressed as 
" your Grace." 

If Mi\ Bowles' Geranium Travensii has 
"rather handsome, dark gi-een leaves " it is very 
different from the present writer's, which clothes 
itself with pretty foliage of a glaucous tint. — 
Herbert Maxwell, Monreith. 

The Beginners Garden Book." 

We do not think that the author of this well- 
printed book can be said to have solved the diffi- 
cult problem of how to combine instruction in 
gardening with the scientific study of plants. In 
his opening chapter Mr. Allen French treats of 
" the purpose of a plant," and instead of dealing 
in simple fashion with the plain facts he en- 
deavours to circumvent difficulties. Thus, in de- 
scribing the germination of a pollen grain, he 
states that " the grain opens and its contents 
work into the pistil until they reach the ovary." 
The description cannot be said to be inaccurate, 
yet it is certainly misleading. Fig. 4, illustrating 

* The Beginner's Garden Book. By Allen French. (The 

Ma 'Miillnn Co., New York.) 4s. 6(t net. 



JULY 11, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



29 



the fruit of the Pear, bears the legend, " The 
seeds and thickened calyx of the Pear." 

It will be news to many that the number of 
stamens in a flower is " usually three or four." 
Nor do we think that the questions which are 
appended to the chapters are always happy. 
For example, what answer should a beginner give 
to such questions as these : — " What is the pur- 
pose of a plant? " " What does a plant need 
before it can flower? " 

Much in the chapters on saving of seed, pot- 
ting, seed testing, etc., is useful, but the chapter 
entitled " The Life of a Plant " contains state- 
ments which require correction ; thus on page 68 
occurs the assertion : " This seems to show that a 
lighter liquid will force its way into a heavier 
liquid, even passing through a membrane first. 
This is called osmosis." It is not. Nor is it 
correct to attribute the rise of sap to the leaves 
(pp. 69-70) to the fact that the thinner solution 
(from the roots) " is always pressing upward." 
The fact is that the author, like so many before 
him, has found, but failed to overcome, the great 
difficulty of teaching botany and gardening side 
by side to their mutual illumination. He evades 
the difficulty by giving simple but inaccurate ex- 
planations, or bv telling the children facts which, 
if they aie to be of intellectual value, must be 
discovered by the children themselves. We could 
have wished that he had thrown over the at- 
tempt to combine botany with gardening, and 
had contented himself with giving instruction in 
garden practice only. For on this ground the 
author is sound and sure, and looked at as an 
introduction to practice the work has man\ 
merits. 

Written fur American children, it should prove 
useful to the British teacher of school garden- 
ing, for it is full of good teaching ideas, which 
a wise teacher is always willing to appropriate 
and apply in his own work. 



HARDY BIENNIALS. 

(Continued from p. 3.) 

ERYNGIUM. 
Among the Eryngiums, or Sea Hollies, there 
are several biennial species. Of these, E. 
gignnteum is the best. It is handsome with its 
glaucous foliage and ivory-white involucres, and 
grows from 1 to 2 feet high. E. Rothenbergii , 
blue, and about the same height, is also good. 
Sow in the open in June or July, and under 
glass from March to May. 

GILIA. 

There are two very beautiful plants recognised 
as biennials among the Gilias. These should be 
sown about June or July for flowering the follow- 
ing year, the latter month being the better of 
the two. Gilia aggregata, about 2^ feet high, 
has flowers of various colours — shades of scarlet, 
pink, white, etc. The newer G. coronopifolia 
(see fig. Ill in Gard. Chron... October 20, 1906) 
is a valuable and beautiful flower, with blooms 
of a rich and uncommon shade of red. These 
do not always winter well. 

GLAUCIUM. 
An effective plant for the border or the large 
rockery is Glaucium leiocarpum, an uncommon 
Horned Poppy, with fine orange-red flowers. It 
grows about IS inches high. 

HESPERIS. 

The Double Rockets, old-fashioned and beauti- 
ful flowers, varieties of Hesperis matronalis, fre- 
quently exhaust themselves after flowering, and 
ought to be treated as biennials. Hesperis 
tristis, the Night-scented Stock, is prized for its 
fragrance at night, and makes a good biennial. 
It grows from 1 to 2 feet high, and likes a dry 
place. 

HEDYSARUM. 

The French Honeysuckle, Hedysarum coro- 
narium. is a good border biennial, with red or 
white flowers, and grows about 3 feet high. 
This plant and H. microcalyx. rose-purple. 2 



feet high, can be readily raised from seeds and 
grown in common soil. 

HUNNEMANNIA. 
The beautiful Hunnemannia fumariaefolia is 
best treated ae a biennial, sowing the seeds from 
May to July in the open air, either where the 
plants are to bloom and thinning out the seed- 
lings, or in small beds. The seedlings from the 
latter should be transplanted when small to 
where they are to flower. H. fumariaefolia 
grows about a foot high, and ha6 graceful foliage 
and yellow flowers. 

LUNARIA BIENNIS. 
This is the common Honesty, a plant not so 
popular as at one time, but liked by some for the 
value of its silvery seed vessels for winter deco- 
ration. These, by the way, are sometimes 



foot, crimson; M. racemo6a, 2£ feet, lilac or pur- 
ple ; M. sinuata laitifolia, 2 feet, purple ; M. skn- 
plicifolia, 3 feet, violet-purple ; M. Wallichii, 4 
to 6 feet, pale blue; and M. integrifolia, 3 feet, 
yellow. S. Arnott. 

(To be continued.) 



PLANT NOTES. 



RIBES HENRYI. 
The publication of a figure of Ribes lauri- 
folium, Janczewski, in the Botanical Magazine 
of March tempts me to write about a stray 
seedling of a species of Ribes which came up here 
two or three years ago in a sowing of seeds col- 
lected in Szechuan by Wilson (No. 584), and dis 
tributed under the name Sinowilsonia Henryi, 




I'll,. 15. — ODONTONIA OLEVERLEYANA; FLOVVEItS WHITE, srOTTED WITH ROSY COLOUR. 

(B.H.S. Award ot Merit, June 30, 1914. See p. 15.) 



coloured with gold paint. It is too well known 
to require description, but there are red, purple, 
and white varieties. Honesty may be sown in 
the open from May until July for blooming the 
following year. It grows well in either sun or 
shade, but is rather coarse as a flowering plant. 

MECONOPSIS. 
The Meconopsis is a charming and effective 
plant, which has come into much favour in late 
years. The seeds can be sown in the open in 
May or June, but it is preferable to sow them 
under glass in April or May, pricking out the 
seedlings in the ordinary way, and planting 
them out in early autumn. They generally like 
partial shade and a moist but well-drained place. 
The best species are M. aculeata, 2 feet, purple; 
M. nepalensie, 3 to 5 feet, yellow ; M. punicea, 1£ 



Hemsl. The plant flowered this year as it did 
last, and proves to be Ribes Henryi, Franchet, 
apparently a rare species, even in herbaria. I 
have seen no record of it in cultivation in Britain. 
The identification has been made possible by the 
fuller description of the specie6 given by 
Janczewski in the Bulletin of the Cracow 
Academy for October, 1913. The plant is hardy, 
flowering about the same time as its ally, 
R. laurifolium, Janczewski, and is an interest- 
ing companion to that species, and like it is 
dioecious. Our plant at Edinburgh is male, and 
will supply material for the completion of the 
specific description which is wanting in regard 
to the male flower. The specimens which 
Janczewski described had a history somewhat 
like that of our Edinburgh plant — "A single 
plant came up amongst seedlings of R. lauri- 



30 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 11, 1314. 



folium, Janczewski." It was a female, and pro- 
duced fruit by crossing with, R. laurifolium, 
Janczewski. Doubtless this hybrid is now in cul- 
tivation in Europe. Now that we have the male 
plant here, we shall hope for an opportunity of 
fertilising a female plant of the species. R. 
Henryi, Franchet, resembles R. laurifolium, 
Janczewski, being, like it, spineless, and 
producing entire, leathery, persistent leaves, 
but is readily distinguished, for it is 
viscid, glandular not glabrous, and the fruit 
is described as green, glandular, hispid, not 
pubescent and red. B. L. Harrow, Boyal Botanic 
Garden, Edinburgh. 

VALLOTA PURPUREA. 

This plant, which is popularly termed the 
Scarborough Lily, is a very showy bulbous plant 
that flowers, as a rule, towards the end of the 
summer and in autumn. On this account at is 
particularly valuable for the decoration of the 
greenhouse, as many of the summer flowering 
occupants are by that time on the wane. 

When first introduced in 1774 this Vallota 
was placed in the genus Amaryllis, which at that 
time embraced the Hippeastrums, while it has 
also been included in the genus Cyrtanthus. 
There is a story of its popular name having been 
derived from a ship, which was carrying a 
number of these bulbs, being wrecked off Scar- 
borough, and as some of them were washed 
ashore they were collected and they flowered in 
due course. 

There is a fair amount of individual differ- 
ence to be found in the Vallota, and several 
varietal names have been applied to them. A 
very old and, at the same time, well-marked 
variety is eximea, for which the late Mr. William 
Bull, of Chelsea, obtained a certificate as long 
ago as 1863. This is of rather dwarf habit, with 
large round bright scarlet flowers with a 
•whitish throat. Another known as magnifica, of 
bold growth, with large, richly-coloured' blos- 
soms, is very fine, when it can be obtained true : 
but this and other names are often bestowed 
upon individuals not the equal of the original 
ones. The old type of Vallota purpurea itself is 
also not met with to the same extent as it at one 
time was, for very large importations have 
within the last decade or so oeen sent to this 
country from South Africa, and many of these 
are less sturdy in growth, and with flowers of a 
more starry outline than those of the typical 
kind. These imported bulbs sometimes flower in 
the spring in the first season, while occasionally 
pinkish, and salmon-coloured blossoms crop up, 
but I have never known these to become per- 
manently established. 

Hybrids between this Vallota and garden 
varieties of Hippeastrum have been talked about, 
but I am not aware of any authenticated 
case. At all events, they are not in 
general cultivation. A very pretty hybrid was, 
however, raised in Sir Trevor Lawrence's garden 
an the eighties, between Vallota purpurea and 
Cyrtanthus (Gastronema) sanguineus. To one of 
these under the name of Gastronema hybrida was 
given a first-class certificate by the Royal Horti- 
cultural Society in 1885, and in the following 
year the deeper-coloured Gastronema hybrida 
rosea received a similar award. Large numbers 
were about this period raised in the nursery of 
the late Mr. William Bull at Chelsea, and were 
in time distributed under the name of Vallota 
hybrida. In the case of these the Vallota was 
the female or seed-bearing parent. 

Nerines and many other bulbs resent being 
disturbed at the roots more than is absolutely 
necessary, so that the potting compost should be 
of a good lasting nature. Yellow loam, a liberal 
sprinkling of sand, and a little fine brick rubble 
will suit VaMobas well, and if the loam is of too 
heavy a consistency a small amount of peat may 
be added. Another point to be observed is that 
after flowering the plants should have a good 
light position assigned them, as it is at that 
season they make their principal growth. W. T. 



NATIONAL DIPLOMA IN HORTICULTURE. 



The first examination of professional gar- 
deners for the National Diploma in Horticulture 
(Part I.), recently established by the Council of 
the Royal Horticultural Society, with the ap- 
proval and co-operation of the Board of Agricul- 
ture, was held on June 23-26. 

Sixty-three candidates entered for the examina- 
tion, of whom 42 passed, viz. : 6 in the A Divi- 
sion and 37 in the B Division, leaving 17 who 
failed to satisfy the examiners and three who 
did not present themselves. The examination 
was partly written, partly practical, and partly 
viva voce. 

The decision to make a test of craftsmanship 
an essential part of the examination is justified 
by the fact that whereas no candidate who passed 
the practical test failed in the written examina- 
tion, several of those who did well in the latter 
failed in the former. 

The practical examination was carried out at 
five centres— Wisley (R.H.S. Gardens), Edin- 
burgh (Dalkeith Garden), Cardiff (Duffryn Gar- 
den), Manchester (Worsley Garden), and Peter- 
borough (Orton Longueville Garden)— where each 
candidate was required to perform a full day's 
practical work in the presence of the examiners. 

The Society is under a great debt of gratitude 
to the Duke of Buccleuch, E.G., K.T., the Mar- 
quis of Huntly, P.C., the Earl of Ellesmere, and 
Reginald Cory, Esq., for kindly lending their 
gardens for the examination. 

Of the candidates those who presented them- 
selves at Edinburgh showed generally the best 
craftsmanship. 

The proportion of young to mature gardeners 
who entered for the examination was compara- 
tively small. There is good reason to believe, 
however, that their numbers will increase 
greatly in the immediate future. 

Frederick Keeble, F.R.S., Director of the 
R.H.S. Gardens, Wisley. 
W. Wilks, M.A., V.M.H., Secretary. 

PASS LIST. 
Division A. 
Simmond*. A., 110, London Eoad, St. Albans 
Cope^ Gertrude, Manor House Gardens, Northfield 
liirniingbani. ' 

Titohmarsh, O. O., R.H.S. Gardens, Wisley. 

rf rr J' £ er t ran i P - Holmea Fa ™' Ki'marnock, Ayr. 
Weed O. J. Rosemead, Winchester Road, Basingstoke 
Asoroft, R. W., Brorton House, philbolton, Hantf 

Division B. 
Kent W G., 22, Orchard Road, Kingston-on-Thames. 
Goude, H., 6, Elvin Road, East Dereham 
Abbia, H. W., The Pleasaunce, Overstrand 
Ekins, Emily H., Studley College. 

w n n< n'„„ H n r7 „ L -;, 01 S. rk 5! u ' WhaUey, near Blackburn. 
v£ 7'm V ' G -;. Far Croft ' La P w <"-«>. Warwickshire. 
Verrall, Florence M., The Pightle, Letheringsett, Holt. 
Ames Joseph, The Gardens, Earnock House, Hamilton, 
N.B. ' 

Green, J. J., Higher King Street, Hurst, Ashton-under- 

Lyne. 
Mclver, D. G., 8, Silver Street, Enfield 
Chislett, W., Oakleigh, Bishopsworth, near Bristol. 
Esplin, J. W., The Murrel, Aberdour, Fife. 
Manning, D., 21, Kitchener Avenue, Gloucester 
Johns, W. H., 10, Glendower Street, Cregagh Eoad. 

BelfaBt. 
Grinham, F. B., 20, Waterloo Place, Kew. 
White, W. O., 51, Fredericks Road, Becolea 
Costin, F. W., Clemsford, Shinfleld, Reading. 
Crisp, W. 0., The Lodge, Babington, Kilmersdon, Bath. 
Divers, J., 71, Selwyn Avenue, Richmond. 
Richardson, T., 6, Perth Street, Edinburgh. 
Ohapelow, H. 0., Ivy House, Wye, Kent. 
Stuart, G., 13, George Square, Edinburgh. 
Prentice, H., Hartpury Houbo, Maisemore, Glos. 
Foster, H. L., 4, Bower Lane, Maidstone. 
Mellea, A. B., Lime Tree Cottage, Kew Green. 
Wright, 0., 13, George Square, Edinburgh. 
Griffiths, F. A., Veitoh Cottage, Feltham. 
Giblett, H. J., Hurstbourna Park, Whitchurch, Hants. 
Good, W., 2, Elmbank Drive, Kilmarnock, Ayr. 
Meeke, B. D., 3, York Road, Wisbech. 
Fallow. G. 0., 6. Perth Street, Edinburgh. 
Anderson, D., 281, Dalkeith Road, Edinburgh. 
Cornelius-Wheeler, Eliza.beth, Elmwood, Cosham. 
Macintosh, C. T., Quarter House, Danny, N.B. 
Stewart, W., The Gardens, Industrial School, Desford. 
Harris, J., College Garden, Liberton, N.B. 
Coombes, J., Research Station, Long Ashton, Bristol. 

Jas. Hudson. V.M.H. 

F. J. Chittenden, F.L.S. 

W. Crump, V.M.H. 

F. G. Drew. f Jaamineri. 

W. Hales. 

R. J. Tabor 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 

(The Editor* do not hold tit em selves responsible f&i 
the opinions expressed by correspondents.) 

Grass in the Rockery (see pp. 435, 457). 
— I quite agree with the remarks of Mr. N. Gard- 
ner (p. 457) that to cultivate grass with Gen- 
tiana verna is entirely wrong, and it is very 
misleading wlhen employed in exhibition 
groups. It has a charming effect when used on 
rockeries at exhibitions, but to plant grass in 
the rock garden proper would soon result in a 
patch of weeds and no Gentian. But I do not 
agree as to using Thymus Serpyllum, for this 
I consider as bad as grass. In a compost suit- 
able for G. verna T. Serpyllum •would grow 
rampantly. I have tried G. verna in several 
positions and various composts. A batch of 
plante was set in a mixture of peat and granite 
chippings at the rate of 1 in 5 of chips in half 
shade. The plants flowered fairly well and made 
moderate growth ; some out of the same batch 
were planted in clay loam with a little lime-rubble 
added, but the plants made no headway. Another 
batch was planted in sandy loam in full sun, 
and the remainder in the same compost in a 
half-shaded situation. Those put in full sun 
made the best plants, but after the second season 
they gradually died. We have two large clumps 
of this Gentian and the largest carried nearly 2C0 
flowers this season. The plants were raised 
from own-saved seed, which was sown imme- 
diately it was ripe. The next spring they were 
pricked out in a mixture of loam and a little 
lime-rubble, care being taken to preserve the 
tap-roots ; the majority of the seedling flowered 
the next season. After flowering they were 
turned out of the pans without being disturbed 
at the root and planted in full sun in a mode- 
rately dry position. They are now growing well, 
this being their third season planted out. They 
are watered in dry weather and appear to be 
quite at home without any other material em- 
ployed. I do not think the position is such an 
essential factor as having plants with undis- 
turbed roots. If one could purchase plants well 
established in pots, there would not be so many 
failures with Gentiana verna. T. Whitham, 
Ilindhead. 

Peaches and Nectarines in the Open. — 

Wall trees of Peaches and Nectarines in this 
neighbourhood (Ealing) are carrying remarkably 
heavy crops of fruit this season, owing, doubt- 
less, in great measure, to the fine weather in 
September and October last year, which 
thoroughly ripened the wood. The fruits are 
developing well, and should the present 
favourable conditions continue, they will be 
of fine colour and good flavour. In a good 
season the fruits from outside trees are always 
better in taste and appearance than those grown 
under glass, but weather conditions are so seldom 
ideal in this country that it is very rare to find 
an abundance of fruit, especially on young trees 
in open quarters. G. W. Cannon, Osterley Park 
Nurseries, Ealing. 

Delphinium Emiliae.— In your "Answers 
to Correspondents " (p. 460) the opinion 
is hazarded tlhait Delphinium Emiliae is not 
in cultivation in this country. It found a 
home here some years ago, and, having been 
distributed to friends, ought not, I think, to 
be so rare as might be supposed. The plant is 
seemingly a sky-blue flowered form of D. de- 
corum ; but, however that may be, when well 
grown each is as lovely as the other, and no 
more beautiful miniature species exists in gar- 
dens. Like many C'alifornian plants, D. Emiliae 
begins the business of life betimes, and does 
not appreciate a Whitsun frost such as many 
gardens had to bear with last month ; for that 
reason the roots are best kept out of the ground 
till April. When at rest they are hard, twiggy 
little things, dry and apparently lifeless, and 
not in the least like the fleshy roots of D. 
nudicaule. D. Emiliae looks for all the world 
like the western counterpart of D. chinense. 
A. Grove, Krntons, Henley-on-Thames. 

Severing of Ivy Stems.— I thank the 
several correspondents who have kindly replied 
to my note on the severing of Ivy stems, from 
which I gather it is done in some cases success- 
fully. I well remember some fifteen or sixteen 



July 11, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



31 



years ago, at am old rectory in Hampshire, 
the incumbent was persuaded 1 by a gardener 
whom I knew personally that it would be 
perfectly safe for him to sever the stem of a 
line Ivy that was covering the western side oi 
the reotory. He did so, and grubbed up the 
roots. But, alas ! before April was out it was 
evident that the Ivy was dying, and it did die, 
much to the regret of the owner. //. O. B., 
Biddesden. 

National Diploma of Horticulture: 
Preliminary Examination. — Several writers 
in the gardening Press have deprecated the 
value of the National Diploma of Horticulture 
to the practical gardener, the result of which 
has been to produce an antagonistic feel- 
ing against the examinations. Personally, I 
felt rather soeptical with regard to the prac- 
tical test and had some misgivings as to the 
examiners themselves ; but I should like to re- 
cord my impressions for the benefit of those 
gardeners — and there are many — who were de- 
terred from entering by the fear that the theo- 
retical would out-balance the practical side of 
the tests. As to the examiners, it was evident 
that very great care had been expended in their 
ohoice, and in addition their kindly, sym- 
pathetic manner was calculated to put the most 
nervous candidate immediately at his ease. As 
the tests proceeded one felt assured that there 
was no fear of a practical man being floored 
or, what was more important still, that any but 
a practical man would be able to "scrape 
tihrough." My own feelings (shared by the 
majority of the candidates at this ceintre) 
were that the questions were lucid, an,d em- 
bodied points which every gardener worthy the 
name should have at his finger-ends. We felt 
that where we had failed to answer a question 
correctly it was due to a lack of knowledge of 
things which we ought to know, and we came 
away after a very pleasant day mentally re- 
solving to add to our store of knowledge at the 
earliest opportunity, and to do better next 
time. To those amongst us fortunate enough 
to pass, the examination will be an encourage- 
ment to perfect our professional knowledge in 
preparation for the final test, and to those of us 
who are not. so fortunate it will have been of the 
greatest value in stimulating us to 6eek to do 
better, and altogether it will do far more than 
any number of agitations and strikes to uplift 
the profession as a whole and weed out the 
"wasters." Tn closing, I should like to ex- 
press the hearty thanks of my fellow candi- 
dates and myself to the judges for the extremely 
kind, sympathetic and painstaking manner in 
which the examination was conducted, and to 
recommend every gardener who has the welfare 
of the profession at heart to prepare to enter 
next season. A Candidate. 

Young Gardeners (seep. 8). — If Sir Harry 
Veitch has cause to regret the lack of in- 
terest in their work on Uie part of young 
gardeners of the present day he hae not 
far to look for the reason. Men of the 
present generation are wiser than those of the 
past, and have the 'sense to think for themselves 
before they choose their occupation. The main 
question considered is the financial return for 
their labour and abilities. Is it reasonable to 
suppose a man will choose an occupation where 
the prospects are so poor that he can only earn 
enough to keep body and soul together ? _ A 
young man with any ambition starting life's 
journey considers what future prospects there 
are in store, and without a doubt comes to the 
conclusion that 20s. to 25s. per week under 
present conditions for a strenuous life of toil, 
both bodily and mentally, is not worth the 
candle, and he either looks for some other occu- 
pation or leaves the country on the chance of 
earning sufficient to be able to keep a wife and 
family in respectability. So far as the nursery 
trade is concerned I am sure that the employers 
would be only too glad to pay their mien, well, 
but owing to keen competition and poor prices 
for their produce they cannot do as they 
would wish, and until the trade makes a 
huge combination these unremunerative prices 
will continue. There is another point in the 
life of a horticulturist which goes very far to 
debar a young man from taking up the profes- 



sion, that is holidays. Gardeners seem to be a 
class of men who are considered never to be so 
tired and run down that it is necessary to have a 
holiday. There are holidays fixed for shop as- 
sistants, civil servants, and Government em- 
ployees generally. Soldiers, sailors, and police- 
men get theirs, but the poor, overworked gar- 
dener has none. After in many cases working 
from May to September from 6 a.m. to 8 or 9 
p.m. at night, and after a life of hard toil, 
mental worry, etc., what is the result at last? 
Not a pension at 60 years of age, like so many 
get, but a pinching and finally an end on charity 
or the workhouse. An Old Stager. 

Wasps. -Owing to the enormous amount of 
damage done by queen wasps in this neighbour- 
hood to fruit and other crops the committee 
of the Haywards Heath Horticultural Society 
offered 4d. per dozen for all queen wasps cap- 
tured within a radius of three miles of the 
church, and brought in by June 14. The result 
was 6,768 queens, besides upwards of 30 dozens 
brought in after the specified date. H. Lazell, 
Beech Hurst Gardens, Haywards Heath. 

Davenham and the Gardeners' Royal 
Benevolent Institution. — The beautiful 
grounds of Davenham, the residence of Mr. C. 
W. Dyson Perrins, were open to inspection by 
the public on the 25th ult., in aid of the funds 
of the Worcester Auxiliary of the Gardeners' 
Royal Benevolent Institution. The weather was 
perfect, and between 500 and 600 people availed 
themselves of the opportunity of inspecting one 
of the beauty spots of Worcestershire. The view 
from the terraces of the Severn Valley was mag- 
nificent, but the chief attraction was the Rose 
garden, in which there were thousands of choice 
blooms. Anchusas, Delphiniums, Campanulas, 
Sweet Peas, Antirrhinums in large masses, and 
other summer flowers were also very attractive. 
The glasshouses were full of flowers, such as Cal- 
ceolaria Clibranii, Carnations, Streptocarpus, 
Gloxinias, Schizanthus and Clarkia, with Palms 
and Ferns. In the fruit houses were Grapes, 
Peaches, Nectarines, Figs, Melons, Apples, 
Pears and Plums growing in pots. The gardener, 
Mr. C. A. Bayford, and his staff are to be con- 
gratulated on the good work which was seen in 
every department. A Visitor. 

Metrosideros lucida. — In the issue for 
June 27, p. 450, under the illustration of M. 
lucida, it was stated that it is the first time this 
plant has flowered in this country. Probably this 
meant out-of-doors, because in the Temperate 
House at Kew it has flowered regularly for 
several years past, and although it commenced 
to bloom early in May there are still a few of 
the brilliant scarlet flowers left. This plant has 
also flowered with Mr. Reuthe at Keston, and 
at Tresco Mr. Dorrien Smith has it growing in 
the open air, along with the better-known M. 
robusta, which also flowers freely every year in 
his delightful garden. Invariably the first plant 
New Zealanders ask for when visiting Kew is 
the " Rata," as it is under this name M. lucida 
is commonly known in New Zealand. IF. T. 

The Lesser Narcissus Fly.— I think Mr. 
Shea is a little unreasonable. I do not see how 
it would be possible to produce affirmative evi- 
dence to prove a negative, that is, to prove that 
the Eumeruis does not aittaick healthy bulbs. The 
negative results of the experiment with flies of 
the second brood recorded in the Journal of 
the Board of Agriculture seems to be the only 
sort of proof we can expect. And if the same 
negative result is obtained with flies of the first 
brood (as I expert will be the case if care is 
taken to assure the bulbs being sound and 
healthy throughout the experiment), though it 
might still be objected that it does not amount 
to absolute proof that the Eumerus never attacks 
healthy bulbs under any circumstances, it would, 
I think, satisfy all practical growers, and we 
should then concentrate our attention on the 
eradication of the disease which is, I fear, at 
present being masked by the subsequent pre- 
sence of the Eumerus larvae. I have received 
very contradictory reports on the diseased 
bulbs I have from time to time submitted, and 
this seems to point to something not yet fully 



recognised. But this disease, whether it is 
Fusarium, or, as I suspect, something else as yet 
undetermined of a similar nature to the fun- 
goid-bacterial disease of Irises, is evidently 
very infectious, and exceedingly dangerous and 
destructive, and, from all I hear, is spreading 
rapidly. If this should prove to be so, then 
the attributing to the Eumerus what is really 
due to this disease, and so delay its recognition 
and determination, are likely to prove disas- 
trous. There is on the other hand, abundant posi- 
tive evidence that the Eumerus does attack, or is 
found in, diseased bulbs, and does feed on de- 
caying matter, and this is now generally 
admitted even by those who do not think thalt 
it always does so. The onus of proof then cer- 
tainly lies on those who maintain thalt the 
Eumerus attacks healthy bulbs, and not on those 
who doubt or question it. I submit that as yet 
no suoh proof has been produced. With regard 
to the article in the Journal of the Board of 
Agriculture I have already pointed out that 
general statements, however authoritative, can- 
not be regarded as proof. Since then Mt. Chit- 
tenden's letter has appeared in your issue of 
June 20 (p. 435), and the report of the R.H.S. 
Committee of June 16 on the bulb from Mr. 
Backhouse (July 4, p. 22). In consideration of 
Mr. Chittenden's high reputation for accurate 
and painstaking observation, Ms statements cer- 
tainly carry very great weight, and I have some 
diffidence in expressing my doubt regarding the 
cases he mentions. But I think the experience 
I have to record will show that there may be 
some doubt. Since 1912 I have examined several 
hundred bulbs containing Eumerus larvae, and 
among them I found a few, less, I think, than 
5 per cent., which were as Mr. Chitltenden 
describes, that is, to ordinary naked-eye obser- 
vation they showed no other damage than could 
be accounted for by the larvae feeding in the 
bulb. In the hopes of saving such bulbs when 
the larvae had not penetrated very far I scraped 
out the larvae and cleaned away all the visible 
brown and decayed tissue, and kept them 
separate and under repeated observation. Most 
of these eventually went brown and rotten 
before planting time, in exactly the same way 
as other slightly diseased bulbs which I had 
kept, and which had had no larvae in them. 
Some were replanted, and as far as the J. (1910) 
seedlings, which had suffered most severely, are 
concerned, all disappeared. I cannot say abso 
lutely in all cases without going through all the 
scattered records of all my seedlings, but so far 
as my recollection goes no single bulb in which 
Eumerus larvae only have been found has ever 
survived. On the other hand, bulbs that have 
had Merodon grubs in them, even when consider- 
ably excavated, when so treated and replanted, 
almost invariably recover, or make healthy off- 
sets. Mr. Chittenden's statement that the decay 
of the bulb following the attack of the Eumerus 
is of the same nature as that following the at- 
tack of the Onion maggot, suggests a possible ex- 
planation of this invariably fatal ending to such 
attack. And if I may suggest another, it is that 
the flies may perhaps disseminate the disease, as 
they fly from one plant to another in depositing 
their eggs. If this should be so it would very 
much complicate the problem. In view of these 
two possibilities it is no doubt well still to keep 
an open mind, and therefore in spite of thinking 
that the case for healthy bulbs being attacked 
by the Eumerus is an increasingly weak one I 
join with Mr. Chittenden in advising that all 
doubtful bulbs should be at once taken up and 
examined, and all containing larvae should be 
destroyed. A. J. Bliss. 

Mr. Geo. St. Ox's attempt (p. 9) to rescue his 

friend, Mr. A. J. Bliss, from an untenable 
position would have been left unnoticed by me 
but for the fact that your correspondent imputes 
misquotation on my part of the Journal of 
the Board of Agriculture. And this is how 
Mr. Geo. St. Ox "works" it: by lifting the 
word " supposed " from the sentence in which it 
occurs, and seeking to make it appear that it 
applies to another sentence, namely that which 
I quoted from the Journal. And the two sen- 
tences deal with different points, and are 
separated by a full stop. The word " supposed " 
occurs only once on p. 140 of the Journal, and 
then in a sentence which deals wholly and solely 



32 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 11, 1914. 



with the question of the part of the Narcissus 
in which tie Eumerus fly is "supposed " — and 
That is here the correct terra, for at present the 
matter lacks definite proof — to lay its eggs. And 
then Mr. Geo. St. Ox calmly carries the word 
to a sentence dealing with quite a different 
matter, namely, the dominant point that the 
larvae from eggs, wherever laid, do, when 
hatched, "burrow into the necks of the bulbs," 
with results which, as the Journal points out, 
would make the Eumeirus "likely to prove as 
serious a pest even as Merodon." If they will 
do this it is obviously immaterial where the eggs 
may have isen laid. So that there may 
be no mistake I quote verbatim (the two 
sentences from p. 140 of the Journal of the 
B<>ard of Agriculture: — "The flies appear in. 
May and June, and are supposed to lay eggs 
near the base of the Narcissus leaves. The 
eggs hatch and the larvae burrow into the necks 
of the bulbs." The essential point which Mr. 
Geo. St. Ox seeks to obscure is this — Do the 
larvae, wherever the eggs may be laid, attack the 
healthy bulb? And as to this there can now 
remain no doubt whatever, however little Mr. 
Geo. St. Ox and Mr. A. J. Bliss may like it. 
For how stands the matter at the present time ? 
I have clearly stated my views founded on my 
own experienoe^riot surmise — and I cannot do 
better than quote from Mr. Geo. St. Ox's own 
letter to show what the Board of Agriculture 
thinks about it. He writes (p. 9) that "An 
article confirmatory of his [i.e., my] views came 
out in the May number of the Journal of the 
Board of Agriculture." And, following that, 
the letter of Mr. F. J. Chittenden (p. 435)— 
prudently ignored by Mr. Geo. St. Ox — which 
states that " at least at times the larvae attack 
healthy bulbs." This is the whole point, and 
is all that I have contended for, and sufficient 
justification, surely, for my note of warning 
that precautionary measures were required. And 
tlte whole effort of Messrs. Bliss and St. Ox /has 
been to seek to put growers off their guard and 
to deter them from taking these precautions. 
Questionably useful work this. I do not think 
that it is necessary for me to defend the Board 
of Agriculture and its Journal, or to enlighten 
the mind of Mr. Geo. St. Ox as to the propriety 
of the "14 different interjections" of the 
Journal which have so troubled him, and are 
supposed to have led me into error. But into 
what error? It seems to me that Mr. Geo. St. 
Ox has himself been led into the serious error 
of showing a too ill-concealed animus against the 
Journal and its expert — who is obviously not 
Mr. Geo. St. Ox. He prefers the state- 
rnents of his friend Mr. Bliss on this sub- 
ject to those of either myself or the Journal of 
the Board of Agriculture. But I had perceived 
no "statements" by Mr. Bliss, only mere sur- 
mises upon an idea — and here Mr. Geo. St. Ox 
unkindly lets the " cat out of the bag "■ — which 
was not even his own. I suggested that in my 
last note. And now I will conclude with a 
question which, candidly, I should not have 
iisked but for the note of personality which Mr. 
Geo. St. Ox imports into his last letter. It is 
this. What is Mr. Geo. St. Ox's competence to 
dogmatise upon the subject at all ? I re- 
member his name as the writer of an article in 
The Garden of September 13, 1913, upon what 
he evidently thought to be the Merodon. Inter 
alia of funny things he told us that he had killed 
as many as 62 flies of the Merodon in three 
hours, and we know how difficult it is at times 
to catch even a single fly with any sort of net. 
And the flies were evidently buzzing about very 
much at large, for, so Mr. Geo. St. Ox writes : — 
" I found the fly this year in lanes feeding on 
Wild Hemlock ; in the neighbourhood of houses ; 
in railway stations; in fields; on the grass, etc." 
The sky must have been quite dark with them 
it would almost seem. And I remember the 
wonder came into my mind as I read that article 
whether its writer really knew the Merodon from 
the bluebottle ; and, if he did, could there be 
a single Narcissus bulb remaining in his garden 
or its neighbourhood? And I am wondering on 
this point still. Of course it is not wrong to 
kill bluebottles, so I am not finding fault with 
Mr. Geo. St. Ox for his extraordinary exertions 
in those three hours. Rather, he has my sym- 
pathy, if it is of any use to him. Charles E. 
■S7ie<i. 




The Week's Work. 





THE ORCHID HOUSES, 

By H. J. Chapman, Gardener to Mrs. Cookson, 
Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne. 

Cynibidium.— Certain Cymbidiums, including 
C. Tracyanum and its hybrids, produce at this 
season a number of roots that grow in an up- 
right manner through the surface of the potting 
compost. Afi soon as such roots are observed, 
any necessary repotting should be done. Do not 
disturb the roots of large specimens, unless the 
plants require increased room, or the compost 
is in an unsatisfactory condition, but when dis- 
turbance is imperative, then use a durable com- 
post. Two parts of good turfy loam, one of 
fibrous peat or Osmunda fibre, and plenty of 
broken charcoal, well mixed together, will pTO- 
-vdde a suitable mixture. The pots should 
be large enough for the plants to occupy 
them for two seasons ; in these circumstances, it 
will be seen that efficient drainage is of the 
utmost importance, especially as the plants re- 
quire a liberal supply of root moisture at all 
times of the year. C. Lowianum and other 
species from which the flowers have been re- 
moved recently are commencing to grow afresh, 
and as soon as the new growth is a few inches 
in length, the work of re-potting or top-dressing 
may be given attention. The plants of this 
species and allied genera, together with their 
hybrids, should be overhauled annually, all dead 
and decaying matter at the base cleared away, 
and a close observation made for the presence of 
insect pests, which frequently secrete themselves 
at the base of dead leaf-bracts. By destroying 
the pests before new growth commences much 
trouble will be saved later ; brown and white scale 
are the worst pests, but plants that have been 
in contact with others that have been attacked 
by mealy-bug may also be infested with this 
pest. Recently-potted plants should be shaded 
carefully until the roots are re established. 
Syringe the plants overhead two or three times 
a day during hot, dry weather, and keep the 
atmosphere well charged with moisture. C. 
Tracyanum flowers satisfactorily when grown 
with Odontoglossums throughout the yeair. 
C. Lowianum, its hybrids, and most of 
the allied species are best grown in warm 
conditions during the winter, Dut from March 
until October they do very well in a cool house. 
C. devonianum. with its tufted growth of broad 
leaves, is rarely seen in cultivation. The plant 
flowers late in spring and early summer, and 
should only be re-potted when a shift is abso- 
lutely necessary, as the roots usually take a 
considerable time to become re-established. The 
compost should be of a lighter and more open 
nature than that recommended for the more 
robust kinds. C. tigrinum is best grown in 
shallow pans or baskets that may be suspended 
from the roof-rafters, being of dwarf habit and 
with drooping racemes. The warm intermediate 
house suits this species best. The work of potting 
should be attended to during the next few weeks 
as soon a,s the roots become active. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By W. Crump. Gardener to Earl Beauchaup, K.C.M.G., 
Madresfield Court, Worcestershire. 

Montbretia.— This highly decorative bul- 
bous plant thrives in any open soil, provided it 
has not been manured recently. The flowers are 
of great value for cutting, and last fresh for a 
long time in water. Clumps that are crowded 
should be marked with a view to lifting them in 
the autumn, when the best corms should be 
selected for planting in a fresh site. It is ad- 
visable to re-plant a portion of the stock of these 
plants every year. 

The Rose Garden.— June is a most impor- 
tant month in the Rose garden, and the grower 
needs to be very watchful of hi3 trees, always 
remembering in the case of pests and diseases 
that " prevention is better than cure." The Rose 
has numerous enemies — aphis, mildew, sawflies. 
Rose slugworm, caterpillars, beetles aind leaf 



miners, and numerous others — all of which 
are ever ready to attack the plants. The 
most troublesome pest is aphis, which may 
be kept in check by spraying with quassia 
extract, 1 gallon of extract and 6 lbs of 
soft soap to make 100 gallons ; op 6 lbs. 
soft soap, 2 ozs. of pure nicotine to 50 gallons 
soft water. Spray the trees two or three times 
on alternate days. Garden Roses are the most 
useful of all, for not only are they effective 
and perpetual bloomers in large beds, one 
variety in one bed, but they are equally valuable 
for furnishing cut blooms. The following are 
sterling varieties which have proved a success 
with us : — Ecar-late, C. J. Graham, Papa Gon- 
tier, General McArthur, Warrior, G. Nabon- 
nand, Avoca, Marquise de Sinety, Richmond, 
Mrs. E. G. Hill, Mme. Melanie Soupert, Le 
Progres, Lady Hillingdon, Corallina, Rhea 
Reid, Frau Karl Druschki, Caroline Testout, 
Pharisaer, and that beautiful late bloomer, 
Beaute de Lyon. For cutting in the bud stage 
we have Irish Elegance and Fireflame. In the 
Polyantha section we have Perle d'Or, Anna 
Marie de Montravel, Perle des Rouges, Orleans, 
and others, all of which are suitable for cutting. 

Tulips.— Bulbs of the Darwin and May- 
flowering varieties that were removed from the 
beds to make room for the summer-bedding 
plants are now ripened and should be lifted from 
the ground after their temporary replanting, and 
dried and assorted. The firmest and largest 
bulbs should be placed in drawers or paper bags 
and duly labelled ; many of these will flower fairly 
well next year if managed as directed. I have 
come to the conclusion that the late or May- 
flowering Tulips are the only Tulips worth grow- 
ing in quantities. Those of the early single 
Dutch section can never be depended upon to 
flower well the second year, and as the bulbs 
may be purchased cheaply there is very little in- 
ducement to attempt to flower them the second 
year, whether in grass or borders. The double 
varieties are best for planting in grass, and 
much more lasting. 

Rock Plants.— The present is a good time to 
propagate many subjects in the rockery from 
cuttings formed of half-ripened shoots. Prepare 
a cold frame by placing a layer 6 inches deep of 
material for drainage, and on this spread 
another 6 inches of sandy peat and fine leaf- 
mould, with 3 inches of pure sand on the top. 
Insert the cuttings as they are available, water 
them well, but do not shade the glass or ven- 
tilate the frames. Gently damp them overhead 
by means of a syringe three or four times daily, 
according to the condition of the atmosphere. 
The more sunshine and humidity the quicker 
will the cuttings root. 



FRUITS UNDER GLASS. 

By W. Hbdlbt Warreh, Gardener to the Aston-Clinto» 
Park Estate (the Rt. Hon. Lord Rothschild), Buck- 
inghamshire. 

Cucumbers.— Attend to the training and 
stopping of the growths at least twice each week, 
and endeavour to furnish all the space in the 
house or frame with healthy growth. Admit 
air early in the day, but not too freely at first, 
remembering always to keep the atmosphere 
moist by damping all available surfaces fre- 
quently. 

Strawberries. — Tho runners intended for 
forcing uext season should be secured as soon as- 
possible. Select only the very strongest plants 
and layer them in 3-inch pots filled with loamy 
compost, made very firm. As each runner ia 
placed in position, and secured to the soil by a 
small wooden peg, afford the soil a copious water- 
ing, but guard against an excess of moisture 
afterwards, until the pots are filled with roots. 
An occasional damping overhead with clear water 
will benefit the plants and favour the develop- 
ment of "roots. All lateral runners should be re- 
moved as well as any others on the parent plant 
that are not required. The compost for layers 
may consist of four barrowfuls of good fibrous 
loam and one barrowful manure from an old hot- 
bed, or spent Mushroom-bed, with a little soot 
and bone meal, turning the mixture three or 
four times, so that the ingredients may be well 
mixed. 



July 11, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



:;; 



Tomatos- The houses in which Tomatos are 
grown should be ventilated freely, admitting air 
by the top ventilators. Tep-dress the roots from 
time to time, and feed them on occasions with 
liquid manure, as there is little danger of the 
foliage becoming gross when the roots are re- 
stricted in pots. Remove the laterals but do 
not prune away any of the foliage, unless it ia 
absolutely necessary in order to allow the light 
and air to reach the fruit. As plants in succes- 
sion houses oonie into bearing, ventilate them 
freely to favour a sturdy growth. Keep the at- 
mosphere somewhat dry, but guard against 
drought at the roots. Never syringe Tomatos 
overhead, but damp the paths and other bare 
spaces to promote atmospheric moisture. 

Figs.— Trees on which the second crop is 
maturing require an abundance of air, both by 
night and day, for the atmosphere should be 
buoyant, and not surcharged with moisture. At 
the same time a high temperature should be 
afforded, using fire heat if necessary; the 
growths will then become firm and well ripened. 
After the second crop has been gathered 
do not allow the trees to fruit a^ain, but with- 
hold root and atmospheric moisture, and allow 
the trees to enjoy a rest. 

Melons.— Where the plants are clean and 
healthy, and the first crop of. fruit has been cut, 
reduce and regulate the growths, and afford a 
thorough watering withdiquid manure. Success- 
sive cropping gives quick returns, and under 
proper cultivation the plants will produce a 
second crop equal to the first. Ventilate freely the 
pits and frames in which fruit is ripening, and 
expose every leaf to the light. If ripe fruits ar« 
required in October, set fresh nlants at the end 
of this month in pits or frames heated with hot 
water. It is not to be expected that these later 
fruits will be so fine or so highly-flavoured as 
those ripened by the sun. Fill the bed of the 
pit with suitable materials to furnish a lasting 
but mild bottom heat, and plunge the pots to 
their rims, or set the plants on mounds or ridges 
of earth. The best varieties for late cropping 
are those which are also best suited for early 
fruiting, such as Eminence, Blenheim Orange, 
and Earl's Favourite. 



THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. 

By J. G. Weston, Gardener to Lady Northcoth, 
Eastwell Park. Kent. 

Apples.— There is every promise of a large 
crop of Apples in this locality. Trees that are 
bearing heavily should lie thinned before the 
fruits are fan* advanced, and a start should be 
made with the large, culinary varieties. Over- 
cropping would not only cause a loss in the 
quality of the present season's crop, but would 
cripple the tree for the next two or three year?. 
The necessity of thinning the early varieties was 
dealt with in a previous calendar ; mid-season 
and late varieties should now receive attention. 
Certain varieties in favourable seasons invari- 
ably set large crops, for instance Lane'6 Prince 
Albert, which is one of the most prolific of late 
Apples. Indeed so freelv does it bear that 
young trees are often greatly injured thereby, if 
not irretrievably ruined, unless thinning is prac- 
tised. I have seen instances where young 
standard trees have been overcropped, and after- 
wards they made scarcely amy growth, but pre- 
sented a starved and stunted condition. The 
treatment to bring the trees into a proper condi- 
tion, again consists in. cutting the head hard 
back, thereby inducing new growth to develop. 
At the same time the roots Should be stimulated 
by feeding and watering, thus assisting the tree 
to recover. 

Apples for exhibition.— When fruit is re- 
quired for exhibition] the crop should be thinned 
severely, but it is well not to remove all the 
surplus fruits at one operation, but rather 
to go over the trees a second time after 
an interval of a week or two. The ta-ees 
must also be given assistance in the form 
of manure and regular waterings during 
dry weather. Culinary varieties suitable for 
exhibition include Emperor Alexander, Peas- 
good's Nonesuch, Gascoyne's Scarlet Seedling, 
Bismarck, Gloria Mundi, Norfolk Beauty, Rev. 
W. Wilks. Mere de Menage, Bramlev's Seedling, 



Hambling's Seedling, Warner's King, Golden 
Noble, Lane's Prince Albert, Newton Wonder, 
The Queen, Lord Derby and Jubilee. 

Dessert Apples do not usually require so 
much thinning as culinary sorts, but for the pro- 
duction of the finest dessert fruits some thinning 
must be practised. The same danger from over- 
cropping applies as in the case of the cooking 
varieties. A selection of the best dessert Apples 
for show purposes includes James Grieve, Wor- 
cester Pearmain, American Mother, Alington 
Pippin, King of the Pippins, Cox's Orange Pip- 
pin, King of Tompkins County, Christmas Pear- 
main, Wealthy, Ribsto-. Pippin, Charles Ross, 
Rival, Lord Hindlip, Lgremont Russet, King 
Harry, Reinette de Canada, and Scarlet Non- 
pareil. 

PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By C. H. Cook, Gardener to the Earl of Derby, 
Knowsley Hal], Lancashire. 

Violets for Winter Flowering.— The 

ground between the rows should be kept free 
from weeds and stirred with the hoe. Runners are 
developing, and these should be removed close 
to the crown of the parent plants. If the 
weather continues dry a mulching of manure 
from a spent Mushroom-bed will help to keep 
the grounds moist. Dust the plants with soot to 
keep red spider in check, and syringe them in 
the afternoon when the weather is fine. Double 
varieties are more subject to infestations of red 
spider than the single sorts, and the pest must 
be kept in check by a frequent use of the syringe, 
applying the spray with force on the undersides 
of the foliage. 

Salvia.— The plants are ready for potting 
finally, using 8 or 10-inch pots for the largest 
specimens. Pots 6 inches in diameter are suit- 
able for the later-rooted cuttings. The compost 
may be such as is used for Chrysanthemums, and 
it should be made firm. Stand the plants in a 
sheltered, sunny place out-of-doors, pay careful 
attention to watering and syringing, and feed 
them with manure and soot water as soon as the 
pots become filled with roots. Stop the snoots aB 
soon as the roots are re-established, and again 
when the secondary growths are 3 inches long. 

Francoa. — F. ramosa (white), F. appendicu- 
lata (red), and F. sonchifolia (pink), are worthy 
subjects for greenhouse culture. Plants of the 
earliest batch are throwing up their flower spikes, 
and should be supported to stakes, and the roots 
afforded stimulants. Later batches may be 
grown in a cold frame with a north aspect. Re- 
pot young stock in a compost consisting of half 
loam, half leaf-mould, dry, broken cow-manure 
and sand. Young plants should receive the pro- 
tection of lights for a week or two. 

Begonia Gloire de Lorraine.— The 

strongest plants need shifting into 6 and 7-inch 
pots, in which they will flower. Use compost of 
an open texture, such as is provided by three- 
parts turfy loam (removing the very fine soil), 
the remainder equal parts fine dried cow-manure 
and half-decayed oak leaves rubbed through a 
i-inch sieve, adding a little soot and sand. Use 
plenty of drainage materials, and pot moderately 
firmly. Stand the plants in a house or pit hav- 
ing a temperature of 65° to 70° at night, and 
dust the stagings occasionally with soot, also 
syringe the plants two or three time daily. 

Begonia Gloire de Soeaux. — Cuttings of 
this handsome Begonia may still be inserted, and 
the plants will make handsome decorative speci- 
mens in 6-inch pots. The earlier plants will make 
large specimens in 8-inch pots. Cuttings root 
freely in an open compost in thumb pots. Plunge 
the pots in cocoanut fibre with a bottom heat of 
70°. Re-pot the plants as soon as they are 
ready for shifting, and grow them on as 
directed for the variety Gloire de Lorraine. 
Keep the atmosphere moist, and shift the plants 
into larger receptacles before the roots become 
potbound. Mite is sometimes troublesome, and 
fumigating should be practised to keep the pest 
in check. 

Mignonette intended for flowering in 
autumn should be sown, now in 5-inch pots, the 
compost to consist of three parts loam, one part 
leaf-mould, a little mortar rubble, and manure 
from a spent Mushroom-bed. Press the soil in 
the pots, make the surface smooth, sow a few 
seeds in each pot, and cover them with fine soil. 



Cover the pots with mats to assist the seeds to 
germinate. Thin the seedlings to 5 in each 
pot, and subject them to cool treatment 
throughout. Pick off the first flowers to promote 
a branching habit, and afford the roots stimulants 
when they fill the pots. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

By R. P. Brotherston, Gardener to the Earl or 
Haddington, Tymnghanie, East Lothian. 

Herbs.— Any kind of herb that has made 
suitable growth should be cut and the shoots 
dried. Some consider that herbs are best dried 
in the sun, whilst others favour drying them in 
a cool apartment. Sun drying has long usage to 
recommend it. 

Shallots.— The bulbs will now be ready in 
many districts to harvest. A good method of 
ripening the bulbs is to stretch a piece of small- 
meshed wire netting clear of the ground and dis- 
pose the shallots thinly thereon. In this maniitr 
they receive the maximum amount of air, whilst, 
rain passes away as it falls and does them no 
harm. When sufficiently dried Shallots should 
be stored in a dry and airy place. 

Endive.— Make a sowing of broad-leaved Bata- 
vian Endive for transplanting into frames for 
use in mid-winter. When large enough to 
transplant set the seedlings not closer than 
15 inches apart in light soil. 

Cabbages.— In the north seeds of Cabbages 
for spring cutting should be sown forthwith, the 
old custom of sowing in beds still obtaining in 
many gardens. It has the great advantage when 
carefully performed of securing to the seedlings 
more space than is usual for those raised in 
lines, though rows drawn wide and the seeds 
sparingly scattered therein are equally good. 
The soil, if recently dug, should be firmed some- 
what in order to produce a hard growth from 
the initial stage. Firm soil, moreover, contri- 
butes to the formation of plenty of fibrous 
roots. 

Peas.— It is customary to sow an early variety 
on or about this date for late picking,' though, 
with the excellent late varieties we now possess 
there is no great necessity for continuing the 
practice. Still, if there is space at command, 
and a dwarf-growing variety is chosen, such as 
Chelsea Gem or other of this type, it is only a 
question of putting in the seeds, and by-and"-by 
drawing some soil to the stems to keep them 
upright, and no doubt the plants re less liable 
to mildew than the usual run of late Peas. 

Winter GREENS.-Before these become too 
large the soil, if of a close texture, should be 
loosened with a fork or other suitable implement, 
and then enough drawn to each side of the 
plants to render them steady. We earth Brussels 
Sprouts with the spade, the soil never being 
turned over save on this occasion, and the plants 
exhibit a marked advance of growth subse- 
quently. London Coleworts should be planted 
from time to time wherever there is space avail- 
able, the heads being of much value on account 
of their tender quality. Scotch Kale sown in 
May is ready for transplanting, and will do well 
in succession to Peas, Potatos, or other early 
crops, the ground merely needing to be cleaned, 
if weedy, and levelled. If a first-rate kind is 
grown a space of 18 inches is sufficient for each 
plant. A surface-dressing of rotted manure and 
a good artificial are important aids to growth. 
It is the general belief that this Kale is quite 
hardy, which is a mistake, some strains being 
peculiarly subject to loss from frosts, and on 
that account a hardy growth such as that in- 
duced by a surface dressing is to be preferred 
to the more tender growth of plints set in 
manured soil. 

French Beans.— A large sowing of French 
Beans may be made now or soon on the border 
occupied earlier by Peas, Cauliflowers, and 
other crops, breaking the ground thoroughly, 
and adding some welldecayed manure. If the 
soil is dry waiter it weld in the drill- 
The seeds need not be so close as for 
the main sowing ; if the plants are 1 foot apart 
it will be a suitable space. Choose a dwarf 
variety, such as Osborn's Forcing, in preference 
to a more robust sort, and as soon as the plants 
are well above the ground draw a little soil to 
the stems, repeating the operations later. 



34 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 11, 1914. 



EDITORIAL NOTICE. 



ADVERTISEMENTS should be sent to the 
PUBLISHES. 41. Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, W.C- . . , 

Editors and Publisher. — Our correspondents 
would obviate delay in obtaining answers to 
their communications, and save us much time and 
trouble, if they would kindly observe the notice 
■printed weekly to the effect that all letters relat- 
ing to financial matters and to advertisements 
should be addressed to the Publishrr ; and that 
all communications intended for publication, or 
referring to the Literary department, and all 
plants to be named, should be directed to the 
Editors. The two departments, Publishing and 
Editorial, are distinct, and much unnecessary de- 
lay and confusion arise when letters are mis- 
directed. 

Special Notice to Correspondents. — The 
Editors do not undertake to pay for any contribu- 
tions or illustrations, or to return unused com- 
munications or illustrations, unless by , special 
arrangement. The Editors do not hold themselves 
responsible for any opinions expressed by their 
correspondents. 

Local News.— Correspondents will greatly oblige 
by sending to the Editors early intelligence of local 
events likely to be of interest to our readers, or of 
any matters which it is desirable to bring under 
the notice of horticulturists. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 

TUESDAY, JULY 14— 

Boy Hort. Soc. Ooms. meet. (Lecture ot 
3 p.m. on " The Cooking of Leaf Vege- 
tables.") Saltaire and District Sh. (2 days). Arbori. 
Ex. at Hawick (4 days). Gloucestershire Rose and 
Sweet Pea Sh. 
WEDNESDAY, JULY 15— _ , „ „ 

Hort Club Excursion to Hatfield House and Balls 
Park. Formby Hort. Soc. Sh. Nottingham Hort. 
Soc. Sh. (2 days). Llandudno and District Hort. 
Soc. Sh. 
THURSDAY, JULY 15— 

Nat. Sweet Pea Soc. Sh. at R.H.S. Hall. Nat. Rose 
Soc. Sh. in Sydney Gdns., Bath. Birmingham 
Floral Fete (3 days). Manchester and North of 
England Orchid Soc. meet. 
FRIDAY. JULY 17— 

Nat. Carnation and Picotee Soc. Sh.. R.H.S. Hall. 



Avbragb Mean Temperature for the ensuing week 

deduced from observations during the last Fifty 

Years at Greenwich, 63.2. 
Actual Temperatures : — 

London, Wednesday, July 8 : Max. 72° ; Min. 55°. 

Gardeners' Chronicle Office, 41, Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, London, Thursday, July 9 
(10 a.m.) ; Bar. 29.7 ; Temp. 78°. Weather- 
Cloudy to fair. 

Provinces, Wednesday, Julv 8 : Max. 71°, Leaming- 
ton ; Min., 48°. Buxton. 



In Nature plants have 
seeds, Dead had a hard mistress, 
or Alive? b u ^ t, ne y nave accom- 
modated themselves to 
her demands. This is very clear when we 
look at the arrangements of different 
plants with regard to their seeds. Some 
we find have so planned it that their seeds 
shall germinate at once on ripening, and 
if they do not they quickly die ; others 
have so ordered their existence that their 
seeds shall remain, by one contrivance or 
another, for long periods in the ground 
without growth, and so become scattered 
in time. The gardener has often other 
ideas upon these subjects. He wishes now 
to force the reluctant seed into germina- 
tion, now to hinder and preserve the over- 
hasty one. 

An account of some work has recently 
appeared in the Proceedings of the Royal 
Society, under the title of " The Control- 
ling Influence of Carbon Dioxide in the 
Maturation, Dormancy and Germination 
of Seeds " (see Gardeners' Chronicle, Vol. 
L., p. 392) which has suggestive bearings 
upon these two difficulties — relics of the 
old regime — which confront the new lords 
of the plant world. It has been found 
that by means of comparatively small 
amounts of carbon dioxide in the atmo- 
sphere the germination of wet seeds is 
completely inhibited. It is as if a sort of 
narcosis or drugged sleep had been in- 



duced, for in the experiments described 
the full amount of warmth, oxygen and 
water necessary for germination in the 
ordinary way was given. You might, in- 
deed, for the moment be convinced that 
the seeds are dead. Yet they are only 
in a deep comatose sleep. Remove the 
carbon dioxide and in a couple of days or 
so the seeds all begin to germinate. 

In some cases the charm proved not so 
simple. On the removal of the soporific 
(carbon dioxide) the sleepers did not 
awake. At first it seemed that here was a 
sad end to the tale. Thus White Mustard 
(Brassica alba) seeds were prevented from 
germinating on wet sand by 20 per cent. 
CO z in the atmosphere, but when the C0 2 
was removed they still lay on day after 
day with never a stir or a sign of sprout- 
ing. The conclusion was obvious — they 
were dead. They were thrown upon the 
manure heap. Time passed and the sad 
author, walking in his garden, was struck 
with amazement : the dead had come to 
life again. The discarded seed had pro- 
duced a flourishing crop of young 
Mustard. 

A series of careful experiments follow- 
ing on this observation has shown that in 
certain cases wet seeds are thrown into a 
condition of prolonged after-dormancy by 
the action of C0 2 upon them while in ger- 
minating conditions. Two methods were 
found by which seeds in this condition 
could be induced to germinate freely at 
once: either complete re-drying or the - e- 
moval of the seed-coat. 

The interest of these facts is much in- 
creased when it is noted that the author 
was able to repeat his results in the soil 
by using carbon dioxide produced from 
rotting organic matter. He remarks with 
probable significance that dunging and 
the ploughing in of green crops or the 
digging of weeds or other organic material 
would be likely to produce considerable 
quantities of C0 2 in the soil — quite 
enough often to inhibit the germination of 
seeds planted under these conditions. It 
must occur to anyone interested that this 
is matter worth systematic investigation, 
the results of which might be of use to the 
practical man. In one case 8 per cent, 
of C0 2 was found in the soil gases several 
months after half a bushel of green grass 
had been earthed over to the depth of a 
foot. In another 10 per cent. CO B 
occurred in air taken from soil that had 
been dunged some ten days previously. 

The influences of temperature and 
oxygen supply upon this inhibition of seed 
germination by carbon dioxide are im- 
portant from one point of view. It is 
striking to find that lower temperatures 
and decreased amounts of oxygen both in- 
tensify this inhibitory action of carbon 
dioxide upon germinating seeds. Thus at 
38° Fahr. i per cent, of CO, sufficed to 
stop the germination of Mustard seeds, 
while at 47° Fahr. 8 per cent, was suffi- 
cient. With regard to oxygen, on the 
other hand, with 5 per cent, at 63° Fahr. 
12 per cent. C0 2 inhibited germination, 
with 10 per cent, oxygen 18 per cent. 
COit. Such figures suggest that COg in- 
hibition of seeds must be a fairly fre- 
quent occurrence in the soil in nature. 



Our Supplementary Illustration.— 

Clerodendron splendens has been known to gar- 
deners in this country for the past 70 years, but 
although one of the finest stove climbers in cul- 
tivation, it is comparatively rare in gardens. 
It was introduced originally from Sierra Leone, 
but it is fairly common iu certain localities 
over a vast tract of country in Tropical West 
Africa. It forms a strong, quick-growing climber 
suitable for either an intermediate house or stove, 
flowering freely in either structure, but pro- 
ducing the finest trusses of flowers when the heat 
is not excessive. It thrives in any rich soil, and is 
suitable for either pot or border culture. In com- 
mon with other quick-growing plants, it is a 
gross feeder, and a well-drained soil is essential 
to its well-being. The flowers are produced in 
clusters at the ends of the climbing growths, and 
from the numerous lateral ones, which are pro- 
duced all along the length of the new growths. 
The colour of the flowers contrasts finely 
with the rich olive-green foliage. The plant 
has no decided resting period, neither has 
it any well-marked period of flower, for 
clusters of flowers are produced throughout the 
whole year, but are most abundant during the 
months of March, April and May. A fine hybrid 
between this species and the well-known C. 
Thomsonae has long been in cultivation at Kew 
under the name of C. speciosum. The flowers 
are a rosy-red shade, and are produced in loose, 
spreading panicles throughout the summer and 
autumn. Like most of the tropical species of 
this genus, both C. splendent and its hybrid are 
readily raised from cuttings of half-ripe wood 
inserted in sandy soil in a moist case with brisk 
bottom heat, where they root in a few weeks. 

Visit of Horticultural Club to Hat- 
field House and Balls Park.— On the oc- 
casion of this excursion, which was announced 
last week for Wednesday next, July 15, the 
members and friends will meet at 9.30 a.m., at 
the Hotel Windsor, Victoria Street, Westminster, 
S.W. At 10 o'clock motor-cars will convey 
the party to Hatfield House, the seat of 
the Marquess of Salisbury, G.C.V.O. An in- 
spection will be made of the park and gardens 
before lunch, which will be taken at the Red Lion 
Hotel. Immediately after lunch Hatfield House will 
be visited. Later in the afternoon the party will 
drive through one of the prettiest parts of Hert- 
fordshire to Balls Park, the seat of Sir George 
Faudel-Phillips, Bt., G.C.I.E., who has kindly 
invited the club to inspect the gardens and take 
tea. The return journey to town will be made 
by motor-car. Tickets may be obtained from Sir 
Harry Veitch, East Burnham Park, Slough. 

Holland House Show. -The following 
Supplementary Awards were made by the Council 
at the Summer Show at Holland House : — Silver- 
gilt Cup to Mr. Maurice PRiCHARn for hardy 
herbaceous plants; Silver-gilt Banksian Medal 
to Messrs. Bakers, for hardy plants; Silver 
Flora Medals to Messrs. Barr and Sons for cut 
flowers, and Messrs. R. H. Bath, for hardy her- 
baceous plants ; Silver Banksian Medal to Messrs. 
Rich and Co., for hardy herbaceous plants ; 
Bronze Flora Medal to Messrs. Cannell, for 
hardy herbaceous plants. In addition to 
the exhibitors of Sweet Peas mentioned 
last week, Messrs. John K. King and 
Sons, Coggeshall, showed a collection of some 50 
distinct varieties, occupying about 30 feet space, 
for which they were awarded a Silver Cup. The 
leading varieties included Scarlet Emperor, 
White King, King Alfred, Queen Mary, Prince 
Edward of Wales, Wedding Bells, Coral Gem, 
Rosabelle, Decorator, Illuminator, Marks Tey and 
others. Mr. Andrew Campbell, Alpine Nursery, 
Ardross, Leeds, exhibited alpine plants naturally 
arranged, with rock stones selected from the 
local river, all beautifully covered with Moss, 
weathered green, and naturally planted with the 
choicest alpine plants, for which he was awarded 
a Flora Medal. The fine collection of Chines© 



Supplement to "The Gardeners' Chronicle' 







CLERODENDRON SPLENDENS (Nat. Ord. Verbenaceae) 

Stove Climber from Sierra Leone. 



July 11, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE 



35 




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July 11, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



37 



trees and shrubs exhibited by the Hon. Vicary 
Gibbs, was awarded a Silver-gilt Cup, not a 
Silver-gilt Medal, as stated last week. 

s iThe Gardeners' Company.— At the Man- 
sion House on the 1st inst., the Master and 
Wardens of the Worshipful Company of Gar- 
deners made their annual present of flowers, 
vegetables, and sweet herbs to the Lord Mayor. 
This annual gift is made to commemorate a 
warrant issued by the Recorder, Sir Edward 
Littleton, in 1632, ordering the apprehension of 
persons using the trade in contempt of the Com- 
pany's Charters. 

R.H.S. Forced Bulb Show.— The Council 
of the Royal Horticultural Society will offer (sub- 
ject to the General Rules of the Society) prizes 
presented to them by the General Bulb Growers' 
Society of Haarlem, at the special bulb show on 
March 9, 10. Six classes are open to amateurs, 
(a) 18 Hyacinths, distinct, 1st prize, Gold 
Medal, and £3 3s. ; (b) 12 Hyacinths, distinct, 1st 
prize, Silver-gilt Medal and £2 2s. ; (c) 6 Hya- 
cinths, distinct, 1st prize, Silver Medal and 
£1 Is. ; (d) 8 pans containing Hyacinths, 10 
roots of one variety in each pan, 1st prize, Gold 
Medal and £3 3s. ; (e) 4 pans containing Hya- 
cinths, 10 roots of one variety in each pan, 1st 
prize, Silver-gilt Medal and £2 2s. ; (f) the 
finest decorative display of Hyacinths, to be 
staged on the floor, 1st prize, Gold Medal and 
£3 3s. The class for trade growers is for 
the finest decorative display of Hyacinths, to 
be staged on the floor, special prize, Silver Cup 
of the General Bulb Growers' Society of Haar- 
lem. Holland; 1st prize, Gold Medal. Full par- 
ticulars may >be obtained from the secretary, 
Royal Horticultural Society. 

Gardeners Royal Benevolent Institu- 
tion.— The annual meeting of the Berkshire, 
Reading and District Auxiliary of the Gardeners' 
Royal Benevolent Institution was held in the 
Abbey Hall, Reading, on Monday, the 22nd ult. 
Mr. W. Pope presided. The Hon. Secretary pre- 
sented the report and balance-sheet, which showed 
that in 1913 a sum of £110 had been forwarded 
to the parent institution. This sum, though 
slightly below the amount sent in 1912, has only 
been exceeded in three previous years, while the 
balance of £6 7s. lOd. has been carried 
forward to 1914. During its comparatively 
brief existence the auxiliary has sent to the 
parent society the sum of £1,374 16s. 6d. The 
Hon. Secretary mentioned that although no ap- 
plication for life membership had been received 
during the past year, the contents of Mr. 
Donald's collecting box at Messrs. Sutton's 
trial grounds (which last year went to a kin- 
dred society) balanced the absence of contribu- 
tions from new life members. Thanks were ac- 
corded to the Reading Gardeners' Association 
for sums of £5 18s., part proceeds of their ex- 
hibition, and an annual subscription of £2 2s. 
Mrs. Rowland Sperling was again elected Pre- 
sident. The Hon. Treasurer and Chairman, 
the Vice-Presidents, and Hon. Secretary were 
all re-elected. 

~ Visit to Underley Hall.- On the 27th ult. 
the members of the Burnley and District Horti- 
cultural Society paid a visit to Underley Hall, 
Kirkby Lonsdale, by kind permission of Lord 
HENur Bentlnck. The party was met at the 
gates and conducted round the grounds by the 
foremen of the different departments. Those 
who have ever visited Underley will remember 
the delightful and natural scenery, but apart 
from this a specially interesting feature was the 
Rock Garden, in which Loid Henry Benttnck 
takes a great interest, and the splendid collec- 
tion of Perpetual-flowering Carnations was much 
admired. 

National Carnation and Picotee So- 
ciety.— Readers may be glad to be reminded 
that the annual show of this Society will be held 
on Friday. July 17, at the Royal" Horticultural 



Hall, Vincent Square, Westminster. The Hon. 
Sec. and Treasurer is Mr. C. Henwood, 21, 
Clifton Road, Maida Vale, W. 

The National Sweet Pea Society. — 

On Thursday, July 16, the day of the annual 
exhibition of Sweet Peas, the President of the 
society, Mr. Hugh Dickson, will hold a recep- 
tion at the Hotel Windsor from 6.45 to 7.30. 
This reception will be followed by the annual 
dinner at 7.30. An inspection of the Society's 
trials at the Burbage Experimental Station, near 
Hinckley, will take place on Friday, July 17. 
The party will leave Euston at 8.35 a.m. 

Conference on Forestry.— At the Anglo- 
American Exhibition, Shepherd's Bush, on 
Thursday, the 16th inst., at 11 a.m., a confer- 
ence will be held on Forestry. Papers will be 
read by Sir Wilhelm Schlich, Professor Henry, 
Mr. R. L. Robinson, Mr. W. B. Greeley 
(N.S.A. Forest Service), and Mr. A. C. Forbes. 

A Substitute for Watercress. 

Erysimum praecox L. is recommended by Mr. 
V. L. Enter (Le Jardin, 1914, p. 123), as a 
substitute for Watercress. To obtain sappy 
plants they must be grown in well-worked rich 
soil. Seed may be sown in April in the open, 
and the plants must be watered frequently 
during the summer. The leaves must be 
cut in a young state, otherwise they be- 
come tough. 

Rose Lady Waterlow.— Mr. Paul Nabon- 
nand, the raiser of this Rose, writes to the 
Editor of Les Amis des Roses, May-June, 1914, 
to point out that the Rose Lady Waterlow, off- 
spring of France 89 by Marie Lavalley, resembles 
the former much more closely than the latter, 
and that there is therefore no justification for 
the proposal made in the previous number of 
the journal to remove it from the sub-group of 
France 89. Mr. Nabonnand points out that the 
Rose under discussion owes to Marie Lavalley 
only its vigorous habit, and — in part — its colour. 

Preservation of Pollen.— A note in Les 
Amis des Roses draws attention to the observa- 
tion of M. Roemer that pollen may be preserved 
by cold storage and that it keeps best if it be 
protected from the access of moisture. To those 
who wish to preserve pollen for hybridisation 
purposes we would recommend the following pro- 
cedure. In a small cylindrical glass specimen 
tube place a few grains of dry calcium chloride ; 
cover with a thick wad of cotton wool. Put the 
ripe pollen in a small thimble made of flexible 
cardboard. Cork the tube and keep it in a cool 
place — if possible in cold storage. 

A New Potato Digger.— Under this title 
the Queensland Agricultural Journal (May, 
1914) gives an account of the successful working 
of a digger invented by Mr. Daniels. Unfor- 
tunately the note is not accompanied by a de- 
scription of the machine, which weighs 8 cwts. 
and is drawn by 2 horses. It is stated that the 
machine digs a row of 5 chains in 3 minutes 
and that the Potatos are left lying in the middle 
of the row, uncut, and that the weeds are 
buried. The machine is calculated to dig 
4 acres a day. 

The Persistence of the Late Blight 
Fungus in the Soil. — Experiments carried 
out by Mr. F. C. Stewart, and published in 
Bulletin No. 367 of the New York Agricultural 
Experiment Station, indicate that contrary to 
the views expressed by Mr. G. Massee and 
others, the fungus (Phytophthora infestans) 
does not remain alive in the soil from year to 
year. If this be so, the cause of the widespread 
outbreaks of this disease is still to seek. 

R.H.S. Tulip NomenclatureiCommittee, 
1 91 4.— In the autumn of 1913 an invitation 
was issued to the leading growers to send to 
Wisley for trial bulbs of their varieties of 
Tulips, with the names by which they know 



them. The bulbs were planted at Wisley, and 
on Monday, April 20, a joint committee 
of Dutch and English experts met to con- 
sider the early varieties ; and again on May 
6 and 7 to consider the May-flowering varie- 
ties. The committee consisted of Mr. E. A. 
Bowles, M.A. (chairman), Mr. H. E. Krelagb 
(vice-chairman), the Rev. Joseph Jacob, and 
Messrs. Barr, De Graaff, Hall, Hoog, Leek, 
Needham, Roe3, and Ware. Over 4,000 varie- 
ties of Tulips were examined and their nomen- 
clature and synonyms determined. The trials 
of the May-flowering varieties only will be con- 
tinued in 1915, and growers are invited to send 
fresh bulbs — five of each variety — named. Bulbs 
will not be accepted later than November 1, 
1914. Senders are asked to designate roughly 
their colour and the class to which they belong 
to facilitate the work of planting. On each oc- 
casion the committee sat in conference, and 
drew up recommendations for a classification. 
The recommendation will be reconsidered at a 
Conference to be held at Vincent Square 
on May 13 and 14, 1915. It is then in- 
tended to prepare the final list of varie- 
ties and synonyms, and all recommended 
varieties will be definitely placed in one 
or other of the sections and subsections of 
the classification. This final list, with official 
descriptions, will be printed and published by 
and at the expense of the R.H.S. in conjunction 
with the Dutch Bulb Growers Society in 
Haarlem. To make the descriptions short and 
clear certain typical varieties will be selected, 
described, figured, and named, so that others 
can be described by reference to them. Thus 
systematised, the colour, shape, base, and the 
relative length and breadth of the inner seg- 
ments will be recorded. The Council has 
adopted the recommendation of the committee to 
hold a show of Darwin and Cottage Tulips on 
May 14, 1915, for cut blooms only, in vases, 
for the purpose of enabling the Nomenclature 
Committee to decide on the synonyms of the 
varieties sent, for which the following arrange- 
ments have been made : — (1) R.H.S. Medals 
will be given to collections, and Awards made to 
species and varieties at the discretion of the 
Council. (2) On May 12 the hall will be avail- 
able for staging from mid-day. Hay 13, staging 
must be completed by 9 a.m., when the com- 
mittee will commence this work. The com- 
mittee only will be allowed in the hall on the 
13th. On May 14 at 9 a.m. the committee will 
continue its work ; at 11 a.m. the two members 
of each exhibiting firm and private" exhibitors 
will be admitted, but not earlier ; at 1 p.m. 
R.H.S. Feilows will be admitted ; at 2 p.m. the 
public will be admitted. (3) A full collection of 
standard varieties of May-flowering varieties 
will be brought from Holland for compari- 
son. (4) All British growers are invited to 
send blooms. 

The Aubergine.— Large quantities of this 
excellent fruit (Solanum melongena var. 
ovigerum) are grown in the Valley of the 
Rhone and in the Departments of the South-East 
and find their way mostly to London. An ac- 
count of the cultivation of the Egg plant, or 
Aubergine, is contributed by M. Henri Blin to 
Le Jardin, p. 158, 1914. As travellers are 
aware, the Aubergine is not only delicious when 
cooked, but cut in slices and dried in the son, 
as it is in the South of France, it is also excel- 
lent. 

Publications Received.— Impurities of 
Agriculture Seed. By S. T. Parkinson, B.Sc, 
and G. Smith, B.Sc. Agri. (Headley Bros. 3s.) 
— Bird Studies. By W. Percival Westall, 
M.B.O.D. (Cambridge University Press.)— The 
Pig's Tale and Other Recitations. By Chas. T. 
Druery. (Elliot Stock, 7, Paternoster Row, 
London.) 6s. net.— Flowering Plants of the 
Riviera. By H. Stuartj Thompson. (Longmans. 
Green and Co.. London.) 10s. f d. net. 



38 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 11, 1914. 



SOCIETIES. 

NATIONAL ROSE. 

July 7. — The great summer Rose show of the 
National Society at Regent's Park on this date 
was exceedingly successful. The anticipated ill 
effects of the cold May and the recent storms 
were but little seen. In most instances the 
blooms were of high quality, both as regards 
size and appearance, although the entries gener- 
ally were not so numerous as last year, the dis- 
parity being noticeable principally in the classes 
reserved for amateurs. Queen Alexandra and 
the Empress Marie of Russia paid a visit to the 
show at noon and closely inspected the exhibits. 
During the afternoon there was a large attend- 
ance, and the interest which is always centred 
in the " New Rose Tent " was even greater than 
usual. A long queue was formed outside the 
tent, and this continued until 6.30 p.m. The 
new large tent which contained all the groups and 
exhibition Roses was a great success, both from 
a spectacular point of view and the well-being 
of the blooms. The weather was favour- 
able, and the blooms remained fresh through- 
out the day. There were 5 Gold and 1 
Silver-gilt Medals awarded to new seedling 
Roses. With the assistance of Mr. Frank Reader, 
of the R.H.S., the hon. secretary (Mr. Edward 
Mawley) and his assistants made excellent 
arrangements, which tended to the success of the 
event. 

AWARDS. 
Gold Medals. 

Rose Mrs. Bertram Walker (H.T.).-A 
fragrant Rose of the form of George Dickson and 
in colour salmon flushed with pink. The ac- 
companying plant showed a free habit, and it 
is said to be perpetual flowering. Shown by 
Messrs. Hugh Dickson, Ltd. 

Rose Augustus Hartmann (H.T.). — The most 
vivid coloured of the new Roses. The shade of 
colour varies, but generally it is a bright cerise 
pink. The shape is similar to the foregoing, and 
this variety should prove to be a great favourite 
when it is placed in commerce. Shown by Messrs. 
B. R. Cant and Sons. 

Rose Margaret Dickson Harnill (H.T.). — A 
very charming and fragrant bloom, suggestive 
of Madame Ravary but of larger size and flushed 
with salmon. Said to be a vigorous grower. 
Shown by Messrs. Alex. Dickson and Sons. 

Rose Majestic (H.T.). — An exceedingly hand- 
some variety of globular form. The satiny-pink 
petals are of very good substance, and the flower 
is fragrant. Shown by Messrs. Wm. Paul and 
Son. 

Rose Clytemnestra (H.T.). — The award to this 
variety occasioned some surprise. It is a free- 
Sowering bush Rose of spreading habit. The 
buds are prettily flushed with pink, and the fully- 
opened loose-petalled flowers are salmon-tinted. 
Shown by Rev. J. H. Pembehton. 

Silver-gilt Medal. 

Mrs. Maud Dawson (H.T.). — A vigorous 
variety which bears globular blooms on which the 
brick-red colour is lightly flushed with plum- 
purple. Shown by Messrs. Alex. Dickson and 
Sons. 

Certificates of Merit. 

Rose Butterfly. — Shown by Messrs. Paul and 
Sons. 

Rose Mrs. Arthur Bide. — Shown by Messrs. S. 
Bide and Son. 

Rose Pemberton's White Rambler. — Shown by 
Rev. J. H. Pemberton. 

Rose Dolly Varden. — Shown by Messrs. Paul 
and Sons. 

COMPETITIVE CLASSES. 

Nurserymen, 
croups of roses 
The "Representative Groups of Roses," 
arranged on a. floor space of 250 square feet at 
the far end of the large tent, were the finest 
spectacular feature of the show. There the large 
trade growers displayed uncountable numbers of 
splendid exhibition blooms and many graceful 
floriferous plants of the cluster-flowering varie- 
ties. Such exhibits as these together with those 
in the two classes which have allotted 'to 
them goodly lengths of staging for the arrange- 



ment of large collections of Roses are " the 
making of a show." 

Messrs. Hobbies, Ltd., Dereham, devised a 
new style of arrangement in the premier class, 
and were rewarded with the first prize. The 
motif of their attractive group might almost 
be described as a Rose garden, except for 
the hanging baskets of Rayon d'Or ; but 
the chief features were a dainty pergola and 
walk at the back, and masses of cut Roses in 
front. The fullest advantage was taken of the 
space provided, and Messrs. Hobbies made a 
memorable display. The principal varieties so 
effectively used were Leuchtfeuer, Old Gold, 
Marquise de Sinety, Effective and John Green. 

The 2nd prize group, by Messrs. Wm. Paul 
and Son, Waltham Cross, contained many more 
high-class Roses, but the arrangement was 
not so effective. Nothing could be finer than 
the pillar and standard Roses, from which long 
trails of flowers hung in graceful profusion. The 
groundwork was composed of baskets filled with 
fresh blooms, including the richly-coloured, fra- 
grant varieties Louis van Houtte and Chateau de 
Clos Vougeot. 

In the third prize group, shown by Messrs. 
Paul and Son, Cheshunt. rather too much was 
sacrificed to lightness, but the background was 
exceedingly pleasant to look upon. 

The groups, placed on staging 33 feet by 3 feet, 
at the opposite end were magnificent spectacles. 
High up against the walls of the tent the com- 
petitors massed large numbers of blooms, chiefly 
of the cluster-flowered varieties, whilst nearer to 
the eye were placed bowls and vases of exhibition 
blooms. Mr. F. M. Bradley, Peterborough, won 
the 1st prize with an imposing array which in- 
cluded splendid blooms of such sorts as H. 
Vernet, Avoca, Marechal Niel, Mme. J. 
Gravereaux and J. B. Clark. The 2nd 
prize exhibit of Messrs. W. and J. Brown, 
Peterborough, failed, in comparison, in the 
background, but was fully equal in the frontal 
stands of exhibition Roses. Here also the red 
varieties were especially good, and included Hugh 
Dickson, George Dickson and J. B. Clark of 
exceptional qualny ; 3rd, Messrs. Stuart Low 
and Co., Enfield, who specialised with the rich 
yellow Rayon d'Or and the white British Queen. 

In the smaller table group class, which allowed 
a run of 20 feet, Messrs. G. Jackman and Son, 
Woking, were decidedly 1st. Their group con- 
tained a profusion of blooms of high quality and 
was very harmonious. The principal stands con- 
tained Hugh Dickson, Marquise de Sinety, 
Dorothy Page Roberts and Lady Hillingdon ; 2nd, 
Messrs. H. Lane and Son, who had fewer blooms, 
but the centre piece of Lyon Rose was magni- 
ficent ; 3rd, the Rev. J. H. Pemberton. 

exhibition roses. 

Seventy-two Blooms Distinct. — The Champion- 
ship Trophy was won by Messrs. B. R. Cant and 
Sons, Colchester, who staged 72 magnificent 
blooms of exceedingly even quality and in 
fresh condition. The following varieties were 
shown, and those in italics impressed us as being 
amongst the best : — 

Ben Cant, Mildred Grant, J. B. Clark, Mar- 
quise de Ganay, Augustus Hartmann, Bessie 
Brown, Dupuy Jamain, 0. Terks, Colchestria, 
Mrs W. J. Grant. Lady Helen Vincent, Capt. 
Hayward, Juliet, Edward Mawley, Mrs. Myles 
Kennedy, Desdemona, Mr*. John hrring, Florence 
Spaull, Dr. O'Donel Browne, Catherine Mer- 
met, Mrs. A. Coxhead, Killarney, Commandant 
Felix Faure, Ethel Malcolm, Avoca, Mrs. Corn- 
wallis West, Alfred Colomb, Caroline Testout, 
Gloire de Chedane Guinnoiseau, Madame Jules 
Gravereaux, Mrs. Stewart Clark, Mrs. Harms- 
worth, Mrs. T. Roosevelt, Elizabeth, Lyon Rose, 
Prince Arthur, St. Helena, Claudius. White 
Maman Cochet, Helen Keller. Ulster, Mabel 
Drew, Captain Cant, A. K. Williams, Earl of 
Warwick, Lieutenant Chaure, Frau Karl 
Druschki. Horace Vernet, Mrs. Maynard Sinton, 
George Dickson, Lady Barham, Marie Baumann, 
Dean Hole. Comite de Raimbaud, Her Majesty. 
I :i>1y de Bathe, Fisher Holmes, Mme. Constant 
Soupert, Victor Hugo, Maman Cochet. Hugh 
Dickson, Mrs. Foley Hobbs, TJlrich Brunner, J. 
L. Mock, Marie van Houtte, Yvonne Vacherot, 
British Queen, Beatrice, Papa Lambert, Leslie 
Holland, Mrs. Sam Ross and Mrs. George 
Shawver. 



The 2nd prize collection of Messrs. R. Hark- 
ness and Co.. Hitohin, included exceedingly 
good blooms of Lohengrin, Mrs. A. E. Coxhead, 
Mme. Constant Soupert, Duchess of West- 
minster, George Dickson, Gustave Piganeau and 
Helen Keller. The 3rd prize was awarded to 
Messrs. Frank Cant and Co., Colchester. 

Forty varieties; 3 blooms of each. — The 5 ex- 
hibits in this class, for which each competitor 
required 5 boxes, filled a long stiretch of tabling, 
and attracted a deal of admiration,. The 1st prize 
was won by Messrs. B. R. Cant and Co., who 
clearly outpointed their competitors. The trios 
were judged as units, and in this respect, as well 
as in individual quality, Messrs. Cant were espe- 
cially good. Juliet, J. B. Clark, Mildred Grant, 
George Dickson, Victor Hugo, Captain Hayward, 
and Mrs. Stewart Clark are the names of a few 
sorts so well shown. 2nd, Messrs. D. Prior and 
Son, Colchester, whose trios of Horace Vernet, 
Captain Hayward, Jonkheer J. L. Mock, and Mrs. 
John Laiing were splendid. 3rd, Messrs. Frank 
Cant and Co., Colchester, whose best trios were 
of Frau Karl Druschki, George Dickson, Dean 
Hole, and Lieutenant Chaure. 

Forty-eight blooms, distinct. — The quality 
of the nine exhibits in the China Trophy 
class did not reaoh the high standard 
of the blooms in the first class. In 
most instances the blooms were uneven, and 
the outer petals showed signs of the recent bad 
weather. Mr. John Pigg, Royston, Herts, won 
the 1st prize, showing large blooms of Mrs. 
Joseph Welch, George Dickson, British Queen, 
Dean Hole, and Lady Alice Stanley; 2nd, Messrs. 
W. and H. Burch, Peterborough, who placed 
Mildred Grant, Duke of Edinburgh, Dean Hole, 
and J. B. Clark ; 3rd, Mr. G. Prince, Oxford. 

Twenty-four varieties; 3 blooms of each. — The 
1st prize collection of Messrs. C. and W. H. 
Burch, Peterborough, was consistently good ; 
their trebles were evenly matched, and the colours 
were bright and fresh. Of this splendid exhibit 
the outstanding varieties were Ulrich Brunner. 
Earl Warwick, 0. Terks. Mme. Jules Gravereaux. 
Mr. A. E. Coxhead, and Mildred Grant. 2nd. 
Messrs. J. Burrtcll and Co., Cambridge, who 
showed smaller blooms, which were equally fresh 
and well-formed. 

Twenty-four blooms, distinct. — In the 1st prize 
stand exhibited by Mr. J. Mattock, Oxford, was 
a magnificent bloom of Mrs. Foley Hobbs, which 
received tihe premier card as being the best Tea 
Rose in this division. Other varieties shown in 
good condition were George Dickson, Mrs. John 
Laing, and Bessie Brown. 2nd, Mr. Charles 
Turner, Slough, who had exceedingly fine blooms 
of Suzanne Marie Rodocanachi, Alfred Colomb, 
and W. R. Smith. 

Twelve varieties; 3 blooms of each. — Of the 2 
exhibits that from Mr. W. R. Chaplain, Wal- 
tham Cross, was decidedly the better, his trios of 
Caroline Testout, Avoca", and Lyon-Rose were 
especially good. 2nd, Mr. C. H. Green, Hitchin. 

TEAS AND NOISETTES. 

Twenty-four bloom*, distinct. — In Mr. Henry 
Drew's 1st prize exhibit the pale varieties were 
pre- eminent, and of them White Maman Cochet, 
Mrs. Foley Hobbs, Alex. Hill Gray, and Molly 
Siharman, Crawford were splendid. 2nd, Mr. Geo. 
Prince, who had an especially grand bloom of 
Mme. Jules Gravereaux. 

Twelve blooms, distinct. — The 1st prize in this 
class was won by Mr. John Mattock, who 
staged well-formed examples of such sorts as 
White Maman Cochet, Mrs. Foley Hobbs and 
Minnie Graham ; 2nd,' Messrs. G. and W. H. 
Burch, Peterborough. 

Sixteen varieties; 3 blooms of each. — These 
trios were fully equal in quality to the Teas and 
Noisettes in the preceding classes. The 1st 
prize was awarded to Mr. H. Drew, whose 
flowers oi Mrs. Herbert Taylor, W. R. Smith, 
Mrs. Myles Kennedy and Auguste Comte were 
especially pleasing; 2nd, Messrs. G. and W. H. 
Burch. 

blooms in vases. 

The 9 vases of Tea and Noisette varieties 
which won the 1st prize for Mr. H. Drew in- 
cluded a vase of Auguste Comte, which gave a 
welcome patch of colour. Maman Cochet and 
Mme. Jules Gravereaux were also unusually 
good ; 2nd, Messrs. D. Prior and Son, who were 



July 11, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



39 



the only exhibitors of 9 varieties, aind were 
awarded the 1st prize for a bright and fresh col- 
lection, 

In the class for 18 varieties of perpetual de- 
corative Roses Mr. C. Turner, Slough, 
showed a very good collection, including Lady 
Hillingdon, Rayon d'Or and Ecarlate ; 2nd, 
Messrs. H. Dickson, Ltd., Belfast. The best 
exhibit of 9 varieties was arranged by Mr. E. J. 
Hicks. 

The A. C. Turner Cup offered for 36 distinct 
varieties of decorative Roses was won by 
Messrs. F. Cant and Co., who made a splendid 
display with such sorts as Crimson Damask, 
Rayon d'Or, Chateau de Clos Vougeot and Rouge 
Angevine ; 2nd, Mr. J. Mattock. 

In the class for 12 varieties, Mr. C. Turner, 
Slough, took the 1st place with such varieties as 
Mme. A. Chatenay, A. R. Godwin, and General 
MacArthur; 2nd, Mr. J. Pigg, Royston. In the 
class for 12 varieties of summer-flowering Roses 
Messrs. W. Spooner and Son, Hounslow, had 
beautiful vases of Maorantha, Moschala alba and 
Delight, gaining the 1st prize. 

The new decorative Roses in the first prize col- 
lection of Messrs. Alex. Dickson and Son were 
Queen Mary, Mrs. S. T. Wright, Carine, Irish 
Fireflame, Lady Dunleath, Red Letter Day, 
Chrissie MacKellar, Verna MacKay and Old 
Gold. 

Messrs. F. Cant and Co. won the 1st prizes 
for 12 varieties of dwarf Polyantha Roses and 
for a similar number of Wichuraiana Roses. 

The baskets of Roses were again very beauti- 
ful and made attractive displays of massed 
varieties. In the class for 9 baskets Messrs. 
Hugh Dickson, Ltd., Belfast, won the 1st 
prize, and Mr. H. Drew was similarly successful 
in the class for 5 baskets. 

Messrs. W. and J. Brown, showing George 
Dickson and Mrs. A. Carnegie, won the 1st prize 
offered for 12 crimson and 12 white Roses, ar- 
ranged alternately. Fran Karl Druschki, 
staged by Messrs. D. Prior and Son, was the 
'best H.P. variety shown as a collection of 18 
blooms ; Mrs. A. Carnegie, shown by Messrs. J. 
Cocker and Sons, was the best bloom in class 
27 ; and Mrs. Foley Hobbs, exhibited by Mr. J. 
Mattock, the best T. or X. Rose, 

In the class for 9 blooms of any new Rose 
Messrs. J. Cocker and Sons won the 1st prize 
wdibh Mrs. A. Carnegie, and Messrs. Alex. Dick- 
son and Son were similarly successful in a, class 
for 12 blooms of New Roses, distinct sorts, where 
they staged good examples of George Dickson, 
H. V. Machin, Countess of Shaftesbury, and 
Mrs. Amy Hammond. 

AMATEURS' CLASSES. 

As a rule an interesting increase in compe- 
tition took place in each succeeding division of 
the schedule in inverse proportion to the number 
of Roses grown by the exhibitor. Thus the 
highest number of entries in the open classes and 
those open to growers of fewer than 2,000 plants 
was 7. The President's Class, open to growers 
of fewer than 1,000 plants, showed an entry of 
10. The 12 blooms from growers of fewer than 
750 plants rose to 12 entries, 14 entries came for 
6 blooms from growers of fewer than 500 plants, 
and 19 from growers of fewer than 200. In 
Division G, open only to growers of fewer than 
1,000 exhibition Roses, the President's Prize for 
12 blooms was won by Mr. C. Lamplough, Alver- 
stoke. These blooms were of unusually fine 
quality. Mrs. Foley Hobbs was the best Tea 
Rose shown by an amateur. Bessie Brown, Mrs. 
Welch, and Frau Karl Druschki were also blooms 
fit to meet any in open competition. Mrs. H. 
Balfour, Headington, was 2nd, and Mr. E. G. 
Mocatta, Weybridge, 3rd. For 9 blooms of any 
Rose except T. or N., Mr. Lamtlough was again 
placed 1st. with the variety Frau Karl Druschki. 

Division H was restricted to growers of fewer 
than 750 exhibition Roses. The Ben Cant 
Memorial Prize for the best 12 blooms was won 
by Mr. F. H. Cook, Colchester. Geo. C. Waud, 
J. B. Clark, and Gloire de C. Guinosseau were 
varieties of special merit. For 6 blooms of any 
Rose except T. or N. the Rev. F. Burnstde, 
Great Stambridge, was placed 1st with Dean 
Hole. Frau Karl Druschki won the 2nd prize 
for Mr. Biggleston. The class for four distinct 
varieties, 3 blooms of each, from exhibitors in 



either of the above divisions, was won by Mr. 
C. liAMPLOUGH, with first-class blooms of Mrs. 
F. Hobbs, Mme. J. Gravereaux, Gloire de C. 
Guinosseau, and Frau Karl Druschki. 

In Division I for growers of fewer than 500 
plants, the best 9 blooms (Class 52) were from 
Mr. W. Panckridge, Petersfield. The best 6 
blooms, distinct, were from Mr. H. C. Baker, 
Bayfordbury , while the best 5 blooms of any Rose 
except T. or N. were magnificent specimens of 
Dean Hole from Mr. W. P. Panckridge. The 
Roses throughout this division were particularly 
good, White Maman Cochet and Geo. C. Waud 
being shown very finely. 

Division J, for growers of fewer than 350 
Roses, drew still keener competition. The best 
9 blooms, distinct, were shown by Mrs. Denman 
Murray, Ryde, Isle of Wight. The best 6 
blooms, distinct, were exhibited by Mr. R. 
Woosnam, Hutton. Frau Kail Druschki, shown 
by Mrs. D. Murray, won the 1st prize in the 
class for 6 blooms of any Rose except T. or N. 
Mr. A. W. Atkinson, Palmers Green, had the 
winning box of 3 blooms of each of 4 varieties, 
which was open to the two preceding divisions. 

Division K was open only to growers of fewer 
than 200 Roses. The best 9 blooms were ex- 
hibited by Mr. C. A. L. Brown, Hatfield Peve- 
rel. Mrs. Clark and White Maman Cochet were 
very fine, and Geo. C. Waud gave a lovely piece 
of colour. The Rev. T. Kershaw, Warminster, 
had the best 6 blooms, distinct. Mr. A. F. Pas- 
SESGHAM, New Barnet, was 1st with 6 blooms in 
not fewer than 4 varieties (there were 13 ex- 
hibits in this class) ; the Rev. T. Kershaw won 
with 4 varieties, 3 blooms of each; and Mr. 
W. II. Simpson, Ipswich, was 1st with 6 blooms 
of any Rose except T. or N. There were many 
fine Roses scattered throughout this section, and 
it was curious to note that in this last class 6 of 
8 competitors all showed Frau Karl Druschki, 
which won 1st, 2nd, and 3rd places. 

Thirty-six blooms, distinct. — The Champion 
Trophy' was won by Dr. T. E. Pallett, who 
exhibited an excellent set of distinct blooms. 
The very best varieties in this display were 
Mildred Grant, Gloire de C. Guinoisseau, 
Maman Cochet, Frau Karl Druschki, Ulrich 
Brunner and George Dickson ; 2nd, Mr. Conway 
Jones, who had good blooms of Mamie, Florence 
Pemberton and Mrs. A. Carnegie. 

The class for 24 blooms, distinct, was not so 
good. The 1st prize was awarded to Mr. Con- 
way Jones, who was the only exhibitor ; his be6t 
blooms were of Captain Hayward, Star of 
Wiiltham and Mildred Grant. 

The 12 blooms of Mildred Grant which won 
the 1st prize in Class 4 for Dr. T. E. Pallett 
were exceedingly line. 

In the class for growers of fewer than 3,000 
plants Mr. W. Times won the 1st prize for 
24 distinct varieties with a magnificent collec- 
tion, which included Mrs. E. Mawley, Bessie 
Brown and Ulrich Brunner. 

The best 12 blooms of any Rose except a Tea 
or Noisette were of Dean Hole, shown by Mr. 
W. Times, and the best 9 were of Frau Karl 
Druschki, by Mr. J. Hart. 

In the extra class, which required 5 varieties, 
3 blooms of each, Mr. J. Hart was the only ex- 
hibitor, but he showed very good specimens and 
was awarded the 1st prize. 

Metropolitan Classes. 

The Suburban Champion Class falls in 
this section. The Challenge Clip is awarded for 
the best 6 blooms, distinct, grown within 8 miles 
of Charing Cross. This was finely won by Mr. A. 
W. Atkinson, Palmers Green, with Gloire de C. 
Guinosseau, Mrs. M. Kennedy, Dean Hole, 
Mabel Drew, Mrs. F. Hobbs, and George Dick- 
son. Mr. S. R. Laughton, Catford, won the 
next class for 6 blooms, which was only open to 
growers of fewer than 300 plants. 

In the class for 6 blooms, distinct, grown 
within 10 miles of Charing Cross, the new 
" Suburban Champion," Mr. A. W. Atkinson, 
with some very lovely blooms, was again placed 
1st. 

The Harkness Cup class is an additional class 
open to all amateurs. Twelve distinct blooms 
must be shown. There were five contesting ex- 
hibits, the best being shown by Mr. T. E. Pal- 
lett, Earls Cblne. The Hammond Prize for 
six new Roses, distinct, resulted in an interest- 



ing competition, and the awards were (1) Mr. 
G. A. Hammond, Burgess Hill (Coronation and 
Mrs. C. Hunter were noticeably good), and (2) 
Mrs. B. Fortescue, Dropmore. The final class 
in this section was for an arrangement of 7 
Roses in a space of 5ft. by 3ft. Mr. E. G. 
Mocatta, Weybridge, won the 1st prize, and Mr. 
H. R. Darlington, Potters Bar, the 2nd prize ; 
both showed very pretty groups. 

Exhibition Roses — Tea and Noisette. 

The amateurs' Teas and Noisettes were par- 
ticularly good, and in class after class we were 
tempted' to no'te down blooms of more than 
average quality. Mis. Foley Hobbs, White 
Maman Cochet and Mme. J. Gravereaux oc- 
curred again and again. The Challenge Trophy 
for Teas and Noisettes was won finely by Mrs. 
Bevil Fortescue, Dropmore. 

Mr. C. C. Eversfield, Horsham, won the 
Alfred Tate prize (Open) for 12 blooms, dis- 
tinct ; Mrs. B. Fortescue won another 1st prize 
with 8 varieties, 3 of each ; and Dr. T. E. Pal- 
lett, Earls Come, had the best six blooms of 
any one variety in some lovely flowers of Whit* 
Maman Cochet. 

In the division for growers of fewer than 500 
T. and N. Roses, the best 12 blooms, distinct, 
were from the Rev. J. B. Shackle, Maidenhead ; 
while the best 6 blooms of any one variety were 
the Rev. F. R. Bornside's White M. Cochet. 

Although the only entry for 9 blooms, dis- 
tinct, from growers of fewer than 200 T. and 
N. Roses, Mr. H. L. Wettern's, Croydon, ex- 
hibit very worthily won the Prince Memorial 
Prize. 

The last division was for growers of fewer 
than 100 T. or N. Roses. Mrs. Denman 
Murray had the winning box of 5 blooms, dis- 
tinct; and Mr. C. A. L. Brown, Hatfield 
Peverel, the best box of 6 blooms in not fewer 
than 4 varieties. 

Perpetual Flowering Decorative Roses. 
Classes 90-93. 

Exhibition Roses, except a few sorts, which 
are also good garden Roses, are excluded from 
these exhibits. Mrs. E. M. Wightman was 
placed l6t in the class for 3 baskets of cut Roses. 
Mr. J. W. Smith, Watford, with a lovely group 
of Irish Beauty, had the winning single basket 
of cut Roses. 

Decorative Roses. 

In the class for 12 varieties, distinct, in a 
space 5ft. by 3ft., there were some good ex- 
hibits, and the awards were : — 1st, Mr. H. L. 
Wettern, Croydon; 2nd, Mr. E. G. Mocatta, 
Weybridge; and 3rd, Viscountess Enfield, Bar- 
net. General McArthur, American Pillar, and. 
Mme. A. Chatenay were effective constituents 
of the winning group. In the corresponding 
class for 6 varieties, in spaces of 3ft. by 3ft., the 
Rev. J. B. Shackle, Maidenhead, was placed 1st, 
Mr. H. L. Wettern, Croydon, had the best six 
vases of Wichuraianas ; the 2nd prize exhibit 
from Miss B. Langton included the little- 
known, but very pretty, Francois Juranville. 

Miscellaneous. 
This section included a number of small classes 
for amateurs who have never won a prize, for 
new members, and for members living in the 
Metropolis. Mrs. J. Cradock, Ryde, Isle of 
Wight ; Mr. J. G. Mead, Hemel Hempstead ; and 
Mr. F. A. Hanley, Northwood, won 1st prizes 
in the first group. Mrs. R. Smith, Hemel Hemp- 
stead, and Mrs. Seth Smith, Reigate, were new 
members winning 1st prizes. 

Decorative Classes. 

Some of the table decorations were particu- 
larly pretty, though novelty was found only in 
the use of new varieties and not in any fresh de- 
velopment of method. 

In the classes for dinner tables decorated 
with single Roses, Irish Elegance filled five of 
the nine exhibits, and Irish Fireflame filled the 
other two. The 1st was won by Mrs. J. 
Walter Smith, Watford. The design was kept 
appropriately low in outline; Dut, in addition 
to the central bowl, 10 small vases found place 
on the 6ft. by 4ft. table, and two patterns of 
vase were used. Mrs. Walter Morrison, Rei- 
gate, who was 2nd, and Countess Olga Pontia- 
tine, Weybridge, who was 3rd, also used Irish 
Elegance. The corresponding class for Roses 



40 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jul* 11, 1914. 



other than singles found Mrs. E. M. Burnett, 
Southampton, successful. The design was a very 
simple one, but Mme. Ed. Harriot presented a 
wonderful piece of colour. 

Mrs. Bide, Farnham, was placed 1st in the 
Open class for a decorated table, which was 
made glorious by the use of Mme. Ed. HeTriot ; 
but the colour here seemed a more important 
point than the arrangement. 

WOLVERHAMPTON FLORAL FETE. 

July 7, 8, 9. — The twenty-sixth annual show 
opened on Tuesday last, in the beautiful West 
Park, Wolverhampton, and continued until 
Thursday last. 

The fete, as the show is known locally, has 
the patronage of the borough authorities. The 
Mayor, Councillor F. H. Skidmore, is President, 
many of the Committeemen are either Aldermen 
or Councillors, and the public park is loaned by 
the Corporation, so that the exhibition has quite 
a civic character. 

The first day opened gloriously fine, hut a 
little rain fell in the afternoon, although 
not sufficient to deter visitors. The exhibits 
generally were of a high standard. The groups 
of plants were better than usual ; indeed, we 
have never seen finer displays. Carnations, 
hardy flowers, Sweet Peas, Begonias, and fruit 
are other subjects that were especially good, but 
the Roses were disappointing. There was some 
grumbling at the late placing of the non-com- 
petitive awards, but with the exception of this 
small oversight everything passed off most suc- 
cessfully, and the show was well managed. 
Groups. 

The groups of indoor foliage and flowering 
plants were uniformly good, and the display in 
the large tent set apart for them was equal to 
anything we have seen at a provincial show. 
There were five magnificent exhibits in the class 
for a display of miscellaneous plants in or out 
of bloom grouped for effect in a space of 30 feet- 
by 14 feet. The schedule permitted the use of 
climbing plants, Orchids, and anv kind of cut 
flowers. The best of five exhibits was shown 
by Messrs. J. Cypher and Sons, Cheltenham, 
and this firm was awarded the 1st prize. It 
was a magnificent group in which fine foliage 
plants predominated, with sufficient flowering 
plants to add brightness where at points 
the more sombre greenery needed a touch of 
lightness as contrast. The usual archway was 
included at the back, being well worked into 
the scheme, crowned with a fine Kentia Palm, 
and having splendid specimens of Phoenix, one 
on either side. The flowers were mainly of 
Orchids, all of exceptional merit, with a few 
Liliums, Ixoras, Lantanas, Lily-of-the-Valley, 
and others for variety. The Codiaeums 
(Crotans) were splendidly coloured, and the 
whole was arranged with a master hand ; 
2nd, Sir G. H. Kenrick, Edgbaston (gr. Mr. 
J. Macdonald), with a group but little in- 
ferior, but lacking the rich colouring and 
with fewer flowers. Down the archway hung 
rose-coloured Begonias and Golden Selaginella, 
these with Ferns hiding the cork-covered frame- 
work ; 3rd, Mr. W. A. Holmes, Chesterfield ; 
4th, J. A. Kenrick, Esq., Edgbaston (gr. Mr. 
A. Cryer). 

The class for a group of ornamental 
foliage plants, including Ferns, but no 
flowers, arranged on a space of 250 square 
feet, was represented by four exhibits, and here 
Mr. W. A. Holmes proved most successful. The 
arrangement was good, the group being broken 
up by specimen plants on stands of varying 
heights, and high-colouring prevailed through- 
out, each plant receiving its full value for effect. 
Codiaeums, Dracaenas, Begonia Rex, Marantas, 
Caladiums, Acalypha, Alpinias, and a magnifi- 
cent specimen of Ananassa sativa variegata were 
the principal subjects; 2nd, Sir G. H. Kenrick, 
who made use of an archway, the splendid speci- 
mens of Selaginella and Anthuriums adorning it 
meriting high praise. The blending in this ex- 
hibit was good, the colour scheme being very 
fine; 3rd, Mr. W. R. Manning, Dudley; 4tti, 
J. Cypher and Sons. 

The best group of plants arranged for effect 
on a space of 200 square feet by a gentleman's 
gardener or amateur was shown by B. Howson, 
Esq., Market Drayton (gr. Mr. A. Townsend) ; 



2nd, Mr. A. G. Bastock, Hall Green, Birming- 
ham. 

The class for 20 plants in pots not exceeding 
10 inches in diameter, to include flowering and 
foliage specimens, saw Messrs. J. Cypher and 
Sons easy winners with fine Statice intermedia, 
Ixora Pilgrimii, I. coccinea, Erica ventricosa, 
Clerodendron Balfourii, Codiaeum Resplendent, 
Palms, Ferns and Maranta as his chief plants; 
2nd, Sir T. C. Mander, Esq., Tettenhall Wood 
(gr. Mr. J. F. Simpson), with highly-coloured 
Codiaeums, Allamanda Hendersonii, Ixora 
Prince of Orange, Clerodendron fallax, Gloriosa. 
superba, and others ; 3rd, Mrs. H. Mander, who 
exhibited fine plants of Dracaena Victoria and 
D. superba. 

Messrs. J. Cypher and Sons had the best of 
four exhibits in the class for a collection of 
decorative plants and bunches of cut flowers 
arranged for effect. It was a much lighter ar- 
rangement than that of their competitors. Sprays 
of Oncidium, Origanum and Asparagus plumosus 
with choice Odontoglossums, Cypripediums, and 
other Orchids, bright spathes of Anthurium 
Scherzerianum, and bold blooms of Lilium longi- 
florum all contributed to a very pretty exhibit. 
2nd, Sir G. H. Kenrick. 

The class for a group of flowering plants, 
one kind only, offered plenty of scope, and Hip- 
peastrums, Carnations, Gloxinias, Cleroden- 
dron fallax, Heliotropium, Ivy-leaved Pelargo- 
niums and Celosias were shown. The exhibitor 
of the Hippeastrums was Mr. J. Kenrick, who 
won the 1st prize easily. It is seldom that Hip- 
peastrums of this high quality are seen in bloom 
in July, and the plants were pleasingly arranged 
on tiers in a setting of Adiantum Ferns. H 
Mander, Esq., Wolverhampton (gr. Mr. C. 
Weaver), won the 2nd prize for a good batch of 
Perpetual-flowering Carnations; and the 3rd 
prize was awarded to H. Willcock, Esq., Wol- 
verhampton (gr. Mr. S. Highfield), for Gloxinias. 

The class for a flower, fruit, and vegetable 
stall, set up as for sale purposes in a shop win- 
dow, did not appeal to us. An exhibit, like the 
conventional greengrocer's window, was awarded 
the 1st prize, and the other exhibits showed too 
much straining for effect. The 2nd prize ex- 
hibit was like a group of ornamental stove plants 
with a few baskets of fruit throvi n in. 

Begonias. 

The class for a group of tuberous-rooted 
and fibrous-rooted Begonias in pots was re- 
sponsible for one of the finest flower groups in 
the show, the exhibitors being Messrs. Black- 
more and Langdon, Twerton-on-Avon, Bath. 
The plants were like great posies of the loveliest 
colours conceivable ; some of the blooms were 
like Paeonies, others like big Roses. Empress 
Marie, white, Dainty, pink with salmon edge, and 
Colonel Cox, scarlet, are three sterling varieties; 
2nd, Mr. F. Davis, Pershore. 

C. Marston, Esq., Tettenhall Wood (gr. Mr. 
W. Wall) exhibited the best collection of 12 plants 
in flower, showing large, healthy specimens of 
the tuberous- rooted section, with fresh but not 
over -large flowers ; 2nd, Mr. F. Davis, Pershore. 

Gloxinias were best shown by W. Evans, Esq., 
Wolvei-hampton (gr. Mr. A. Jones). 
Carnations. 

The schedule contained two classes for Car- 
nations, the one for a display of cut blooms 
excluding Souvenir de la Malmaison varieties, 
the other for " Malmaisons. " The result in the 
first class was splendid, and the 1st prize was 
awarded for some of the finest Carnations we 
have seen this season. It was a bold effort in 
every respect, and the exhibitor, Mr. Chas. 
W t all, Bath, is to be congratulated on the result. 
Mandarin, Carola, White Wonder, Mr. C. Ward, 
R. F. Felton, Enchantress. Lady Meyer, Link- 
man (border), and Rose Dore are a selection ; 
2nd, The Clury Carnation Nurseries, Lang- 
ley, Buckinghamshire ; 3rd, Mr. C. Engelmann, 
Saffron Walden. 

Two competitors showed in the class for 
Souvenir de la Malmaison varieties, in which 
the Duke of Newcastle, Worksop (gr. Mr. S. 
Barker), excelled with superb blooms; 2nd, 
Capt. G. Lubbock, Warminster (gr. Mr. Lowe). 

For 8 vases of Tree Carnations, not fewer 
than 3 varieties, Dr. R. E. Loney, Wrenbury. 
Cheshire, was placed 1st; 2nd, Mr. H. Aveling, 
Tipton. 



Roses and Sweet Peas. 

It was unfortunate for Wolverhampton that 
the National Rose Society's Exhibition clashed; 
with the local show, for the exhibits of Roses- 
were not so good as we have 6een on former 
occasions at this fine provincial show. 

Cut Blooms. — The class for 72 blooms, dis- 
tinct, attracted four exhibitors, and the 1st 
prize was won by Mr. W. H. Frettingham, 
Nottingham, with blooms of moderate quality,, 
the finest examples being Mme. Jules Graver- 
eaux, Gustave Piganeau, Dean Hole, J. B. 
Clark, Bessie Brown, Chas. Lefebvre, A. K. 
Williams, Lyon, and Lieutenant Chaure; 2nd, 
Messrs. G. and W. H. Burch, Peterborough, 
who showed Avoca, George Dickson, Laurent 
Carle, Marie Baumann, Mrs. Myles Kennedy,, 
and Maman Cochet; 3rd, Messrs. Perkins 
and Sons, Coventry. 

Thirty-six blooms, distinct. — Mr. J. Mat- 
tock, Oxford, showed the best exhibit of seven. 
His blooms were of average quality, but many 
outer petals showed damage. The largest and 
finest bloom was the red George Dickson. Horace 
Vernet, Reynolds Hole, Lyon, Mis. A. E. Cox- 
head, Konigin Carola and His Majesty are a- 
selection of the others in this collection; 2nd, 
Mr. W. T. Mattock, Oxford ; 3rd, Mr. W. H. 
Frettingham. 

A T tne baskets of lioscs. — This is a pretty way 
of showing exhibition blooms, but the quality 
generally was only mediocre. The 1st prize was 
won by The King's Acre Nurseries, Ltd. 

Five baskets of Roses. — Mr. J. Mattock won. 
easily with the varieties Lyon, Mrs. Stewart 
Clark, Mme. Abel Chateuay, Irish Elegance and 
Frau Karl Druschki ; 2nd, The King's Acre. 
Nursertes, Ltd. 

Eighteen blooms of Tea varieties, distinct. — 
Mr. J. Mattock showed the largest blooms, and 
was awarded the 1st prize. The specimen of 
Nita Weldon was of exceptional size ; White 
Maman Cochet, Mme. Constant Soupert, Mrs. 
E. Mawley, and Muriel Graham were others of 
merit; 2nd, Mr. W. T. Mattock. 

Collection of Hoses. — This was a good class, 
and on this occasion the space was increased to- 
20 feet, owing to the success last year, when 
only 12 feet was required to be filled. Messrs. 
Ggnn and Sons, Olton, repeated their success- 
of last year, winning the 1st prize easily. Mr. 
John Mattock was placed 2nd, and Mr. Sims,. 
Barrowash, 3rd. 

Messrs. Gunn and Sons employed a dark, 
velvet ground some 12 feet high, and against 
this arches of rambler varieties showed in fine 
relief. Beneath the arches were Hybrid Teas 
and Hybrid Perpetuals arranged in big epergnes 
or vases. Irish Fireflame, George Dickson, 
Juliet, Rayon d'Or, Beaute de Lyon and Mme. 
Edouard Herriot were all shown well. Mr. 
Mattock had pillars of Rambler varieties at the 
back with baskets and bamboo stands furnished: 
with choice H.P.s and H.T.s. 

In the Amateurs' Classes Mr. J. A. L. 
Fellowes, Attleboro', won 1st prizes for (a) 36. 
blooms ; (b) 6 distinct varieties, 3 blooms of 
each sort: (c) 24 blooms, distinct; (d) 12 blooms, 
distinct ; and (e) 12 blooms of Tea varieties, Mr. 
R. F. Hobbs following in each case. 

Sweet Peas. — A class was provided for 18 
varieties of Sweet Peas, dm which Sir Randolt 
L. Baker, Bart., Blandford, Dorsetshire (gr. Mr. 
A. E. Usher), had a " runaway " win, with 
easily the best flowers in the show. His superb 
collection included the following varieties : — 
Thos. Stevenson, Agricola, Edrom Beauty, Elsie 
Herbert, Rosabelle, Constant Hinton, Lavender 
Geo. Herbert, Hercules, Edith Taylor, W. P. 
Wright, Marks Tey, Audrey Crier, Mrs. Cuth- 
bertson, Maud Holmes, Princess Victoria, Ten- 
nant Spencer, and an unnamed maroon-coloured 
variety ; 2nd, Capt. G. Lubbock, Warminster 
(gr. Mr. J. B. Lowe), with fine spikes of Thos. 
Stevenson, Lady Miller, Prince George, Barbara, 
Elfrida Pearson and Dobbie's Cream. 

Messrs. Webb and Son® offered prizes for 6 
bunches of named varieties, and Sir Randolf 
Baker was again successful with equally good 
flowers as in the former class. 

In the gentlemen's gardeners and amateurs 
classes Sir R. Baker also swept the board. He 
was placed 1st in the society's class for 12 



July 11, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



41 



varieties and in Messrs. Robert Sydenham's class 
for 9 varieties. 

Hardy Flowers. 

Exhibitors of hajrdy flowers were in strong 
force, and keen rivalry prevailed in the impor- 
tant class for a collection arranged on a table 
■epaae 25ft'. by 7ft. There were four of these 
very large exhibits, and the 1st prize was won 
by Messrs. Fred Smith and Co., Woodbridge. 
This firm had a superb exhibit ; the flowers 
appeared as fresh as though in the garden, and 
the exhibitors made the most of the large space 
at their disposal. We understand that this suc- 
■cessful class will be further stimulated next 
year by increased prizes. At the back of the 
premier collection was a bank of the piink Malva 
■Olbia, and in front superb specimens of Roni- 
neya Coul'teri. On either side were tail 
Eremarri and Delphiniums, other features being 
bold masses of Gaillardias, Scabiosa Caucasia, 
■Gladiolus Fire King, Verbascum Smith's Hybrid, 
Phlox Eclaireur, Lysimachia vulgaris. Armeria 
cephalotes rubra, and Erigeron Quakeress; 2nd, 
Messrs. Abtindale and Son, Sheffield, who 
featured bold masses of Lilium candidum, 
Eremurus Bungei, Delphinium Rev. Lascelles, 
Lathyrus The Bride, Phlox Elizabeth Campbell, 
and Campanula glomerata superba ; 3rd, Messrs. 
Harkness and Sons, Bedale. 

The best collection of hardy flowers shown 
by an amateur was exhibited by Mr. Frank A. 
Cook, Tettenhall. 

Messrs. Blackmore and Lanudon showed the 
test collection of Delphiniums in a space of 9 feet 
by 3 feet, followed by Messrs. Harkness and 
Sons, Bedale, who exhibited the finest new Del- 
phinium — a bold spike of flowers, the outer 
petals cobalt blue, the inner purplish with white 
-eye. It was named Lyall Swete. 
Decorative Classes. 

There were 24 decorated tables in three classes. 
The 1st prize for an arrangement of Sweet Peas 
only was won by Mr. E. Deakin, Hays Mills, 
-who employed the dainty pale-salmon variety, 
Lady Miller, relieved with sprays of bronze 
Selaginella. Other first-prize winners in these 
■classes were Sir G. H. Kenrick, with Orchids, 
anl Miss D. Cope, Balsall Heath, Birmingham, 
who employed a small apricot-yellow Rose. The 
■best bouquet for the hand was shown by Messrs. 
Perkins and Sons, the best hanging basket by 
Messrs. Blackmore and Langdon, and the most 
tasteful arrangement of Violas by Messrs. W. 
Pemberton and Sons, Bloxwich. 

Fruit. 

The exhibits in this section were not 
•numierous, but what was lacking in numbers 
•was more than compensated by the splendid 
•quality. The chief class was for a decorated 
table of dessert fruit consisting of 12 dishes 
in' not fewer than six kinds. The prizes were 
of the aggregate value of £37 ; the 1st prize 
being £17, the 2nd £10. 

The two exhibits staged were worthy of this 
important exhibition, and the 1st prize was 
awarded to Lord Savlle, Ollerton (gr. Mr. G. 
Doe). The two bunches of Madresfield Court 
Grape were superb. The berries were large 
and well finished, whilst the bunches were evenly 
matched. The other grapes were big bunches 
of Buckland Sweetwater, with berries of rich 
amber-yellow colour, Black Hamburgh and Mus- 
cat of Alexandria. In the centre of the collec- 
tion was a superb Melon, and, in addition,, 
there were Early Grosse Migtnon and Dymond 
Peaches, Dryden and another Nectarine, Dr. 
Jules Guyot Pears, Brown. Turkey Figs, and 
Lady Sudeley Apples. The decorations were 
whit© Odonioglossums, Francoa ramosa and 
pink Carnations — a little overdone, perhaps; 
2nd, the Duke of Newcastle, Worksop (gr. Mr. 
S. Barker!, whose grapes were much smaller, 
but well finished ; the two fruits of Melons were 
magnificent, and there were also good Dymond 
Peaches, Ribstoo Pippin Apples, Williams' Bon 
Chretien Pears, and large Nectarines. 

Three exhibited in the class lor a collection 
of six kinds decorated with flowers and foliage. 
The 1st prize was won by the Duke of New- 
castle, Worksop (gr. Mr. S. Barker), with 
Dryden Nectarines, Dymond Peaches, James 
Grieve Apples, a Melon, Black Hamburgh and 
Muscat of Alexandria Grapes. The decorations 



were yellow and heliotrope-coloured Carnations 
with grasses. 2nd, Lord Savile, with Muscat of 
Alexandria and Black Hamburgh Grapes, Down- 
ton Improved Nectarines, Stirling Castle Peaches, 
Brown Turkey Figs, and a Melon. The exhibit 
shown by Mr. H. Andrews was charmingly de- 
corated with pink Carnations and dark blue 
Heliotrope, lightened with sprays of Gypsophila. 
Lord Savile showed the best four bunches 
of distinct kinds of Grapes, two white and two 
black. Those of Black Hamburgh were remark- 
ably good. The others were Madresfield Court, 
Muscat of Alexandria, and Buckland 'Sweetwater. 
2nd, Duke of Newcastle, who had a well-shaped 
bunch of Madresfield Court, on the small side. 

Mr. H. Andrews excelled in the class for two 
bunches of white Grapes; whilst Lord Savile 
showed best in the class for two bunches of a 
black variety. 

The best Nectarines were shown by Lord 
Bagot, Rugeley (gr. Mr. T. Bannerman), the 
variety Downton; the best Peaches by the Mar- 
quis of_ Northampton, Castle Ashby (gr. Mr. 
A. R. Searle), who exhibited Peregrine; the best 
Strawberries by Capt. G. Lubbock, Warminster 
(gr. Mr. J. B. Lowe) ; and the best Tomatos bv 
Mr. E. Winchester, Birmingham. 
Vegetables. 
The Society offered prizes for a collection of 
ten kinds of vegetables arranged in a space of 
6 feet by 4 feet. The 1st prize was won by H. 
Andrews, Esq., Winchcombe (gr. Mr. G. R. 
Tooley), who showed good Carrots, Cucumbers, 
Tomatos, Potatos, Cauliflowers, Marrows, Beans, 
Celery, and Onions; 2nd, the Marquis of North- 
ampton. 

Messrs. Edward Webb and Sons offered prizes 
in two classes for a collection of eight kinds and 
a collection of six kinds respectively. The 
Marquis of Northampton won the 1st" prize in 
the larger class with New Standard Carrots, 
Viceroy Tomatos, Express Potatos, Long Green 
Marrows, Supreme Beans, Empress Cauliflowers, 
Stourbridge Marrow Beans, and Monster White 
Tripoli Onions; 2nd, Mr. H. Watson Smith, 
Stourbridge (gr. Mr. H. Davis), who was placed 
1st for six kinds, showing good White Tripoli 
Onions, Stourbridge Marrow Peas, and Regina 
Tomatos; 2nd, Sir C. T. Mander, Bart. 

In Messrs. Sutton and Sons' class for a collec- 
tion of six distinct kinds the Marquis of North- 
ampton won easily with Princess of Wales 
Tomatos, Market Favourite Carrots, Windsor 
Castle Potatos, Purity Cauliflowers, Centenary 
Peas, and Leviathan Onions ; 2nd, Mr. H. 
Andrews, with fine pods of Quite Content Peas, 
Superb Pink Celery, Potatos, Tomatos, Onions, 
and Marrows. 

Non-Competitive Exhibits. 
The finest nursery firm's exhibit wvic Messrs. 
Sutton and Sons' e iii&itutn ot ifsrarr?, farnits 
and vegetables air-r "sd ( iofiLif fi nilfc l/'iack 
velvet ground. Vlie ulyle i miJflj JEBC 1. wjs 
charming, and the produce oi all kinds of first- 
class exhibition quality. (Large Gold Medal.) 

Messrs. Hewitt and Co., Solihull and Birming- 
ham, showed hardy flowers in great variety, and 
baskets of Roses. The various subjects were 
arranged in bunches without overcrowding, and 
showed well against a dark cloth ground. The 
quality was superior. (Gold Medal.) 

Messrs. Jarman and Co., Chard, showed 
Zonal-leaved Pelargoniums, Roses, Carnations 
and Sweet Sultans. (Silver-gilt Medal.) 

Messrs. Dicksons, Chester, exhibited Roses 
nnd hardy border flowers, for which a Gold 
Medal was awarded. 

Messrs. Ed. Webb and Sons, Wordsley, 
arranged on a circular kiosk an exhibit of 
flowers, fruits and vegetables, all of splendid 
quality. Sweet Peas decorated the canopy, and 
beneath these was a mass of pink Astilbes with 
vases of Lilies, Gaillardias, Coreopsis on tabling 
which contained vegetables and fine Melons. 
(Large Gold Medal.) 

Messrs. Young and Co., Hatherley, exhibited 
on a table, 25 feet by 5 feet, Perpetual- 
flow T ering Carnations, the varieties representing 
most of the best sorts in cultivation. (Gold 
Medal.) 

Perpetual-flowering Carnations were also ex- 
hibited by Mr. A. F. Dutton, Iver (Gold 
Medal), and The Clury Carnation Nurseries. 
Lang-ley (Gold Medal). 



Messrs. H. B. May and Sons, The Nurseries 
isdmonton, exhibited choice stove and green- 
house Ferns. (Gold Medal.) B 

^rTT W ' ^""^ an d Son, Sheffield, 
showed large numbers of Violas against a black 
velvet ground. (Gold Medal.) ^^ 

hihTT- Johjl , K - fel ™T, Wolverhampton, ex- 

w7^ fl Z encl0S6 ? gaTden * the Gr A> Tent, 
with flagstone pathway. Standard Roses; Pelar- 
goniums and Fuchsias were arranged in grass 
Medal I'' WaS a Wa " and rocker y- (Large Gold 

Messrs Bakers, Wolverhampton, contributed 
an exhibit in the large tent, in which 
they featured a paved garden with Nymphaea 
pools and a wall garden with plateau on top 

urmshed with a great variety of hardy flowers 
(Large Gold Medal.) 

Messrs. Dobbie and Co., Edinburgh, showed 
Koses. The blooms were of splendid quality 
but too bunched, and the white ground did not 
enhance the effect, as thea^e was no greenery. 
(Gold Medal.) J 

Robert Sydenham, Ltd., Birmingham, showed 
\?Ja\ i 3S m metaJ rustio holders - (Silver-gilt 

Messrs. W. H. Simpson and Sons, Birming- 
ham, exhibited Sweet Peas and Delphiniums. 
(Gold Medal.) 

Miss S. S. Thompson, Hajidsworth, showed 
Oaoti. (Silver Medal.) 

Messrs. Reamsbottom and Co., Geashill 
King's Co., showed St. Brigid Anemones. (Sil- 
ver-gilt Medal.) 

Mr. H. N. Ellison, West Bromwich, showed 
Ferns and Cacti, for which a Silver-gilt Medal 
was awarded. 

-Mr. Vernon T. Hill, Longford, near Bristol, 
exhibited hardy border flowers in variety (Sil- 
ver-gilt Medal.) 

Messrs. J. Piper and Sons, Bayswater ex- 
hibited hardy flowers. (Silver-gilt Medal.) 



ROYAL AGRICULTURAL. 
ARBORICULTTJRAL EXHIBITS AT THE 
SHREWSBURY SHOW. 
June 30— July 3.— In deference to the wishes 
oi the Shropshire Horticultural Society, Orchids, 
Carnations, Begonias, and other choice green- 
house flowering and foliage plants were not in- 
cluded in this year's show of the Royal Agricul- 
tural Society, which took place on the old race- 
course at Shrewsbury, and was opened in a 
sweltering heat on the 30th ult. A tent 160 
feet by 85 feet was provided for the accommoda- 
tion of hardy and semi-hardy trees and shrubs, 
for which liberal cash prizes and gold and silver 
medals were offered. The spectacular effect of 
the arboricultural subjects could not be com- 
pared with that made by the magnificent displays 
of Orchids associated with many of the society's 
previous exhibitions. But never in the history 
of the society have so many new trees and shrubs 
been shown. All the growing specimens had been 
specially prepared in pots, and with very few 
exceptions they were displayed on the ground. 
Special interest was centred in the contributions 
made by J. C. Williams, Esq., Warrington 
Park, Launoeston, on account of the great 
number of species exhibited for the first time. 
Unfortunately competition was very disap- 
pointing, there being only 19 entries from 6 
exhibitors in 14 of the 34 classes provided by 
tha schedule. In 5 classes there were two con- 
testants, and 20 classes failed to attract a single 
competitor. 

The first class in which there was an exhibit 
was one for a collection of new hardy climbing 
shrubs in or out of flower, arranged "in a space 
of 100 square feet. Mr. L. R. Russell, Tun- 
bridge Wells, was awarded the 1st prize. The 
specimens ranged in height from 3 feet to 9 feet, 
and included examples of Vitis heterophylla varie- 
gata (beautifully coloured), V. vinifera purpurea 
(extra good), V. Thomsonii, V. orientalis, V. 
himalaica (intense purple), V. armata, V. Thun- 
bergii, and V. Henryi, Berchemia racemosa 
^ariegata with pleasing silver-coloured foliage, 
Actinidia chinensis, whose young leaves and 
stems were clothed with reddish hairs, Clematis 
montana rubra, Humulus lupulus aureus (richly 
coloured). Rhynoospermum jasminoides varie- 
gata, and a number of very bright-leaved Ivies. 



42 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 11, 1914. 



Mr. R. Woodward, Jun., Arley Castle Bewd_ 
ley, won the 1st prize for 9 new varieties of 
Berberis. . 

The most interesting and instructive class was 
for a collection of rare hardy, or semi-hardy 
shrubs arranged in a space of 300 square feet. 
There were two entries. 1st, J. C. Williams, 
Esq., Warrington Park, Launceston (gr. Mr. R 
F. Fitt), whose collection included about 60 
species and varieties, mostly raised from seed 
collected by Mr. Forrest in China in 1912-13. It 
is too early to tell how they are likely to behave 
in this country, but some of them appeared to 
be tender, and will most likely only be grown 
successfully out-of-doors in favoured parts of 
these isles. The undermentioned appeared to 
possess special merit. An unnamed Evodia 
about 2 feet high with 7 long leaflets set on 
a red petiole was very pleasing. Gordoma 
anomala had large, thin, glossy green leaves re- 
sembling those of Ficus elastica, but of smaller 
size. Its white flowers are stated to be 5 inches 
across, and bear some resemblance to a semi- 
double Camellia. Cotoneaster glaucophylla, a 
species of graceful habit, carried a large number 
of unopened flower buds. Another Cotoneaster 
named turbinate looked like being a good 
garden shrub. Neiliia rubiflora, with upright, 
red-barked stems, was very conspicuous ; Dichora 
febrifuga had long, deep-green leaves 
with serrated edges, which reminded one 
of Ilex latifolia. Clematis smilacifolia is dis- 
tinctly ornamental and of free growth. It has 
opposite, long-pointed green leaves, beautifully 
mottled, and shaded with glaucous grey. The 
long, red petioles are effective. Clematis Dela- 
vayi and C. chrysocoma were also included. A 
small -leaved, sturdy-growing Ligustrum named 
L. coriandmim of fan-shaped habit was sugges- 
tive of the growth of a miniature Azara micro- 
phylla. Acer X. is very distinct and of free 
growth, with opposite leaves 10 inches long, 
lanceolate, serrated, with a reddish mid-rib. The 
young foliage is bronzy-red. Of Rhododendrons 
R. oleifolium had foliage similar to but larger 
than R. racemosum, a dainty Chinese species. 
R. crassum was remarkable for its long, broad 
leaves covered with brown tomentum on the 
undersides. Specimens of R. orotrephes with 
glaueescent leaves and reddish stems were also 
noted. A very strong-growing Coriaria named 
C. nepalensis, with small, light-green leaves, was 
effective at the back of the group. An unnamed 
Idesia arrested attention. It had very hand- 
some leaves, similar to but larger than those 
of the Japanese species I. polycarpa. An un- 
named Senecio seemed to come near S. densi- 
flora. It had large, pale-gTeen leaves and white 
stems. Viburnum ceanthoides. a free-growing 
species Eriobotrya prionophylla, Photinia sp. 
with deep green leaves shaded with bronze, 
Rosa Forrestii, Celastrus sp., Cotoneaster micro- 
phylla var. and an unnamed red-flowered form, 
and Catalpa Duclouxii were also included in 
this uncommon exhibit. 2nd, Messrs. Dicksons, 
Chester, in whose collection were some fairly 
well-known and rare species. The new bright 
yellow leaved flowering Currant, Ribes san- 
guineum ainreuim Brooklebankli, served as an 
edging to a group which contained good speci 
mens of the Berberidaceous plant Nandina 
domestica, remarkable for the rich colouring of 
its foliage when kept near the glass. Davidia 
involucrata was represented by small, sturdy 
specimens, and Daphniphyllum glaucescens was 
effective. Quercus cuspidata variegata, a 
Japanese evergreen Oak with cream-variegated 
leaves, and the large smooth-leaved New 
Zealand Griselinia lucida macrophylla were note- 
worthy. Elaeagnus macrophylla, with silvery 
undersides to its leaves, was effective. Hama- 
melis mollis, Castanopsis chrysophylla (evergreen 
golden-leaved Chestnut), Clethra arborea, Ber- 
beris Gagnepainii, and B. Wilsonae, Styrax 
japonica. Viburnum rhytidophyllum, Olearia 
macrodonta, Mahonia Fortunei. and Juniperus 
pachyphlaea were also included. 

Tlie only exhibit of Ivies came from Mr. L. 
R. Russell, Tunbridge Wells, who showed a 
collection of 12 varieties. A splendidly-coloured 
specimen of Hedera Helix flavescens occupied 
the centre of the group, and near by was a well- 
coloured plant of the large-leaved variety H. 
dentata aurea. The best of the remaining varie- 
ties were elegantissima, Lee's Silver and minima. 
Mr. L. R. Russell was the only exhibitor in 



a class for Bamboos occupying a space of 300 
square feet. The collection included first-rate 
specimens of Bambusa tessellata, B. marmorea, 
B humilis, Arundinaria nitida, A. anceps, A. 
Falconeri and A. pumila; Phyllostachys 
Quilioii, P. nigra, P. violescens and P. castil- 
lonis. The next class was for a collection of 
Maples. The brightest feature in the group was 
a dozen large plants of Acer Negundo variegata, 
which largely helped to make up for the semi- 
nakedness of many of the forms of Acer palma- 
tum. A groundwork of silver-leaved Euonymus 
fronted with Echeverias and Scolopendnums 
completed the arrangement. ; 

For a collection of newly-introduced Chinese 
plants, including both tender as well as hardy 
species of Primulas, J. C. Williams, Esq., won 
the Gold Medal offered as 1st prize. 
With the exception of two species of Primulas, 
i.e., P. Pseudo-capitata and P. sinomollis, 
a prolific flowering species with small purple 
flowers and a paler eye, nearly all the other 
specimens were duplicates of those referred to 
in the class for rare hard or semi-hardy shrubs. 

In a class for a collection of cut branches of 
trees and shrubs in a space not exceeding 200 
square feet, there were two entries. The 1st 
prize was awarded to Mr. L. R. Russell, who 
had large flowering sprays of Zenobia speciosa 
and bold masses of Quercus pedunculata atro- 
purpurea (finely coloured), Fagus sylvatioa 
macrophylla purpurea (large-leaved variety), 
Cornus sibirica Spathii aurea, Ulmus campes- 
tris, Dampiera aurea, Cercidophyllum japoni- 
cuni, Cotoneaster pannosa, Azara microphylla, 
Elaeagnus macrophylla and Japanese Maples. 
The other exhibitor was Mr. Robert Wood- 
ward, Jun., Arley Castle, Bewdley, who showed 
Kalmia latifolia, Vaccinium stamineum, Cistus 
laurifolius, Aesculus parviflora, and Genista vir- 
gata. 

The last-named exhibitor was awarded 2nd 
prize for 24 vases of cut sprays of trees and 
shrubs, distinct, reserved for amateurs. His 
best specimens were Castanopsis chrysophylla, 
Sophora tetraptera microphylla, Nothofagus 
obiqua, Magnolia acuminata, Pittosporum 
Ralphii, Populus trichocarpa, and the large- 
leaved Oak, Quercus velutina. 

The Rt. Hon. Lord Kenyon, Credington, 
Whitchurch, won the 1st prize in a class for 18 
vases of cut flowering tree6 and shrub6, 
distinct (Roses excluded). He showed large 
masses of beautifully fresh Magnolia parvi- 
flora, Styrax japonica, Robinia hispida, Escal- 
lonia exoniensis, Buddleia variabilis, Deutzia 
Fortunei, Hedysarum multijugum, Syringa 
japonica, Philadelphia purpureus ma-culatus and 
Olearia dentata. 

The plants exhibited in a class for 12 new 
Acers in not fewer than 6 varieties were poor 
Mr. Robert Woodward, Jun., who was the 
only competitor, was awarded 2nd prize. The 
best examples were A. longipes, with 3-lobed 
leaves; A. laxiflorum, a slender-habited species 
with red-barked stems and small leaves set on 
long red petioles The deep-green leaves of A. 
Oliverianum are deeply lobed, the young ones 
being of a pleasing shade of brownish red. 

In a class for 12 Chinese or newly-introduced 
hard-wooded trees, distinct (Acers excluded), re- 
served for amateurs, the 1st prize was awarded 
to Mr. Robert Woodward, who had Cercis 
ehinensis with large leaves and reddish 
petioles ; Cotoneaster multiflora, a graceful-grow- 
ing species with reddish-barked twigs, white 
flowers and dark red fruits ; Populus yunmanen- 
sis, with rough, square stems ; Prunus pleuro- 
ptera and P. Puddum tibetica ; 2nd, C. C. 
Rogers, Esq., Stanage Park, Brampton Bryan, 
whose best specimens were Eucalyptus sp., Cer- 
cidophyllum japonicum, Carpinus, Betula and 
Ligustrum. 

■Mr. Robert Woodward also won the 1st 
prize for 12 Chinese or newly-introduced Coni- 
fers, distinct, reserved for amateurs. He showed 
small specimens of Cupressus formosensis from 
the Island of Formosa, Taxus cuspidata chinen- 
sis, Abies Delavayi and A. Taxoniana, two 
handsome species from Western Szechuan ; Picea 
asperata notabilis, P. a. ponderosa, and Pinus 
densata; 2nd, C. C. Rogers, Esq.. Stanage Park, 
Brampton Bryan. The last class in the schedule 
was one for 12 Chinese or newly-introduced 
Acers and other shrubs, distinct (amateurs only). 



Here again Mr. Woodward won the 1st prize 
with Dipelta floribunda, allied to the Honey- 
suckle, having rosy-pink flowers like a Weigela ; 
Syringa Teflexa, introduced from Western Hupeh 
in 1907; Potentilla Wilsonae, with small white 
flowers ; Acer Davidii, with deep glossy leaves 
and a red midrib ; Cydonia sp. and Sinowilsonia 
Henryi;2nd, C. C. Rogers, Esq., Stanage Park, 
Brampton Bryan. 

Honorary Exhibits. 

Messrs. Piper and Sons, Bishop's Road, 
London, occupied one end of the tent with 
clipped trees and Japanese Maples. (Silver- 
gilt Medal.) 

The King's Acre Nurseries, Hereford, 
filled a circular space of about 300 square feet 
with a grand lot of fruit trees in pots, many of 
them bearing ripe fruit. 

Messrs. John Waterer, Sons and Crisp, Bag- 
shot, had a large bed of Kalmias and Rhododen- 
drons relieved with Japanese Maples. Although 
late for Rhododendrons, many of the specimens 
carried large flower trusses of good quality. The 
exhibit was enhanced by the introduction of 
clipped trees judiciously placed near the group, 
which was surrounded by a dwarf hedge of 
English Yews. (Gold Medal.) 

Messrs. Dicksons, Chester, exhibited many 
uncommon trees and shrubs, such as Pittosporum 
coriaceum, Castanopsis chrysophylla, Daphni- 
phyllum glaucescens variegata, Crinodendron ■ 
Hookeri, Eugenia australis, Viburnum rhytido- 
phyllum and Nandina domestica, for which a 
Silver Medal was awarded. 

Mr. Robert Woodward sent three plants of 
Rhamnus Purshiana, from which Cascara 
eagrada of commerce is made. 

AWARD OF MERIT. 

Rhododendron The Hon. John Boscawen.— An 
Award of Merit was given to this plant, which 
was shown by Messrs. John Waterer, Sons and 
Crisp, Bagshot, a hardy variety of sturdy habit, 
with a moderate-sized flower truss of a lovely 
shade of pink deepening to rose-pink towards the 
edges of the petals. 

BRITISH GARDENERS' ASSOCIATION. 

•Tune 27.— The visit of the members of the 
B.G.A. to Kew Gardens organised by the Wat- 
ford branch took place on Saturday, June 27. 
Glorious weather prevailed, and the visit was a 
great success. A company of fifty-eight mem- 
bers assembled at the main entrance at 3.30 p.m., 
and were conducted through the gardens by mem- 
bers of the Kew branch. 



©bttuar\>. 

Joseph Chamberlain, M.P.— The Right 
Hon. Joseph Chamberlain died, at the age 
of seventy-eight, at his town residence, 40, 
Prince's Gardens, on Thursday, July 2. His 
public career is universally known, his services 
to his city, to the State and to the Empire axe 
acknowledged, and his place in the roll of honour 
of British statesmen is assured. But although 
his name and work bulk so largely in the eyes of 
his fellow men, Mr. Chamberlain lived by no 
means only for and in that life. Behind it and 
withdrawn from the public eye was an intimate 
home life in which love of gardening and of 
plants formed a vital part. During hJ6 active 
career he turned from the stress of public affairs 
to his garden at Highbury. There he found re- 
laxation and enjoyment ; he found also yet another 
outlet in these gardens for the inexhaustible 
store of his energy. The gardens at Highbury, 
which have been described on more than one 
occasion in these pages, lie on high, undulating 
ground, and from the house, which dominates 
the estate, fine view6 are obtained of the sur- 
rounding country. Around the house are lawns and 
flower gardens, kitchen garden, fruit and plant 
houses ; and these are set about with meadows 
encircled by pleasure grounds (see fig. 16). The 
undulating ground provided opportunity for the 
effective massing of Rhododendrons and choicft 
flowering (shrubs. Fine old trees, particularly 
Ash, Oak and Yew, add to 'the beauty of the 
estate, and they found a place in Mr. Chamber- 
lain's heart second only to that occupied by the 



July 11, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



43 



Orchids which he grew so well. His love of 
Orchids was seized upon by tihe popular mind, 
partly because of the habit which he adopted 
of wearing one of these flowers in his button- 
hole, and partly perhaps because of the use which 
the caricaturist made of this habit. He grew the 
handsome species largely, ajid ait one time 'his 
collection! of Phalaenopsis was remarkably fine ; 
Dendrobiums, Cattleyae and Laelias were always 
good. In a place of honour in the corridor which 
led from tie conservatory to the Orchid houses 
was the fine Laelia anceps Chamberlainiana, for 
which he received an Award of Merit in 1891. 
Numerous other awards testified to Mr. Cham- 
berlain's skill, and his deep interest in horticul- 
ture generally was recognised by his election to 
the vice-presidency of the Royal Horticultural 
Society. That his interest in Orchids was dis- 
criminating is illustrated by the fact that he 
rather regretted the naming of Cypripedium 
Chamberlainianum, on the ground that he was 
not particularly interested in Cypripediums. 
That his love for these flowers was extra- 
ordinarily great is shown by the fact that of 
the many presentations made to Mr. and Mrs. 
Chamberlain during their visit to South Africa, 
one of the most, if not the most acceptable wa6 
a bouquet of Transvaal Orchids presented in 
Johannesburg during the tour. Mr. Chamber- 
lain's personality expressed itself no les6 in the 
subjects of his garden than in the affairs of 
world politics. A strong man, he had incisivo 
views. These views had to be carried out. It 
is noteworthy, however, that if, as sometimes 
happened, the results were unsatisfactory, they 
were accepted with unfailing geniality and good 
humour. His love of plants and gardens em- 

Idured throughout a harassed public life; no 
less did this love provide a solace in the sad 
twilight of his later days. 
-George Cuthbert.— We state with regret 
that, as these pages are being passed for press, 
the new reaches us of the death, after a short 
illness, of Mr. George Cuthbert, head of the 
firm of R. and G. Cuthbert, Southgate Nur- 
series, Middlesex, in hie 75th year. The inter- 
ment will take place to-day, Saturday, and the 
funeral service will be held at Christ Church, 
Southgate, at 2.30 p.m. 

W. Sangwin.-H is with regret that we 
record the death of Mr. W. Sangwin, for 50 
years gardener and steward at Trelissick, Truro, 
which occurred on the 30th ult., in his 80th 
year. Some years since Mr. Sangwin retired 
from active work, being granted a pension from 
the Davis Gilbert family. He created several of 
the features of Trelissick, notably the Lily 
pond, which is situated in a valley lead- 
ing to one of the creeks noted on the Fal 
river. He occasionally sent specimens of 
flowering shrubs to the meetings of the 
Royal Horticultural Society, being amongst 
those who first flowered Embothrium coecinneum 
in the open, a plant which has become one of the 
features in gardens in the south-west. Occa- 
sionally since his retirement he visited the old 
gardens of his labours, and it was a pleasure to 
note the love he had for things he had planted 
and tended for so long a time. The funeral took 
place on the 2nd inst. in the churchyard of St. 
Eeock, overlooking the river Fal, and close to 
the landscape effect which he helped to produce. 

Henry^Folkes. — We regret to announce- 
■the death of Mr. Henry Folkes, at Gad- 
desden Place, Heme! Hempstead, on the 1st 
inst., at the as;e of sixty-seven years. Mr. 
Folkes was gardener to the Right Hon. T. F. 
Halsey, at Gaddesden Place, for forty-six years. 
He was a most successful exhibitor at the lead- 
ing shows for manv years. The funeral took 
place at Great Gaddesden on the 4th inst. 



GARDENING APPOINTMENTS. 



DEBATING SOCIETIES. 



TRADE NOTE. 



Mr. D. A. Cowan, for seven years representa- 
tive of Messrs. Charlesworth and Co., is relin- 
quishing that post on the 13th inst., in order to 
act in a similar capacity for Messrs. J. and A. 
McBean, Cooksbridee, with whom he has en- 
tered into partnership. 



[Correspondents are requested to write the names 
of persons and places as legibly as 
possible- No charge is made for these announce' 
tnents, but if a small contribution is sent, to be 
placed in our collecting Box for the Gardeners' 
Orphan Fund, it will be thankfully received, and 
an acknowledgment made in these columns.] 

Mr. Walter E. Pullen, for the past 2i years Out- 
side. Foreman at HorBley Hall, Gresford, Denbigh- 
shire, as Gardener to Oedhio R. Botnvr, Esq., The 
Abbey Manor, West Kirby, Oheahire. 

Mr. John Smith, for the past 18 months Gardener 
to Alex. Stevekson, Esq., Colinswell, Burntisland, 
Fifeshire, and previously Under Gardener to the 
Right Hon. J. Parker Smith, at Jordanhill, Glas- 
gow, as Gardener to Campbell B. Hausburg, Esq., 
Furnace Farm, Oowden, Kent. [Thanks for Is. for 
R.G.O.F. box.— Eds.) 

Mr. F. W. Miles, for the past 15 months Second Gar- 
dener to A. E. Ccmberbatch, Esq., at Ware Park, 
Hertfordshire, and previously at Latimer House Gar- 
dens, Ohesham, Vale Royal Gardens, Northwich, and 
Kelston Park Gardens, Bath, as Gardener to the same 
gentleman and at the Bame plaoe. 

Mr. A. E. Moore, for the past three years Gardener 
to H. 0. Holder, Esq., J P., of WareBley House, 
Hartlebury, Worcestershire, and previously of Moor 
Green House, Birmingham, as Gardener to Herbert 
Austih, Esq., Lickey Grange, near Bromsgrove. 
[Thanks for 2s. for R.Q.O F. box.— Eds.] 

Mr. H. Sinclair, for the past 5 years and 8 months 
Gardener to Mrs. Leaf, The Lowe, Wellesbourne, 
Warwick, also The Fosse House, Et.tington, S.O A., as 
Gardener to Mrs. Smith Ryland, Barford House, 
Barford, Warwick. [Thanks for Is. 5d. for R.G.O.F. 
box— Eds.] 




THE LATE GEORGE CUTHBERT. 

Mr- T- Wilkins, for 12 months Inside Foreman at 
Duffryn, Cardiff, and previously at Pyt House, Tis- 
bury, Inwood and Dunster Castle, as Gardener to 
L. E. Traherne, Esq., Ooedriglan Park, Cardiff. 

Mr. H. C. Martin, for the past 2^ years Foreman at 
Benham Valence, Newbury, as Gardener to Oapt. 
W. H. Starkey, Bericote House, Leamington Spa. 

Mr. C- Cheese, for nearly 6 years Gardener to W. E. 
Buckley, Esq., Beech Holme, Colwyn Bay, and pre- 
viously Gardener for nearly 3 years at Oakneld 
Claines. near Worcester, and General Foreman for 
4 years at Bishton Hall. Stafford, as Gardener to 
the Hon. Mrs. Britten, Kenswick Manor, near 
Worcester 

Mr. E- Page, for 5 months Second Gardener at Beech 
Holme, and previously at Adair Place, Englefleld 
Green, Surrey, as Gardener to W. E. Buckley, 
Esq., Beech Holme, Colwvn Bay. 

Mr. T Allaway. for the past 7J years Second Gar 
dener at Englefleld Lodge. Englefleld Green, as Gar- 
dener to Mrs. Leisbtian. The Rookerv. Great Marlow. 
(Thanks for Is. for R.G.O.F. box.— Eds.] 

Mr- C Hart, for the past 6i years Gardener at 
Oaldecote Towers, Bushey Heath, as Gardener to the 
Right Hon. Sir William Mather, P.C., Bramble 
Hill Bramshaw. New Forest, Hampshire. [Thanks 
for 2s. 6d. for R.G.O.F. box— Eds. 1 

Mr. Georee Kiddle, for the past seven years Fore- 
man at Farmleigh, Castleknoek. as Gardener to Mrs. 
B*rron Newell. Woodstown, Waterford, Ireland 
[Thanks for Is. for R.G O.F. box.— Ed.] 

Mr. Alfred J- Tfartless. Gardener at Bishops- 
gate. Englefleld Green, Surrey, as Gardener at 
Hemsted. Benenden, Kent. 

Mr- H. Dew. for five years Gardener to the late 
General PAKBNBAM, and latterly to Colonel Pakenham, 
Langford Lodge. Crumlin, Co. Antrim, as Gardener 
to C MrrrHEU., Esq.. Pallinsburn, Cornhill-on-Tweed. 
TThanks for 2s. for R.G.O.F. box.— Eds.] 



BATH GARDENERS'— At the meeting of this 
society, held on the 8th ult., Mr. Harry Basham, of 
Newport, was unable to be present to read his paper 
on " Roses," and Mr. J. Wiggins, also of Newport, gave 
a. paper on " The Herbaceous Calceolaria." Mr. H. 
Sparey explained the circumstances under which Mr. 
Wiggins had come, and the lecturer was accorded a 
very hearty reception. Mr. Wiggins pointed out that 
there were two kinds of Calceolaria — herbaceous and 
shrubby. Both were suitable for pot culture, and for 
greenhouse and conservatory decoration, but plants of 
the former section were most popular for the 
last-named purpose. The present method was to 
treat the plants as biennials— raising them from 
seed one year for flowering the next, and then 
throwing them awaj*. A point to be remembered 
in growing these plants waa that they were most im- 
patient to heat. Plants raised early in the summer be- 
came stunted and a prey to insects. The first 
or second week in August was the best time at which to 
sow the seed. 

BRISTOL AND DISTRICT GARDENERS'. I h 

usual monthly meeting of this association was held 
at St. John's Parish Rooms on the 25th ult. Mr. R. 
Jennings presided. The appointed lecturer, Mr. Hol- 
lingworth, was unable to attend, but Mr. Biggs filled 
the vacancy, and gave a most entertaining lecture on 
Kew Gardens. 




rmpondenU 




Apium nudiflorum. : Burford. There appears 
to be no evidence whatever that this plant 
is poisonous to cattle. On the Continent the 
plant is used as a diuretic in lithiasis, as an 
emmenagogue, and in skin diseases in the form 
of salad. Dr. Withering mentions the case of 
a young lady whom he cured of a cutaneous 
eruption by giving her three large spoonfuls 
of the juice twice a day mixed with milk, 
and states that it produced no unpleasant re- 
sults. Possibly some other plant was mis- 
taken for it. Cicuta virosa, called Cowbane 
on account of its fatal action on cattle, occurs 
in the midland and northern counties on the 
banks of broads and pools and canals, and 
Oenanthe crocata, an equally fatal plant to 
cattle, grows on the muddy or pebbly sides 
of streams and ditches. Either of these would 
be certainly fatal to cattle. But the leaves 
of the three plants are quite distinct, and it 
should be possible to identify the leaves or 
even portions of them found in the stomach of 
the animal. The correct name of the plant does 
not always transpire in newspapers. We re- 
member that the death of some sailors in Corn- 
wall was attributed in a leading local news- 
paper to Cicuta virosa, which does not occur 
in Devon or Cornwall, the real cause of death 
being Oenanthe crocata, a common stream-side 
plant in both counties, often fringing streams 
near the sea where sailors would go for fresh 
water, and where its Parsnip-like roots might 
tempt them to taste, as it often does cattle 
when it is thrown out on ditch-banks in clear- 
ing the ditches. 

Apple Twig Infested : 0. M. The small red 
bodies are the eggs of a mite belonging to the 
genus Bryobia. Caustic alkali wash is said to 
be effectual in destroying this pest. 

Beans Injured : Y. D. The Scarlet. Runner 
Beans show signs of having been badly in- 
fested with the Bean or Pea Weevil (Brachus 
sp.), and the insects were evidently present 
in the seed when sown. Had the sample of 
seed been critically examined the presence of 
the pest could have been detected and the 
seed destroyed. There is, unfortunately, no 
remedy, and care should be taken to select 
sound, healthy seed for sowing. 

Beetle : Inquis. The specimen sent for 
identification had, unfortunately, escaped 
during transit. 

Caultflowers Diseased : A. E. The roots are 
in all probability attacked by the maggots of 
the muscid fly (Anthomyia radicum], which 
is a troublesome and serious pest. Keep the 
plants well supplied with water, as it may 
enable some of them to outgrow the attack. 
Many remedies have been suggested, but they 
are rarely effective. 



44 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Juls 11. 1914. 



Cedak Tree with an Iron Band Around the 
Stem : A. M. Your letter is not sufficiently 
explicit. It does not state if the band is 
around the main trunk or upon a branch. 
Assuming it to be around the main trunk, 
the better plan will be to endeavour to cut 
the iron band in two or more places. Then, 
if the iron is firmly embedded in the bark do 
not attempt to remove it, but allow the growth 
to force the iron outwards by expansion. If 
the iron band be removed the vacancy should 
be filled in with cement to prevent any 
undue movement in the case of high winds. 
With a sharp chisel it should be quite possible 
to cut through the iron. A further strengthen- 
ing of the stem (trunk) could be effected by 
binding four or more stout pieces of pitch- 
pine or other stiff wood below and above the 
injured part. Do this with stout core! and as 
tightly as possible to prevent any friction. 
If it be a branch the remedy as to cutting the 
iron is the same, but then some support should 
be given from the ground in the way of a 
prop or props, and, further, two chain supports 
should be fixed above and below the weak or in- 
jured place, so as to relieve the bough of any 
undue weight, the object being to prevent 
injury from winds. We shall be interested to 
know more of this case later, and to give any 
further advice we can. 

Cucumbers Bitter : F . B. The bitterness of 
your Cucumber fruits may be due to one of 
two causes. Either the plants have become 
stunted through being kept too dry or too wet 
at the roote ; or, and this is more likely, the 
plants have become exhausted, and the fruits 
take unduly long to develop. The best remedy 
for this state of affairs is to pull up the old 
plants, fork a dressing of slaked lime into 
the beds, and cover them with mounds of a 
rich compost, 2 feet apart. Then plant fresh, 
young plants, which have been grown in 6-inch 
pots for the purpose. Or the old plants, if 
fairly clean, may be retained, but all bad 
leaves and as many as possible of the old 
shoots must be removed to make room for new 
growths. The border should be top-dressed 
with a mixture of loam and short manure in 
equal parts, and well watered. A warm, moist 
atmosphere should be maintained in the house, 
and the growths kept pinched and thinned. 

Grapes Diseased : /. E, H. The berries are 
affected with spot disease, caused by the fun- 
gus Gloeosporium ampelophagum. Dredge the 
vines with flowers of sulphur at intervals of 
ten days. On the second occasion add a small 
quantity of quicklime to the sulphur, and in- 
crease the quantity on each successive applica- 
tion, but always use a little more sulphur than 
lime. Next winter, when the vine is resting, 
drench the rod with a solution of sulphate 
of iron. Collect and burn all diseased leaves. 
shoots and fruit. 

Grubs in Kitchen Garden : R. H. B. Your 
plants are infested by the common "leather 
jacket." which i6 the larval stage of the daddy- 
long-legs fly. Such attacks as that which you 
describe often follow when old pasture land is 
brought under cultivation. By removing the 
grass you cut off the natural food supply, and 
thus, by force of circumstances, the grubs 
are forced to attack the cultivated plants. 
Numbers may be caught under pieces of fresh 
turf placed near the infested plants ; and by 
searching the soil near the latter. Had the 
land been allowed to remain fallow for twelve 
months the insects would have disappeared. 

IN6ECT on Chrysanthemums : /. R., Hull. The 
common ghost swift moth (Hepialis humuli). 
This insect does not eat the foliage of plants : 
it would be a physiological impossibility for 
it to do so as its mouth-organs are formed for 
sucking. In the larval stage, however, it 
feeds upon the roots of various plants, and it 
sometimes causes injury to herbaceous plants. 

Melons and Cucumbers : H. S. You need have 
no fear in planting Melons and Cucumbers 
intended to furnish seeds in the same house. 
There would be no likelihood of the two 
plants crossing. 

Mulberry : IT. E. T. The Mulberry, in its 
norwal state, is monoecious — that is, it bears 



male (staminate) and female (pistillate i 
flowers separately on one and the same plant. 
Occasionally, however, tTees are found which 
bear female flowers only (see Master's Vege- 
table Teratology, p. 193). As is the case with 
many trees and other plants with incon- 
spicuous floweTS, the Mulberry is pollinated 
by wind. In the event of pollen grains failing 
to reach the stigmas of the female flowers 
no fertile seed is produced. Whether, however, 
the Mulberry, like some other plants — e.g., 
Cucumbers — is able to produce its "fruit" 
from unfertilised female flowers we are not 
able to say. Why not try the experiment 
yourself next year by covering some young 
female flowers with paper bags and observe 
the result? 

Name of Bee : B. B. All the specimens sent 
are representatives of one species — viz., 
Osmia rufa. This bee does not collect honey, 
but stores its cells ("nests") with pollen. 
It is certainly one of the pollinating species. 
The female is provided with a sting, but the 
pain caused by it is only very slight as com- 
pared with that of other well-known mem- 
bers of the family. 

Name of Carnation : C. C. We do not under- 
take the naming of Carnations or other florists' 
flowers. Send them to a grower who has 
means of comparing them with others in his 
collection. 

Name of Insect : W. Selby. The specimen you 
sent is a fine example of the elephant hawk 
moth (Chaerocampa Elpenor). It is not in- 
jurious to plants under cultivation, and it is 
somewhat local in its distribution and never 
common. 

Names of Plants : Enquirer. Albuca Wake- 
fieldii.— T. A. H. I. Probably Oxalis hirta; 
the specimen cannot be identified with cer- 
tainty in the absence of flowers. — D. B. 
Helxine SoleiTolii.— James P. Reid. The Cut- 
leaved Beech [Fagus sylvatica var. hetero- 
phylla].— A. H. 1, Ceanothus Gloire de Ver- 
sailles ; 2, Escallonia macrantha. — W. D. A. 
Juniperus chinensis. F. Noble. 1, Abies 
Pinsapo ; 2, Cupressus Lawsoniana yar. ; 3, 
Thuya plicata ; 4, Cupressus Lawsoniana ; 5, 
Cupressus Lawsoniana; 6, Cistus laurifolius; 
7, Lonicera involucrata ; 8, Thuya dolabrata : 
9, Picea excelsa.— A. J. 1, Adiantum con- 
cinnum latum; 2, Adiantum Capillus-veneris 
Mariesii ; 3, Adiantum formosum ; 4, Adian- 
tum cuneatum Waltonii : 5, Doliohcdeira tubi- 
flora, more often known in gardens as Gesneria 
and Achimenes tubiflora. — A. Z. 1 and 3, 
forms of Athyrium lilix-foemina; 2, Poly- 
tichum angulaTe depauperatum ; 4, Poly- 
stichum aculeatum; 5, Polystichum angulare. 
— A. B. 1, Sigmatostalix radicans ; 2, So- 
phronitis cernua ; 3, Oncidium candidum ; 4, 
Pleurothallis Scapha ; 5, Oncidium barbatum : 
6, Masdevallia coccinea. — W. J. W. Nuphar 
advena, native of North America. Figured in 
Bot. Mag., tab. 684, as Nymphaea advena. 

Paeonies Injured : R. H S. The flower-buds 
show marked signs of having been injured by 
the larvae of an insect of some kind, but as 
the depredator was not inside the buds the 
probabilities are that it is a night feeder, and 
probably the caterpillar of a noctuid moth. 

Peaches Infested with Ants : Ants Deal. Ants 
are troublesome to ripe Peaches growing 
against walls, and the trouble is greatest on 
walls that need " pointing." It is difficult to 
destroy them at this season, as they naturally 
prefer ripe fruit to any bait of a less luscious 
nature. The Ballikinrain Ant Destroyer is 
usually an effective remedy, but it should be 
used with the greatest care as it is a poison. 
Vaporite pricked into the soil a month ago 
would have driven them away, and this remedy 
may be tried another season. Bisulphide of 
carbon, using a wineglass to 3 or 4 gallons of 
water, is very effective when poured into their 
holes, and the holes filled up afterwards. Boil- 
ing water may be used in places where there 
are no tree roots, but the most radical measures 
of destruction can only be practised before the 
fruits approach the ripening stage. 

Pbas and Other Plants Unhealthy : Constant 
Header. We have examined the Peas, and 



cannot, account for their failure. The Pelar- 
goniums are diseased, being affected with 
Botrytis ; the cuttings were probably already 
diseased, when they were struck. We know of 
no cure for Silver-leaf, though investigations- 
are being made on the subject. In the case of 
the Peach tree with pale leaves the best plan 
will be to prick up the soil and mulch it well 
to bring the roots to the surface. 

Rose with Hard Centre : H. Cordcr. See 
reply to F. A. A. under " Carnations." 

Split Stones in Peaches and Nectarines : F. A. 
Wakeford. The trouble may result from one or 
more causes, and certain varieties are more 
prone to stone-splitting than others. It may be- 
due to sudden changes in the temperature, or 
dryness at the roots during the winter months, 
bad stocks, or planting the roots in unsuit- 
able mediums. As the trees appear healthy 
and look well, no stimulants appear to be 
needed. It is possible that the roots 
have grown too deeply in cold soil, and 
this may have caused the Nectarine tree 
to die, but what appears to be the- 
most probable cause is lack of lime. To pre- 
vent further trouble the trees should be par- 
tially or wholly lifted as soon as the wood is 
matured, shading the house before commenc- 
ing the work. It would be advisable to over- 
haul the inside border at the end of 
this year, and the outside one the 
next. Plenty of drainage material must 
be provided. Fairly strong loam is the . 
most suitable soil, to which should be added a 
fourth its bulk of road scrapings and at least 
one-tenth of old mortar Tubble with a barrow- 
load of wood ashes to each cartload of the com- 
post ; also a liberal sprinkling of bone-meal. 
Mix the materials well together, and 
place the soil in the border, making it firm- 
Spread out the roots evenly all within 
the top foot of the border after shorten- 
ing those that have grown too gross or become 
damaged ; the topmost ones not to be deeper 
than 2 or 3 inches. The border need 
not be more than 2 feet deep. Afford 
a copious watering to settle the soil 
about the Toots, and syringe the trees 
on fine days, allowing the shading to- 
remain in position until the roots have grown 
in the new compost. Treat the Cherries in a 
similar manner, but add more lime-rubble and 
wood ashes to the compost, also bone-meal. 
Pay careful attention to the pollination of thw 
fruits, as many varieties of Cherry set badly. 
If grown indoors an abundance of air i6 neces- 
sary to obtain a good set of fruit; too close 
confinement or undue forcing is fatal to good 
results with this fruit. 

Weed From a Pond : H. R. The weed may be- 
spread over ground that has been cleared of 
an early crop and dug in as green manure. If 
you have no fallow ground it may be made 
into a heap, placing it in layers with soil be- 
tween and allowed to decay. In the winter 
it may then be spread over ground that is dug 
or trenched. Another use to which it might 
be put is that of mulching crops in the vege- 
table garden. 

Worms on Beans : /. V. See reply under head- 
ing "Worms on Herbaceous Plants: 
H. G. K." It is interesting to note that this 
creature has been observed in such numbers 
this season. 

Worms on Herbaceous Plants : H. G. K. The 
examples sent are "hair worms," Gordius 
aquaticus. This creature is parasitic on in- 
sects, and is perfectly harmless to plant life. 
It often occurs in numbers after heavy rains. 

Worms on Plants : R. King. See reply_ to 
'■Worms on Herbaceous Plants: H. G. K." 



Communications Beceived.— A. P.— B. T.— 
A C D.— E. F.— W. H. W.— W. B— J. A. C.— Ins— 
H S-J. J. & Son-B. J.-A. T. H.-M. R.-T. S.- 
J. R— J. McM.— A. F. G. B.— R. 0. W.— S. A — 
A o B.— F. G.— .J. B.— A. M. S.— S. S.— S. B.— 
W. T— G H. J— W. K— H. H.-J. C— D. B A.— 
J H W.— S S.— E. G.— F. D. & Co.— Pea— W. D. W.— 
H. g. G.-H. M.-R. H.-G. H.-A. G.-W. J.- 
B— S. C— J. C— C. C.— J. P. & Son— G. W. B — 
j' E D.— J. M. W.— T. T. & Co.— M. W. A.— S. E.— 
K S— E. P P.— C. H.— W. M.— H. N.— F. B — 
H E.— F. F.— W. F.— H. V. W.— E. H.— I. B. P. E. — 
XT. J.'— Sir Frank C. 



.July- 18, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



45 



THE 



No. 1,4$S.— SATURDAY, JULY IS, 1914. 



CONTENTS. 




Arnold Arboretum, the. 


45 


Orchitis, new 


57 


Books, notices of — 




Poplars, the Black 


4<; 


Annual of the Rose 




Rheum Alexandrae 


58 


Society of Ontario . . 
Orchid Review, the . . 


o7 
57 


Roses, some new.. 
R.H.s. Orchid Show, 1015 


51 
54 


Submerged Forests . . 


54 


Seeds, germination of, in 




Sweet Pea Studies 


50 


the fruit. . 


53 


Church Army's City 




Sweet Peas, a conference 


(>1 


gardens 
Rducational gardening.. 


51 

50 


Societies — 
Elstree Horticultural 


68 


Kastigiate Robin i a, a 


5S 


Liverpool Hort. 


62 


Florists' flowers- 




Manchester Royal Bot- 




Perpetual - flowering 




anical and Hort. 


63 


Carnations . . 


49 


Perpetual - flowering 




lierraaiiy, Hops and 




Carnation 


61 


Potatos in 


57 


Reigate Rose and sweet 




i.rape Primavis Muscat 


58 


Pea 


6.'f 


Huber, the late Dr. 




Royal Horticultural ., 


59 


Jacques 


57 


9 o o U t £ Francaise 




Irises, uotes on— 




d'Horticulture de 




The origin of some 




Lonrlres 


CM 


garden Irises 


48 


Southampton Sort. .. 


61 


Law note— 




Vienna centenary exhi- 




American Gooseberry 




bition, 1915, horticul- 




mildew prosecution 


(13 


ture at the 


64 


Leuzea eonifera . . 


5J 


Week's work, the — 




Looh Lomond, proposed 




Apiary, the 


53 


public park at 


58 


Flower garden, the . . 


63 


Market fruit-garden, the 


47 


Fruits under glass 


62 


Moth, diamond black .. 


57 


Har<ly fruit garden, the 


53 


Narcissus Fly, the lesser 


58 


Kitchen garden, the .. 


52 


Narcissus seeding 


58 


Orchid houses, the .. 


52 


Obituary— 




Plants under glass 


52 


Cuthbert, George 


63 


\\ li eel harrows, Ann i i< an 


- 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

cattk-ja Warscewiczii ■• ..68 

Mlchautia Tchihatcheffli .. .. ..69 

Popuhia Henryana, 46 ; P. Berotina 47 

IS iltnuia vexillaria Eev. W. Wilks (SI 

Rosas Augustus Hartmann, 4'.i ; Margaret nic-kaon 
llamill. r,7 ; Mis. Bertram Walker, 61; Waltham 
Scarlet 66 



THE ARNOLD ARBORETUM. 

Impressions by the Hon. Vicary Gibbs. 

(Concluded from p. 26.) 

ONE of the most attractive features of 
the Arboretum is the part known 
as Hemlock Hill. This is a bit 
of pure nature, such as one would never 
expect to find six miles from a great 
city. When standing on the hill 
among the rugged boulders and ferns 
under the shade of the Hemlock forest 
one could imagine oneself, were it 
not for the occasional noises of the ad- 
jacent railway, a thousand miles from 
civilisation. The top and sides of the 
hill are clothed with the Hemlock (Tsuga 
canadensis), and a very lovely tree this is 
when growing in numbers together; a few 
self-sown White Oaks, Hickories, and 
American Beeches occur sparsely scattered, 
but nothing has been done to interfere 
with or detract from the natural con- 
dition of the hill, beyond the making of a 
few necessary and unobtrusive footpaths, 
it the foot of the hill runs a brook, and 
both sides of this are planted with Rhodo- 
dendron Catawbiense, R. maximum, R. 
Smirnowii, and many garden varfeties. 
Rather to my surprise, though not to my 
regret. I wns told that R. ponticum. which 
flourishes so freely with us, will not stand 
their winter. The effect of the Rhododen- 
drons, as I saw them in beauty just before 
I left, with the sparkling water and 
solemn background of the Hemlocks, was 
quite enchanting. While talking of Rhodo- 
dendrons, I should like tn mention Azalea 
Vaseyi ("see Gardeners' Chronicle, May 11, 
1012. ficr. 155), a most delicate pink, and 



A. canescens, I think indigenous, as most 
agreeable, and to me unaccustomed sights ; 
but living as I do on a heavy clay soil I am 
so ignorant of peat-loving plants that 
what is an attractive novelty to me may 
be an everyday affair for other of your 
readers. 

I had left Massachusetts before the Kal- 
mia, or Mountain Laurel as they call it, 
was in full bloom, and on Long Island, 
where I was later, I did not come across 
much of it, but I saw enough in 
the bud to realise that its glories are not 
exaggerated. I believe it is one of the 
very few flowering shrubs which will grow 
in every State of the American Union, and 
is therefore appropriate for the national 
flower. 

On entering the Arboretum the first 
thing to catch the eye is a very complete 
collection of deciduous Magnolias, and I 
was lucky enough to see many of them 
in flower. Of these I think I should give 
the palm of merit to M. cordata, with its 
bright yellow, medium-sized blooms, al- 
though for foliage I think nothing sur- 
passes the comparatively common M. tripe- 
tala. 

Naturally I spent a great deal of time 
in the nurseries in company with old Mr. 
Dawson, who has been in charge of them 
for many years, studying the Chinese in- 
troductions and the various novelties 
brought into cultivation by Purdom, Jack 
and Harbison for the Department of Agri- 
culture at Washington, and others. I 
should say that as a propagator it -would 
be very difficult, if not impossible, to 
find Dawson's equal. He showed me 
some examples of his perfect grafting, in- 
cluding a curiosity, viz., Bignonia 
radicans worked on a stock of Catalpa 
speciosa. I mentioned to him the diffi- 
culty which we had found at home in 
propagating those two splendid trees, for 
which horticulturists owe a debt of grati- 
tude to Wilson, namely, Salix magnifica ' 
and Populus lasiocarpa, and he gave me 
some instructions which I hope will bear 
fruit this year. That he had not experi- 
enced my trouble was proved by my seeing 
a row of satisfactory young plants of the 
aforementioned Willow. Dawson was all 
through the great and terrible Civil War, 
and can show the Bible with the bullet 
hole in it which he carried on his breast 
and to which he owed his life. He has 
been very successful in hybridising Roses, 
and Arnoldiana (General Jacqueminot x 
R. rugosa) and the one named after him- 
self, of which I forget the parentage, are 
two happy results of his efforts. 

A part of the Arboretum which is an 
exception to my previous statement, that 
the natural appearance of the grounds has 
been so perfectly preserved, is a flat, large 
lawn surrounded on four sides by a per- 
gola covered with all kinds of creepers (or 
" vines " as they are called in the States). 
This lawn is cut up into Ions:, narrow 
panels about 8ft. wide, of alternate turf 
and open soil. In the latter are planted a 
succession of shrubs of all kinds suited 
for pfardens, each row is onlv one plant 
deep, and each plant is labelled back and 
front, so that one can walk between two 



rows and read the names on both sides of 
one and select the particular variety of 
Ribes, Pyrus japonioa, Deutzia, Berberis, 
etc., that one would like to have in one's 
private garden. Of course, these plants 
are in duplication of other specimens of 
the same shrubs which occur in their 
proper order in other parts of the Arbore- 
tum, and there of course have added to 
them other species which are of botanic 
rather than gardening interest. This 
lawn and its enclosing fence are the best 
arranged things of the kind that I have 
ever seen for enabling a man who is igno- 
rant of gardening matters, and who has 
built a new house, to choose the plants 
which most please his eyo to set against it 
and around it. 

I know nothing that flourishes better 
in the Arboretum than the flower- 
ing Crabs, and, indeed, in the Eastern 
States generally; provided they be pro- 
tected from ravages of insects, the Apple 
trees of all kinds thrive wonderfully and 
attain a far larger average size than they 
do with us. Of all the Crabs I think the 
most showy is one little planted at home, 
viz., Pyrus Malus coronaria flore pleno, or 
the Bicknell Crab as it is popularly called; 
its only fault is one which it has in com- 
mon with the Captain Christie Rose, 
namely, that instead of shedding its bright 
large double pink Rose-like blossoms, it 
retains them in their brown disfiguring 
state on the tree. Others of the same genus 
which are not well known and deserve 
favourable mention are P. M. Sargentii 
and P. M. Dawsoniana. 

Talking of insect, ravages reminds me of 
the great economic loss which Massa- 
chusetts and the neighbouring States have 
sustained by the disease which has attacked 
the native Chestnut. It is a grand tree, 
readily recognisable by its resemblance to 
the Spanish Castanea, and used to grow 
in abundance to a large size, and gave 
valuable timber. No remedy has been 
found to save its life, and it is now almost 
impossible to find a healthy tree; indeed, 
in most woods it has had to be cut down 
wholesale, to save what value was left. It 
looks as if in a few years it would become 
extinct, at any rate in the parts which I 
have visited. Another great curse is the 
Elm beetle, which attacks the beautiful 
Ulmus americana, one of the most taking 
and distinctive trees that I saw dur- 
ing my visit. The typical tree usually has 
a short, straight stem, which soon separates 
into three or more, and branches out into 
a tall, umbrella-like pendulous head. It 
sometimes attains immense size, the biggest 
which I saw beino; in the Highland ParK 
at Rochester, N.Y. This Elm is quite un- 
like ours, but just as impressive, though 
in a different way. It seems to have been 
the favourite in old times to plant in 
front of a house, and when driving about 
in the early settled parts I constantly saw 
old homes with three of these ooaeval trees 
in front of them. 

I believe the mischief caused by this 
beetle can be stopped by spray incr, but the 
expenseof this process is prohibitive, except 
in cities or about the homes of rich men. 
The beetle also attacks imported Elms, but 



46 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jul* 18, 1914. 



I am told that it spares Ulmus fulgens, a 
tree with which I have no acquaintance. 

Ulmus americana will not thrive in 
England unfortunately, and it is strange 
how many of the commonest and finest 
Eastern trees are unable to tolerate our 
conditions of life. They include the White 
Oak, the Black Oak, the Chestnut, the 
Beech, and the Sassafras. I do not mean 
to say that none of them can be found in 
England, though I believe that even this 
can safely be asserted of Quercus alba, but, 
considering their beauty and that they 
must have been introduced 200 years ago, 
the fact that they are practically unknown 
in our country is proof conclusive that they 
cannot be naturalised. 

Last winter, whioh we escaped so lightly, 
was one of the severest ever experienced in 
North America, and Professor Sargent in- 
formed me that out of 1,000 Tree Paeonies, 
aged eight years, he had lost 750 ! When I 
visited the nurseries of the well-known firm 
of Ellwanger and Barry, in Rochester, I 
saw many instances of the devastation 
which 20 or more degrees below zero can 
cause. 

I see that among shrubs which are more 
largely planted and grow more luxuriously 
on the other side of the globe, I have 
omitted the various Guelder Roses, which 
make a striking feature in American 
gardens. I can recall some fine plants of 
Viburnum prunifolium in flower on the 
edge of a wood, whioh produced a distant 
effect comparable to that of old English 
Whitethorns at their best. The new Chinese 
Viburnum rhytidophyllum seems barely 
hardy in the Arboretum, but V. aceri- 
folium, V. lantana, V. dentatum, V. pu- 
bescens, and many others flourish exceed- 
ingly. 

I have said, too, nothing about the Ar- 
boretum's Oaks, and I should take up too 
much of your space if I were to attempt 
to describe them in detail, but they are a 
fine thriving lot of surprising size consider- 
ing their youth. Our pedunculate Oak is, 
however, I understand, but a short-lived 
tree of some 80 years' duration when im- 
ported, and cannot compare in size or im- 
portance 'with many of its indigenous con- 
geners. 

As I have said, our common Yew and 
Holly cannot stand the Massachusetts 
winter, though I saw both growing fairly 
well on Long Island and in Pennsyl- 
vania, where the climate is milder. For 
our Yew, however, Taxus cuspidata is now 
being planted in large and increasing num- 
bers, and I see no reason, as it is absolutely 
winter proof, why it should not be 
generally used for hedges round Rose and 
other formal gardens, as we do ours, 
though exactly what height it may attain 
in North America I am not prepared to 
say. The only evergreen substitutes for 
our Holly are the tiny-leaved Japanese 
Ilex crenata, which I have never seen in 
fruit, and the indigenous Ilex opaoa, 
which last did not altogether escape 
injury last winter; although it fruits 
freely and holds its fruit long (I saw one 
still covered at Dedham, Mass., about June 
1), yet its foliage is dull and ill com- 
pares with our cheerful glossy Christ- 



mas decoration. Of deciduous Hollies 
there are several, such as the indigenous 
I. verticillata, which, though inconspicu- 
ous in summer, is fine in herry when 
the leaf has fallen, but I douht if 
it would ever fruit so freely when 
planted in Great Britain. The Coton- 
casters, like most evergreens or sub- 
evergreens, do hut poorly in the Arbore- 
tum, but the Barberries, on the other 
hand, thrive quite as well as with us; in- 
deed, our common Berberis vulgaris has, 
like our White Willow, become perfectly 
naturalised, and now grows wild quite a 
long way inland from the East coast. B. 
Thunbergii, too, though not yet actually 
growing wild, is to be seen everywhere, 
and is often used for forming low garden 
hedges, an employment for which it is ad- 
mirably suited, and which we might with 
advantage imitate if our nurserymen could 
afford to sell it at a cheap enough price. 




Fig. 17. — hybrid poputus, p. henkyana, 
at white knights. 

Owing to the importance of offering pro- 
tection from the blazing summer sun, street 
trees are almost universal in the towns and 
villages of the Eastern States, which gives 
them an attraction that ours lack, but, on 
the other hand, the nearly entire absence 
of any hedge to mark the boundary of 
garden plots, whether small or big, gives 
them, to an English eye, a somewhat naked 
and unfinished appearance. It would seem 
that that privacy which an Englishman 
would demand, however humble his home- 
stead, is a matter of indifference or even 
of dislike to Amerioans, for one sees them 
taking their ease, men, women and chil- 
dren, on a Sunday afternoon in front of 
their houses and in full view of the publio 
street. 

Now it is quite time that I should bring 
this "bald disjointed chat" to an end, 
but before doing so I wish to apologise for 
the various errors of statement into which 
I must have fallen owing to my very super- 
ficial acquaintance with the American 
flora. All I can urge in excuse for writing 
on a subject of which I know so little is 



that, having had a most enjoyable visit to 
the Arboretum, I am anxious to encourage 
others to follow my example and share my 
pleasure. 

Nowadays the voyage can be undertaken 
easily, quickly, and luxuriously, and leav- 
ing England as I did, May 16, and America 
June 16, I was able to spend a full week 
in the Arboretum, see Boston, Harvard, 
Lexington and Concord, Dedham, Lancas- 
ter, Salem,* the famed North Shore (or 
Gold Coast, as it is jocosely nicknamed 
from the number of wealthy residents in 
summer-time), and many charming coun- 
try houses and gardens in the State of 
Massachusetts, to spend three days in 
Rochester, N.Y., enjoying its wonderful 
parks and the Genessee Valley, to give two 
days to Niagara, the same number to 
Long Island, one to Philadelphia, one for 
a trip up and down the grand Hudson 
River, besides having a considerable time 
off and on in New York. 

I received the kindest welcome not only 
from Professor Sargent, but from all to 
whom he was good enough to give me 
letters of introduction. Finally, I can 
assure any tree-lover who, like me, should 
visit the Arboretum, that he will find thie 
director and his staff most ready with every 
courtesy to further his objects, and put 
him in the way of seeing things and places 
of interest, and that his trip will be to 
him, as it will always be tome, a delightful 
and treasured recollection. V. Gibbs, s.s. 
Kronprincessin Cecilie, Jurte, 191Jf. 



THE BLACK POPLARS. 

(Continued from p. 2.) 



3. Populus deltoidea var. missouriensis, Henry 
[P. angulata var. missouriensis, Henry, in Trees 
of Great Britain, vii. 1811 (1913)]. 

Leaves similar in shape to those of var. monili- 
fera, but larger, 5 or 6 inches in width and 
length ; both surfaces of the leaf and petiole 
pubescent, some of the pubescence remaining in 
summer ; basal glands three or four. 

This variety occurs in the south and south- 
eastern parts of the United States, ascending 
the Mississippi basin from Louisiana to Mis- 
souri ; also in Georgia. 

This large-leaved, more pubescent form is pro- 
bably the large Poplar referred to by Marshall 
as growing on the banks of great rivers in Caro- 
lina and Florida, but I have seen no specimens 
from there. If these turn out to be identical, 
this form may be considered to be typical Popu- 
lus deltoidea, Marshall. 

I have seen no tree of this variety in Europe. 

I may now refer to a puzzling species, Populus 
angulata, Aiton, which has been cultivated in 
England and France since 1730, always being 
popularly known as the Carolina Poplar. It was 
said by Miohaux to be common in the two Caro- 
linas and the other southern States, but it has 
never been recognised as a wild tree in any part 
of America. It differs remarkably from P. del- 
toidea in the scales of the flowers, which are 
small, cucullate or concave, simply dentate and 
not divided on the margin into long filiform lobes. 
The flowers, which occur in both sexes, are, how- 
ever, often malformed, and it is possible that 
P. angulata. is merely one of the forms of P. del- 
toidea which underwent a mutation in its 
flowers after cultivation in Europe. In most re- 
spects the leaves, which persist green on the 
tree till late in November, are similar to those 

* Since this article was written a quartern! this attractive 
nid-world city has been destroyed by fire. 



July 18, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



47 



of P. deltoidea var. missouriensis, but they 
tend to be longer than broad, rounded or acute 
(rarely acuminate) at the apex, deeply cordate 
or truncate at the base, and are glabrous except 
for the pubescent petioles. 

There are a few fine examples of the Carolina 
Poplar in England, the most remarkable being a 
very old tree at Danny Park, Sussex, which has 
layered, producing a great number of stems, and 
altogether covering an area over 150 yards in 
circumference. The Carolina Poplar is more 
suitable, however, for the climate of the south 
of France and of northern Italy, where it is com- 
mon in avenues and in plantations. 

Hybrid Poplars. — The Black Poplars which 
are extensively cultivated for timber in France 
and Belgium, and also in England, are almost in- 
variably of hybrid origin. This fact is easily 
established from their history and from a study 
of their botanical characters. With the intro- 
duction at the end of the seventeenth century of 
American trees into Europe, hybrids between 
them and the allied European species soon began 
to appear as natural seedlings in nurseries, and 
in no genus are they so readily produced as in 
Populus, where individuals occur in two sexes. 
Moreover, hybrid seedlings are early noticed as 
endowed with exceptional vigour, and the props 
gation of any vigorous seedling Poplar by cut- 
tings is so easy that it was often done. I have 
given elsewhere* the history of the different 
hybrids, and I need only now indicate the 
characters by which they differ from the parents, 
which are, on the one hand, the glabrous or the 
pubescent European Black Poplar, and, on the 
other, Populus deltoidea. The hybrids have 
leaves intermediate in shape, never shallowly cor- 
date at the base as in P. deltoidea and never 
cuneate as in P. nigra ; cilia on the margin sparse 
and irregular ; basal glands variable on the leaves 
of the same branch, absent or one or two, never 
consistently present as in P. deltoidea, nor 
always absent as in P. nigra. 

The principal hybrid Black Poplars are : — 

1. Populus serotina, Hartig (1851), otherwise 
Populus helvetica,, Poederle (1792). This, which 
is a male tree, is always known in England as 
the Black Italian Poplar, and in France as 
Peuplier Suisse or (erroneously) Peuplier de Vir- 
ginie. It appears to have been the earliest 
hybrid Poplar to be selected, being described by 
Duhamel in 1755, and introduced into England 
before 1787. It has glabrous twigs and leaves, 
and is the latest of all the Poplars in unfolding 
its leaves, which in the young state have a fine 
bronzy tint. The tree has a characteristic habit 
and can be readily distinguished in the land- 
scape, even a mile off, by its ascending branches 
and wide head, as is well shown in fig. 18, which 
represents a tree at Belton, near Grantham, 
about 125 feet in height and 15 feet in girth at 

5 feet from the ground. Mr. A. B. Jackson 
records one at Albury as 150 feet in height. The 
remarkable fast growth of this valuable Poplar 
is evidenced by a tree, exactly 100 yeare old, 
which was felled at Cassio Bridge, near Wat- 
ford, in 1907. It was 130 feet in height, and 
16 feet 11 inches round the trunk at 5 feet up, 
the contents of the butt being 701 cubic feet, 
and of the timber of the whole tree about 1,000 
cubic feet. 

2. Populus regenerata, Schneider. This is a 
female tree, exactly resembling the Black Italian 
Poplar in twigs and leaves, but the latter open 
at least a fortnight earlier. In height this is 
narrower in outline. Most of the so-called Euca- 
lyptus Poplars are really this hybrid, which ap- 
pears to have been picked up as a seedling in a 
nursery near Paris in 1814. In France it is now 
more common and grows faster than P. serotina, 
and at Pontvallain has attained in 22 years from 
the planting of the set 110 feet in height and 

6 feet to 6 feet 10 inches in girth. At Culford 
a plantation of these trees, 14 years old, average 
55 feet in height. 

3. Populus Engenei, Simon-Louis. This is a 
male tree, with twigs and leaves similar to those 

* Trees of Great nritnht, VII., 1811 (191.i). 



of P. serotina, but the leaves are smaller and 
open earlier, and in habit it is distinctly nar- 
rower than the Black Italian Poplar. It "was 
found in 1832 as a chance seedling in a bed of 
Silver Firs in the nursery of Simon-Louis, near 
Metz. The only female Poplar then existing in 
this nursery was P. regenerata, which was very 
probably fertilised by the pollen of a Lombardy 
Poplar near by, these two Poplars being evi- 
dently the parents of this remarkable hybrid. 
The original tree is, in my opinion, the most 
wonderful tree in Europe in point of vigour, as 
it measured in 1913, when 81 vears old, no less 



and is probably of no particular vigoui, but 
forms a picturesque tree when old, as shown 
in the illustration, which represents a fine speci- 
men at White Knights, about 100 feet in height 
and 14 feet in girth. The origin of this hybrid 
is unknown. A. Henry. 

{To be concluded.) 



THE MARKET FRUIT GARDEN. 



A partial drought nearly twelve weeks in 
duration up to the early hours of July 3 is a 





Fig. 18. — black Italian poplar, populus serotina, at belton. 



than 150 feet in height and 25 feet in girth at 
5 feet above the ground, and appears to be still 
growing rapidly. Another tree, a cutting of the 
last, planted in 1870, was 140 feet high by 15 feet 
in girth. P. Eugenei thrives in sandy soil at 
Kew, where, of eight trees 24 years planted, the 
two largest, in 1912, measured 90 feet by 5 feet 

1 inch and 84 feet by 4 feet 5 inches, whilst the 
others ranged from 50 to 60 feet in height and 

2 feet 4 inches to 3 feet 5 inches in girth. All 
preserve the narrow pyramidal form. 

4. Populus Henryana, Dode (see fig. 17), is one 
of the hybrids with a branching habit, recalling 
that of P. monilifera. It is a staminate tree, with 
leaves cuneate at the broad base. It is very rare, 



very uncommon occurrence, at least where the 
relief from rain was as slight as it has been at 
my own place. During that period my rainfall 
was only 1.75 in., or about one-fourth of the- 
average. From April 11 to the end of the month 
the measurement was only 0.01 in. ; for May, 0.67 
in. ; for June, 1.06 in. ; and for the first two 
days of July, 0.01 in. Under such circumstances 
the most wonderful result has been the compara- 
tive success with which fruit trees have with- 
stood the trial of severe drought. The foliage 
of Apples is of exceptional vigour and good 
colour where no serious aphis attack has oc- 
curred, while the fruit is larger than usual for 
the stage of development. From some varieties 



48 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



LJuly 18, 1914. 



there has been more dropping of fruit of a size 
ranging from that of a nutmeg to that of a 
large walnut; but to a great extent this has 
been only a salutary thinning, leaving fine 
singles or doubles to a truss. Plum foliage has 
not withstood the trial so well ; but this is partly 
because of an attack of the mealy Plum aphis. 
As to fruit, Plums, like Apples, have thinned 
themselves to a considerable extent, though not, 
on the whole, more than was desirable. As 
stated last month, Gooseberries were badly 
dwarfed by the drought; but Black Currants 
were much less affected than they seemed likely 
to be. The latter did not reach the full size 
attained last year, but yet made a very good 
sample. Moreover, they were firmer when fully 
ripe than they would have been in a rainy 
season, and this was a point of great importance 
in a case of 27 acres being nearly all ripe at the 
same time. The worst result of the drought in 
my case was the impossibility of cultivating and 
hoeing the orchards properly. Where the horse 
cultivator could be worked, it left the land in 
great clods, and where it could not be used, weeds 
could only be chopped up with heavy hoes, no 
fine filth being possible. 

Applb Sawfly. 
In further reference to the dropping of Apples, 
it has to be stated that it was largely due to 
the maggots of the Apple sawfly. Never before 
have I seen these pests so numerous as they are 
this season. No insect pest is worse to en- 
counter. Entomologists tell us that spraying 
against the maggots is useless, and that the only 
course to adopt is that of picking the infested 
fruit off the trees or the ground and burning it. 
So far as thinning was done, this course was 
adopted, but not elsewhere. To get off all the 
maggoty Apples from thousands of trees before 
these damaged fruits dropped to the ground was 
quite impracticable, and to collect the dropped 
fruit was equally so. The best staff to employ 
for the purpose would be a dual one of pigs and 
poultry, the former to devour the Apples con- 
taining maggots, and the latter to eat the mag- 
gots that dropped from the fruit. But neither 
can be employed where either Gooseberries or 
Currants grow among the trees, at least until the 
bush fruit has been gathered ; and it is doubtful 
whether pigs could be safely put into orchards 
containing bottom fruit at anv time. Digging 
the orchards in the autumn or winter is feasible, 
however, and this must go far towards burying 
the maggots too deeply to allow of their sur- 
vival. Mr. Theobald states that they do not 
pupate till the spring. 

Apple Blossom Weevil. 
This is another formidable Apple pest (see 
hardeners' Chronicle, October 21, 1905, fig. 116), 
for which no remedial or preventive measures 
that can be carried on in extensive orchards have 
yet been devised. In one of the orchards visited 
at Wisbech an immense amount of damage had 
been done by the larvae of this weevil, little 
white maggots which destroy the several parts of 
Apple blossoms, rendering them useless. The 
attacked blossoms are described as "capped." 
In one of my orchards there are still on the trees 
of one variety particularly many trusses of ihese 
" capped " blossoms. 

Capsidae. 
Growers of Apples when searching for Apple 
suckers can hardly have failed to notice among 
the trusses of blossom some active little yellow 
bugs. But for their activity they might be mis- 
taken by a casual observer for suckers, though 
they differ from these pests in shape. They are 
members of the Gapsidae family, and are known 
l>y those who are familiar with them as capsid 
bugs. They are responsible for the surface 
furrowing and other disfiguration of Apple fruit- 
lets, which all growers where they are common 
must have observed, often without knowing the 
cause, as very little attention has been given to 
these inserts by entomologists in books relating 



to fruit pests. In some districts they impair, 
if they do not destroy, the value of great quan- 
tities of Apples. It is said that they are more 
difficult to kill than suckers or aphidae ; but I 
have found that a strong soft-soap wash kills 
those which are dipped in it. 

Reversion. 
Is not the reversion of certain cultivated 
fruits more common than it was formerly? 
Wherever visits have been paid to fruit farms on 
which Black Currants are grown, more or less 
reversion towards the wild state has been found 
usual. In the case of the Raspberry also this 
serious deterioration is common. The Superlative 
variety, some growers say, is worn out ; but there 
are other varieties which are much worse in re- 
verting and producing mere abortions of fruit. 
Just as varieties of Potatos deteriorate through 
being propagated again and again by tubers, so 
Raspberries raised from suckers and Currants 
from cuttings fall back from their early excel- 
lence. Less strikingly there is the like tendency 
among varieties of fruit propagated by grafting 
or budding. It appears that new stocks from 
seed need to be constantly raised to replace de- 
teriorated varieties. 

A Remarkable Exemption. 
One of the most striking peculiarities of the 
present season in my orchards is the complete 
absence of the black aphis, which has attacked 
my Boskoop Giant Black Currants in previous 
years. Invariably before, thousands of terminal 
bunches of leaves have been bent over umbrella 
fashion (not curled, as by the common aphis) 
by the attack of the pest upon the tops of the 
stems, not upon the leaves. As seen under a 
lens, these insects are olive-green in colour, 
though they appear as black to the naked eye. 
I have never seen the variety elsewhere ; nor 
have I been able to get it identified. Every 
season before the present one it has been neces- 
sary to have the deformed terminals dipped in 
an insecticide, sometimes going over the planta- 
tion twice in the summer. This season, however, 
there is a complete exemption from the pest, 
which is very remarkable and quite unaccount- 
able. There must have been something peculiar 
in climatic conditions in my orchards fatal to 
aphides, as there was almost complete exemption 
from the usual early attack of the leaf-curling 
variety on Apples and Plums, though a slight 
later attack took place, and a bad one of the 
mealy Plum aphis has been recently developed. 

Permanent Results of Bud-Eating. 
The great importance of spraying Plum trees 
with lime-sulphur immediately after the begin- 
ning of bud-eating by birds is noticed, and re- 
peating the operation if rain washes the stuff 
off, is emphasised by the fact that the damage 
done is never reparable. As a rule, no new bud 
is ever developed where one has been eaten off, 
and consequently shoots rendered bald by birds 
usually remain so for all future time. Buds grow 
on extension growth or side shoots, of course, 
but never as a rule on the portions of the tree 
once denuded of buds. Three years ago a bud- 
eating attack became serious on my Monarch 
Plums next to hedges and shelter trees before it 
was noticed, and in the two following seasons 
those trees were almost entirely fruitless. This 
year there is a small crop on wood grown since 
the attack took place ; but long portions of the 
branches remain bald. The proper plan is to 
cut back below the bud-denuded portions of 
shoots, notwithstanding the fresh growths at the 
ends. But the Monarch, Greengage, or Golden 
Drop variety should never be planted alongside 
of a hedge or row of shelter trees, as these kinds 
are favourites with birds. The Victoria or Per- 
shore Plum is rarely, if ever, attacked, so far as 
my experience shows. 

Prices of Black Currants. 
Up to the time of writing these prices have 
been disappointing, in view of the generally short 



crop of Black Currants, though mine was the 
best I have ever grown. At first a glut of sup- 
plies from France and Belgium kept prices com- 
paratively low, and later the hot weather and 
the consequent bad condition of large portions of 
the home supply had a like effect. A very small 
proportion of the crop has made more than 6s. 
per half -sieve of 24 lbs., with rail and market 
expenses to come off ; and large quantities have 
been sold at 5s. A. Southern Grower. 



NOTES ON IRISES. 

THE ORIGIN OF SOME GARDEN IRISES. 

About two years ago I was able, by the kind- 
ness of the Hon. N. C. Rothschild and of Dr. 
A. v. Degen, of Budapest, to see a dried speci- 
men of an Iris which had. been discovered on the 
Velebit Range, in Dalmatia. Thi6 was recorded 
in a paper on the local vegetation by Dr. Degen* 
as being related rather to I. chamaeiris Bert 
and to the I. lutescens Lamarck than to I. 
variegata L. Trie branching stem and the 
wholly herbaceous spathes showed that it had 
nothing to do with the French I. Chamaeiris or 
lutescens, while the fact that the outer edges 
of the spathe valves were not keeled was suffi- 
cient evidence that the Iris was not merely a 
form of the Balkan I. Reichenbachii. 

In April, 1913, I went to Dalmatia in search 
of Irise6, and by the kindness of the late Herr 
Dobiasch, of Zengg, in Croatia, was provided 
with a native guide to take me to the exact spot 
on the Velebit Range where this Iris was known 
to grow. The mountains rise very abruptly from 
the sea coast and consist of very rough and almost 
barren limestone. In former days, when this 
coast wa6 subject to Venice, tribute appears to 
have been paid in timber, with the result that 
the hills were almost entirely denuded of trees, 
and it is only recently that, further north in the 
neighbourhood of Fiume, attempts have Been 
made towards reafforestation on any large scale. 

The Iris, of which I was in search, grows in 
a shallow cup-shaped hollow near the 6ummit, at 
a height of some 4,000 feet. Just before we 
reached the edge of the cup, and while we were 
still on the south-western slope facing the 
Adriatic, I found growing among the limestone 
rocks a few Iris leaves, together with Crocuses 
and Muscari. My guide urged that it was hardly 
worth while to 6top to collect any of these plants 
because we had almost reached our destination, 
where it was far more abundant. However, I 
took up a few plants, and then we soon reached 
the top. In this depression patches of snow were 
still lying on the north side of rocks, and all 
around were Gentiana tergestina, a near relative 
if not a form of G. vema ; Oocuse6, of a species 
a6 yet undetermined; a yellow-flowered Primula; 
and, coming up among them all, the young leaves 
of an Iris, obviously belonging to the bearded 
section. The soil of the hollow was a layer of 
black vegetable mould overlying the limestone 
below. 

During the present year the plants which I 
brought away with me have flowered well. It 
was interesting to watch them develop as they 
grew side by side. The foliage of the plants 
from the south-west face was noticeably glaucous 
and the entirely scarious spathes pointed to I. 
pallida. When the flowers opened it was obvious 
that here was one more of the long series of plants 
which in the north, near Roveredo, are called I. 
Cengialtii and in the south I. illyrica. 

The plants from the hollow at the top had 
much greener foliage and were evidently of two 
kinds, for the spathes were in one case wholly 
green and in the other 6carious in the upper part 
and green at the base. In both cases 1, the stems 
branched and the slightly-ribbed foliage of the 
plants with wholly green spathes led me to con- 
clude that Dr. Degen's Iris must be a form of 
I. variegata L., which is common in many parts 

• Magyar Botanikai Lapo'c, ifKTi, p. 261. 



July 18, 1914.] 



THE GARDES ERS CHRONICLE 



49 



of Hungary. Thi6 was what they eventually 
proved to be. The standards are of a clear, pale 
yellow and the red-purple veining on the falls is 
not heavy, and I have no doubt that the veins 
had wholly disappeared, in the drying of the 
original herbarium specimens. The behaviour of 
Iris flowers as they dry is very erratic. Some 
keep their colours to an astonishing degree, while 
others, the yellows especially, rapidly lose all 
traces of their original hue and become merely a 
light brown. 

It was sufficiently surprising to find I. pallida 
and I. variegata growing together, but a still 
greater surprise was the third variety of Iris, 
which had partly scarious and partly green 
spathes. The four-flowered inflorescence was that 
of a small I. germanica, and only the slightly 
brownish tinge of purple in the buds showed that 
there was any difference. When the flowers 
eventually unfolded they were at once interesting 
and disappointing. They were interesting from 
the fact that they were evidence that the so- 
called squalens and sambucina are, as I had long 
supposed, hybrids of I. pallida and I. variegata; 
and disappointing because they proved to be only 
an Iris which we have long had in our garden?, 
but which is no great ornament to them. 

In the standards the yellow and the purple of 
the two parents fight for the mastery, and pro- 
duce that dingy shade of dull purple which fully 
justifies the name of squalens. The falls are of 
a pale reddish-purple with thick darker veins, 
which allow the whitish ground to show be- 
tween them only near the end of the beard. 
This is composed of whitish hairs tipped with 
yellow, and the flowers are, in fact, a typical 
I. squalens. 

All the plants I have described are naturally 
small, growing as they do in poor soil at a con- 
siderable elevation, but I have no doubt that 
they will develop under better conditions to more 
than the 15 or 18 inches to which they have 
attained in this dry year in poor, stony soil. 

The discovery of these three plants, the 
squalens hybrid and its two parents, pallida and 
variegata, growing together in a locality which 
certainly was never inhabited, and where they 
could scarcely have been planted by the hand of 
man, goes far to explain the origin of many of 
our garden bearded Irises. I have a whole series 
of hybrid forms, coming chiefly from the neigh- 
bourhood of Bozen and Riva, in the Southern 
Tyrol, in some of which the yellow of variegata 
predominates, while in others the purple of the 
pallida is more apparent. Judging from the 
localities from which they come, I never felt con- 
fident that they might be described as natural 
hybrids between I. pallida and I. variegata, but 
after my experience in Dalmatia I am inclined 
to think that it is extremely probable that they 
are really wild plants. 

Typical I. variegata, 6uch as we know it from 
Hungary and the Balkans, is not now known to 
grow at Bozen ; but, at any rate, there grows 
near that place a plant which closely resembles 
I. variegata, though certain characteristics and 
the fact that it does not readily set seeds incline 
me to think that it is a hybrid and not merely 
a form of that specie6. In the same neighbour- 
hood forms of I. pallida are also abundant, and 
I have now little doubt that the original parents 
of the many so-called " Gennan " Irises of our 
gardens are to be sought among these plants. 

Whether the problem of the origin of Iris ger- 
manica itself will ever be solved is doubtful, but 
I am almost inclined to suggest that it may be 
of hybrid origin. This would explain many of 
the difficulties, its almost complete sterility, the 
frequent malformation of the flowers, and the 
fact that it has never been found wild. The chief 
difficulty that is not explained lies in I. ger- 
manica's habit of beginning to grow in autumn 
instead of waiting for spring. If it were not for 
this there would seem to be no reason why I. 
germanica should not have resulted from a cross 
between I. aphylla and I. pallida. The flowers 
.of the latter especially are so variable in their 
shades of colour that the many varying colour 



forms of I. germanica could easily be produced 
and the wholly herbaceous, often purple-flushed 
spathes of I. aphylla would combine with the 
wholly scarious spathes of I. pallida to give us 
the partly scarious and partly herbaceous, often 
purple-flushed spathes of I. germanica. 

These suggestions are only put forward tenta- 
tively, but it would be interesting to know 
whether any seedlings have already been obtained 
by crossing I. aphylla and I. pallida, or any- 
other tall, bearded Irises. I have made the cross 
recently and hope to obtain 6eeds which may 
throw more light on the vexed question of the 



for the purpose, covering a quarter of an acre or 
so, and holding some 10,000 plants. The flow 
pipes are overhead, thus ensuring a dry atmo- 
sphere, and permitting of an abundance of venti- 
lation on suitable days. Thus the atmosphere is 
always fresh and buoyant, whilst it scarcely 
matters how far the plants are from the glass, 
because it is almost as light inside the house 
as out. The benches are narrow and some 2 feet 
from the ground. 

Compare such conditions with those of the 
small house at the command of the average gar- 
dener. The temperature in a small house is more 




Fio. 19.- 



-ROSE AUGUSTUS HARTMANN ; H.T. 
(See p. 54.) 



COLOUR, CERISE-PINK. 



origin of our garden bearded Irises. 
])yice$, Charterhouse, Godalming. 



W. R. 



FLORISTS' FLOWERS. 



PERPETUAL-FLOWERING CARNATIONS. 

A writer recently stated that while nursery- 
men grew their Carnations planted out, they in- 
structed others not to plant them, and he natur- 
ally asked the reason why their recommendation 
is at variance with their practice. 

Those who grow Carnations in beds commer- 
cially have large, airy houses, specially designed 



influenced by external conditions than is that of 
a large? one, also the ventilation is not so easily 
controlled. Thus it is seen that the nurseryman, 
with his large houses, lias the advantage, and 
while Perpetual Carnations can be -grown with 
good success planted out in a small house, better 
re/ults are usually obtained from pot plants, un- 
less the gardener is well experienced 1 in the other 
method. 

In gardens situated in smoky areas, such an 
near to large towns, or where the greenhouses do 
not admit the maximum amount of light, to at : 
tempt to grow Perpetual-Flowering Carnations 
planted out is to court failure. Plenty of sunlight 
is essential to promote ;i vigorous growth. 



50 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 18, 1514. 



Other important details are (1) not to have 
a greater depth of soil than 4 inches, (2) never to 
use leaf-mould or similar materials that might 
cause the soil to become sour, (3) to plant early 
propagated cuttings not later than June, or the 
plants will not be sufficiently established to 
produce the best results. 

Tot plants will give finer flowers up to Christ- 
mas, and the house will be at liberty for a 
summer crop ; it must also be remembered that 
many of the British varieties would prove un- 
profitable planted out, producing an abundance 
of growth and few flowers. 

In many nurseries solid benches are favoured, 
but the position of the house must be dry to 
allow of the use of these, also adequate drainage 
is important. Better results are obtained from 
plants grown upon, benches than, those grown in 
solid beds, particularly in the winter. A. 



HARDY FLOWER BORDER. 



LEUZEA CONIFERA. 

Except in botanic collections this old garden 
plant is now rarely met with. It was introduced 
to this country in 1683, and is described in 
Nicholson's Dictionary of Gardening as an in- 
teresting and pretty plant. There are three 
species, but L. conifera is probably the only one 
in cultivation. 

It is a long-lived perennial. In a Banffshire 
garden known to the writer a large group has 
survived for nearly half a century. L. conifera is 
an attractive plant when in flower. The scaly 
flower-heads are here, in the South, of a pale lilac 
shade of pink, and are even more pleasing than 
those borne by the plante in the Northern gar- 
den alluded to, which are much deeper in colour, 
and might be termed purple. It is, however, in 
the early stages of growth that I prefer to watch 
the plant. The new foliage unfolds Fern-like, 
and is almost white, gradually changing to pale 
green, the underside remaining white through- 
out. The leaves measure about 8 inches in 
length, and the plant when in flower rarely 
reaches 1 foot in height. As a front plant for 
the border or as a specimen on the rock garden 
L. conifera i6 to be highly recommended, and 
the stock can be increased by division and seeds. 
It is a South European species. T. Hay, Green- 
wich Pari-, London 



EDUCATIONAL GARDENING. 



SCHOOL GARDENING AND PUPILS' 
GARDEN PLOTS. 
(Concluded from Vol. LV., p. 396.) 
The experiments which have been described 
gave rise to others, mostly in the United 
States, but also in England and Switzer- 
land. In 1904 already there were in Phila- 
delphia the extensive schoolboy gardens 
with 250 large single beds and 40 extra 
big beds, in which the more important of 
the useful plants were cultivated. The boys and 
girls of the higher classes of the elementary 
schools work here from May 15 to the end of 
June, and from the beginning of September to 
about the middle of October every afternoon 
from four to six. On Saturdays, when there is 
no school, teachers and pupils work in the garden 
from morning to evening. In Berne Dr. Zahler 
has allotted beds to 168 pupils, and he reports 
that scholars who were very weak in theoretic 
subjects distinguished themselves in the garden 
by dexterity, diligence and ability. " The gar- 
den thus taught us very forcibly that talents are 
often more equally distributed than we are 
always willing to believe; one has talent in one 
direction and another in another, and it is of no 
rare occurrence that the unrecognised talent 
stands the test in the struggle for life better 
than the extolled one. There was another good 



side to the garden from an educational point of 
view ; it taught appreciation of the value of 
work — not only one's own work, but that of 
others. It taught the amount of trouble and 
care needed to rear plants, and the latter con- 
sequently gained value in the children's eyes. 
One is quite involuntarily educated to treat care- 
fully what belongs to others." 

Mention must be made of the school children's 
garden experiment in Breslau with its excellent 
results, of which Herr Schmidt gives an exhaus- 
tive description. In the spring of 1900 a muni- 
cipal plot of 1,000 square metres was rendered 
arable by 70 pupils of the elementary 
schools, to each oif whom was then ailotted 
a numbered bed. Other plots of land 
were soon added, and in the school year 
1902-03 there were already 556 pupils from 
35 municipal elementary schools at work on four 
plots. A rich inhabitant of BTeslau had contri- 
buted 15.000 marks (about £750) for the ao 
quisition of the land. In 1909-10 the number of 
gardens had risen to seven of 36,812 square 
metres, and the number of children working 
in them — exclusively boys, unfortunately — 
was 2,306 from 67 schools, in spite of which 
the town's expenditure did not amount to 
more than 6,773 marks (about £330). Splendid 
educational results have been the outcome of the 
arrangement. All that the boys produce in the 
way of flowers, vegetables and fruit is their own 
absolute property. A further extension of school 
children's gardens in Breslau is assured. Since 
1907 the municipal authorities of Zempelburg, ; n 
West Prussia, give to scholars garden beds each 
of 35 square metres (38J,- square yards) for then- 
own individual cultivation. The children have 
full control and may keep the produce, but they 
must do the whole work alone and may only 
seek help from grown-ups in the way of advice, 
though they may render each other every assist- 
ance. 

Other German towns have in the meantime 
followed suit. A valuable and much imitated 
kind of pedagogic garden cultivation for chil- 
dren was instituted in the United States 
by a large manufacturer — Mr. Patterson, 
the manager of the well-known National 
Cash Register Factory (N.O.R.), in Dayton, 
Ohio, who met with great success in his interest- 
ing experiment of transforming the bare and 
dreary surround'ngs of the factory into a little 
paradise. When he saw in what a short time 
and with what simple means the art of gardening 
had transformed his bare and dreary factory, 
he thought of subjecting his workmen's 
dwellings to a like transformation. But how 
was he to arouse interest? He had the 
necessary materials sent from Professor Bailey, 
in Cornell, and Miss Helen Gould, who was 
interested in the plan, and Mr. Simons placed 
photographs of their beautiful gardens at 
his disposal. He had suitable lantern slides 
made and began his educational efforts in the 
factory Sunday school, where he exhibited the 
pictures to the scholars during the winter. 
When spring came he distributed 12,000 packets 
of flower seeds among the children, and as an 
encouragement established prizes for the most 
ornamental planting in the gardens and the most 
artistic arrangements of vines and other creepers 
round balconies, buildings, window-frames, etc. 
Boys and girls under sixteen were invited to 
enter into competition for the best laid-out and 
best kept back gardens, in which vegetables, 
fruit or flowers might be planted according to 
inclination and taste. Five prizes of five dollars 
each were offered for the most effective window 
flower-boxes, and four prizes of ten dollars each 
for the best-kept kitchen gardens. Mr. Patter- 
son charged a capable gardener with the super- 
vision, and to him the competitors were free to 
go for advice. 

Four thousand persons were present at the 
prize-giving in the fine courtyards of the 
factory. Nowadays the annual pi-ize-giving is 



the favourite festival of the people of the neigh- 
bourhood, and thousands come to it. The fac- 
tory that the workmen used to call Patterson's 
Purgatory is to-day proudly named Patterson's 
Paradise by them. 
Besides this, in order to counteract the 
bad influence that a number of neglected 
children were beginning to exercise upon 
the rest, Mr. Patterson bought a piece of 
land and gave each of the bad boys an allotment 
with the necessary seeds and gardening tools, as 
well as the right to do as they pleased with the 
produce. Gardening hours are from seven to 
nine in the morning, and from four to six in the 
afternoon. From time to time prizes of from 
2£ to 5 dollars are awarded, and the one who 
carries off the first prize also gets a bronze 
medal. On the day of the distribution of prizes 
the victorious ones are the guests of Mr. Patter- 
son, when he generally entertains about 80 boys. 
Each boy possesses his little garden for two 
years, when he receives a diploma stating that 
he has been trained in the "Garden Society" of 
the firm and has proved himself trustworthy. 

The firm spends yearly about 3.5C0 dollars 
on implements, seeds, instruction and land, and 
they consider this small sum the best investment 
they have ever made. 

With -regard to gardening for boys, apart 
from the Dayton pattern, good examples are sup- 
plied by the Natural Food Company, in Niagara ; 
the N. 0. Nelson Company in Leclaire, near St. 
Louis ; the Cadbury Trust, at Bournville ; and 
Messrs. Rowntree, of York. These firms give 
each boy — whether he works in the factory or is 
only the son of an employee — a bed, together 
with seeds, implements, and gardening instruc- 
tion. Prizes are distributed for the best 
methods and results. Girls' beds are only to be 
found in Bournville so far as I know, and here 
a yearly rent of Is. is charged for each bed. 
Everywhere the proceeds from the sale of the 
produce belongs to the owners of the beds. The 
Dayton boys' gardens are still the best organ- 
ised and most comprehensive. In 1903 the pro- 
duce amounted to only five tons and the next 
year it rose to eight, as many of the boys were 
then doing their second year's course. In 1903 
fifty or sixty boys had to be excluded from the 
cultivation of their beds for reasons of disci- 
pline, but the number sank to fifteen in 1904 and 
in 1906 to nought — clear proof of the educational 
value of the arrangement, which should, there- 
fore, be given consideration by all friends of the 
young. Leopold Katscher. 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Sweet Pea Studies.— IV." 

This is the fourth, and much the largest 
Bulletin dealing with Sweet Peas issued by 
Cornell University College of Agriculture — De- 
partment of Horticulture. Mr. Alvin C. Beal 
is responsible, and the work has been carried 
on continuously since 1909. The investigation 
was begun, to use the words of the preface to 
No. 3 of the studies : " With a view of studying 
the various species of Lathyrus for the purpose 
of monographing them, and particularly of de- 
termining their value as ornamental plants. The 
studies on Sweet Peas included the evolution of 
the flower, as well as the preparation of careful 
descriptions and the detection and elimination 
of synonyms among present-day varieties. The 
descriptions of the garden varieties will appear 
in a later publication ; those of winter-flowering 
varieties are included in Bulletin 319 of this 
station." 

The Bulletin now before us does what was 
promised — gives the descriptions of over 600 
varieties, and to show the method by which 
the work has been carried out it will be best to 

* Bulletin IV., Di'/xitnnnt of Horticulture, Cornell iTnicer- 
situ. U.S.A. 



July 18, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



51 



quote one description in entirety, and for that 
purpose the first in the waved section is taken. 

" APPLE BLOSSOM SPENCER. 

" Originated by 

" Introduced by Burpee, 1908. 

" Donated by Burpee, Morse, 1910. 

" Description in brief : Large to very large, 
waved, rose bicolor ; garden, market, or exhibi- 
tion variety. 

" Description in detail : Colour of standard 
lilac-rose 152 (4), wings violet-rose 154 (1-2), 
on a faint primrose ground. Standard large, 
much waved; wings very large, waved. Flowers 
two to four, on long, very stout stems. Fra- 
grant. Bloom profuse and continuous. Sun- 
proof. Plant of medium height and stout, 
healthy growth 

" Comparison : A misnomer, for it is not like 
Apple blossom. It should be (called Jeannie 
Gordon Spencer, as the ground tint is primrose. 

Remarks : Introducer's stock pure in 1910." 

The descriptions bear evidence, we think, of 
being the work of different individuals, as some 
are more thorough and complete than others. 
In some the colour of tendrils is given and the 
colour of the seed, in others these particulars 
are omitted. We are glad to notice that fra- 
grance is a quality noted in many. The courage 
required to state which stocks were pure seems 
to be lacking in America as it is at home. For 
example, stocks are sent in by Boddington. 
Cole, Dobbie, Henderson, Morse, and Rawson of 
one variety (Countess Spencer), and the remark 
is made " one stock pure." Then in the case 
"of another (John Ingman) stocks are sent by 
Boddington, Cole, Dobbie, Morse, and Unwin. 
and the remark is made " all stocks were pure 
as to colour." This would not satisfy the Floral 
Committee of the British National Sweet Pea 
Society. It was this very variety which led to 
serious trouble at one of the shows of the 
N.S.P.S. some years ago. It was found that 
John Ingman was badly mixed with Prince of 
Wales, and all bunches staged which contained 
these rogues were disqualified. Do our Ameri- 
can friends grasp thoroughly the fact that tin- 
shape of the keel is practically the deciding 
factor up to the present as to what is really a 
Spencer or waved variety ? 

A number of varieties which we know give 
rogues in this and, we presume, in every country 
are not noted as doing so. Take May Campbell 
as an example. No mention is made of the car- 
mine self rogue, which this variety invariably 
gives. 

Several exceedingly interesting tables are 
given, showing the results obtained from sowing 
at different times. There seems to be little gain 
from autumn sowing out of doors in New York 
State. The plants flowered a few days earlier, 
but the percentage of growth was considerably 
less. In the autumn-sown lots there was no top 
growth when winter set in, and the seeds sown 
in November did not appear above ground until 
April 4. It was also proved that white 
Sweet Peas germinate less satisfactorily than 
others under cold conditions. 

There is another table showing the germinat- 
ing power of old seeds. These trials were made 
with what we term grandiflora varieties, and the 
results were very variable. The outcome proves 
that ten-year-old seeds, harvested under good 
conditions, give something like a 75 per cent, 
germination. We do not imagine seeds of 
Spencer varieties would show anything like such 
good results. 

A number of illustrations are given, the most 
interesting being those of the standards and 
wings of different types. The full-page illus- 
trations of varieties are not particularly good ; 
they do not bring out the waved character of 
the flowers in many instances, but we quite re- 
cognise that they are from field specimens and 
not from exhibition blooms, such as we are accus- 
tomed to see in this country. 

The list of best varieties we reproduce in full, 
marking with an asterisk those of British origin. 



"THE BESTVARIETIESOF SWEET PEAS. 

" The following list includes our selection from 
the hundreds of varieties tested under New York 
conditions. It is a matter of personal taste 
whether some of the colour sections are desir- 
able for any particular garden ; however, it is 
easily possible to select those varieties that are 
suited to individual tastes. 

" Waved Varieties. — Bicolour, *Mrs. Cuth- 
bertson, *Colleen ; blue, Margaret Madison, 
Flora Norton Spencer, *Blue Jacket; blush, 
*Lady Evelyn Eyre, *Princess Victoria, Flor- 



Heslington, *Mauve Queen ; orange-pink, *Ed- 
rom Beauty, *Carene, *Helen Lewis ; orange- 
scarlet, *Thomas Stevenson ; picotee- edged 
(cream ground), *Evelyn Hemus, *Mrs. C. W. 
Breadmore ; picotee edged (white ground), 
Dainty Spencer, *Elsie Herbert, Martha Wash- 
ington ; pink (deep), * Hercules, * Countess 
Spencer; pink (pale), *Elfrida Pearson; rose, 
Marie Corelli, *Rosabelle; salmon shades, ♦Stir- 
ling Stent, *Melba, *Barbara ; scarlet, *Dobbie's 
Scarlet, *Scarlet Emperor, *Red Star ; striped 
and flaked (chocolate on grey ground), Senator 




Fig. 20. — rose mrs. Bertram walker ; h.t. ; colour, salmon flushed with pink. 

(See p. 54.) 



ence Morse Spencer ; carmine, *John Ingman ; 
cerise, *Chrissie Unwin ; cream, buff, and ivory, 
Primrose Spencer, *Isobel Malcolm, *Primrose 
Beauty, *Lady Knox, Queen Victoria Spencer ; 
cream-pink (deep), *Mrs. Gibbs Box, *Constance 
Oliver ; cream-pink (pale), Mrs. Routzahn, *Lady 
Miller, * Mrs. Hugh Dickson ; crimson, King 
Edward Spencer, Fancy, * Afterglow ; lavender, 
♦Florence Nightingale ; magenta, *Menie Chris- 
tie; marbled, *May Campbell; maroon, *Nubian, 
*King Manoel ; maroon-purple, *Arthur Green ; 
maroon-red, * Brunette, * Red Chief ; mauve 
(dark), Tennant Spencer; mauve (pale), *Mrs. 
* Varieties of British raising. 



Spencer ; striped and flaked (purple and blue), 
""Loyalty ; striped and flaked (red and rose), 
America Spencer, Aurora Spencer, *Mrs. W. J. 
Unwin ; white, White Spencer, * Nora 
Unwin." 

Our remarks are not intended to be hyper- 
critical in the very least — they are meant to be 
helpful. We offer our heartiest congratu- 
lations to Mr. Beal, to the American Sweet Pea 
Society, and to the New York State College of 
Agriculture, and hope the splendid example 
they have set will be kept before the Royal Hor 
ticultural Society in the forward move it is mak- 
ing in connection with its trials at Wisley. 



52 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



LJulx 18, 1914. 




The Week's Work. 




THE ORCHID HOUSES. 

Bv H. J. Chapman, Gardener to Mrs. Cookson, 
Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne. 

Trichopiuia.— Certain of the plants that have 
flowered recently are sufficiently advanced in 
growth for re-potting. They are best grown in 
ihallow pans which, when suspended from the 
roof-rafter, enable the flowers to be seen to ad- 
vantage. At other times the plants should be 
arranged on the staging of an intermediate 
house. The potting compost may consist of two 
parts peat and one part broken Oak leaves and 
chopped Sphagnum-moss. Trichopilias will 
also grow well in a compost similar to that em- 
ployed for Cattleyas, and, when grown in asso- 
ciation, with the latter plants, this compost is 
probably the best. The pans should be quite 
clean and well drained ; make the compost firm 
about the base of the plants. There are numerous 
species and varieties, many of them easily pro- 
curable and inexpensive. T. suavis, T. f ragrans, 
T. crispa, T. Backhousiana, T. marginata, and 
the cool-growing T. nobilis are all suitable for 
gardens. The plants, when in full growth, 
ihould be grown in a moderately moist atmo- 
sphere, but an excess of moisture at the roots 
must be guarded against for this would result in 
the leaves and pseudo-bulbs becoming spotted. 
Let the plants become reasonably dry before 
watering them. 

Cool-house Dendrobiums — Practically all 
the species of Dendrobiums that require a cool 
treatment are evergreen. D. Victoria Regina, 
D. glomeratum, D. delicatum, D. Hillii, D. 
japonicum, D. Kingianum, D. teretifolium, the 
larger-growing D. Jamesianum and D. infundi- 
bulum, and the Australian species, D. epeciosum, 
are included in this section. Any of the smaller- 
growing species now starting into growth may 
receive attention in re-potting. Where the 
Sphagnum-moss has grown .too long it should be 
clipped short, or pulled out altogether and re- 
placed with fresh material. In re-potting use 
plenty of material for drainage, and only a 
shallow layer of compost. When the plants are 
in full growth they require a liberal amount of 
water at the roots, and the atmosphere should 
be kept humid. During the summer and autumn 
syringe the plants liberally overhead at least 
once a day when the conditions are favourable. 
D. teretifolium may be grown on a block or raft 
with only a small quantity of fibrous peat and 
Sphagnum-moss about it, and the plants should 
be sprayed two or three times a day during the 
growing season. These Orchids require plenty of 
sunlight, and, if grown in a cool house with 
plenty of ventilation, only sufficient shade is 
necessary to prevent scorching of the leaves. 
As soon as growth is completed reduce the 
amount of root watering, affording only sufficient 
moisture to keep the shoots and leaves plump. 
D. speciosum may be grown in full exposure to 
the sun's rays, with plenty of ventilation during 
the autumn. 



FRUITS UNDER GLASS. 

By W. Hbdim Warrin, Gardener to the Aeton-Clinton 
Park Estate (the Rt. Hon. Lord Rothschild), Buck- 
inghamshire. 

The Orchard House.— The fruits in or- 
chard houses are commencing to ripen, there- 
fore a brisk atmosphere should be maintained 
;md an abundance of fresh air admitted. The 
ventilators may be opened to the<r fullest extent 
<>n fine days, whilst a goodly amount of air may 
l>e admitted during the night. Orchard houses 
present a difficulty to the grower in that so 
many different kinds of fruit, each requiring 
different treatment, are included. Trees grow- 
ing in pots should be moved to where they 
may receive the treatment best suited to 
them. Those not in bearing may be placed out- 
• if-doors, where they will receive the full benefit 
M sunshine and air to ripen the wood; plunge 
the pots to their rims in soil or ashes. Trees 
bearing fruit at the ripening stage should not 



be overwatered, but those with fruit swelling 
should receive abundant supplies of moisture 
and be fed on frequent occasions with liquid 
manure. Syringe the house on mornings and 
evenings with a view to keeping the trees healthy 
and clean, and insect pests in check. Extra 
luxuriant shoots should be shortened a little. 
It is a difficult matter sometimes to keep small 
pyramid fruit trees in shape if they are not 
rigorously repressed at the top and the lower 
growths encouraged to develop. The principal 
objeots to keep in view now are the ripening of 
the fruit and the maturation of the wood for 
next year. 

Vines.— The houses from which the crops have 
been gathered should be ventilated freely, both 
day and night. Plenty of fresh air will not only 
favour the ripening of the wood, but tend to 
check the vines from making later growths, an im- 
portant detail in vine culture. During fine weather 
syringe the foliage thoroughly twice daily with 
clear, soft water to keep insect pests in check. 
Should there be the slightest trace of mealy bug 
vaporise the vinery with a nicotine preparation, 
which may be used at a good strength now that 
the foliage is fully matured. Remove all lateral 
growths that tend in the slightest degree to over- 
crowd or Shade the main spurs, it being most 
essential that these should now, and for the re- 
mainder of the season, derive every advantage 
from full exposure to the sun. Undersized spur 
growths that show no signs of ripening and that 
remain green in colour should be removed en- 
tirely. At this stage the borders, both inside 
and out, should be examined thoroughly, and, 
if found to be dry, well watered. If considered 
necessary, apply at the same time a dressing of 
fertiliser or liquid manure. If Grapes are re- 
quired to hang for a long time after the berries 
are ripe keep the vinery cool and admit an 
abundance of air at the top of the house. In 
damp, dull weather, when fire heat is necessary 
use it most during the daytime, when the house 
may be kept under constant observation for cor- 
rect ventilation. The berries of certain kinds of 
Grapes — Madresfield Court, for instance — are 
sometimes inclined to shrivel after they are 
fully ripe if they hang for long on the 
vines. This may be partly obviated by slightly 
shading the roof of the vinery during times of 
hot, sunny weather ; but as soon as the bunches 
are cut the shading should be removed. Late 
Grapes are allowing signs of colouring, and dis- 
cretion must be used in regulating the tempera- 
tures, so that the vines receive no check now 
that the days are shortening. Assist the vines 
in every way to ripen their berries and wood 
gradually, but thoroughly, by maintaining a 
buoyant, brisk atmosphere until both are 
matured. 

PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By C. H. Cook, Gardener to the Earl of Derby. 
Knowsley Hall, Lancashire. 

The Conservatory.— Begonias, Fuchsias, 
Calceolaria Clibranii, Zonal and show Pelar- 
goniums, Celosias and Coleus will all contribute 
to a bright display in the conservatory, and fresh 
batches of Gloxinias may be arranged with 
Adiantum Ferns. Achimenes in pots or baskets 
may also be introduced as soon as the first 
flowers have opened. During hot weather pay 
strict attention to the watering of the various 
plants, and feed them when they show signs 
of exhaustion from continued flowering. Admit 
plenty of air both night and day, and place a 
light shading over the glass during the brightest 
part of the day. Gladioli The Bride, Peach 
Blossom, and Akermanii are almost over, and 
the plants may be stood out-of-doors in the sun- 
shine to ripen the corms. As Fancy Pelar- 
goniums pass out of flower these also should be 
stood in the open in full sunshine to ripen the 
growths. Insert cuttings of these plants to fur- 
nish fresh stock. Richardias in pots are ripen- 
ing their root-stocks, therefore cease watering 
the roots and, if rain threatens, place the pots 
on their sides with the crowns facing the sun. 
Plants of R. Pentlandii and R. Elliottiana may 
be ripened in a frame or on a shelf in a vinery 
in full exposure to sunshine, and afterwards 
stood in a sunny spot out-of-doors, keeping them 
quite dry. 



Cyclamen. — Plants of the earliest batch raised, 
from seed sown last September and October 
are now ready for shifting finally into pots 
5 and 6 inches in diameter. The com 
post should be open in texture, and may 
consist of two parts loam, one part leaf- 
mould and sand, ■ with powdered cow manure 
and soot added. Pot moderately firmly, and 
stand the plants in a close frame on a Ded of 
ashes previously dusted with soot. Should thrips 
infest the plants, which may be seen by the 
foliage becoming distorted and crumpled, fumi- 
gate the frame at once. Syringe the plants twice 
daily, and shade them from direct sunshine. 
Last year's plants intended for flowering again 
next season should have most of the soil shaken 
from their roots, and be potted in some of the 
compost employed for the young plants. Place 
them in a close frame and spray the corms daily, 
but do not water the roots until growth is ad- 
vanced. Pot on later batches of seedlings as 
they require increased room, and grow the plants 
without a check. 

Primulas and Cinerarias.— Seedlings of 
these plants should be potted into 3^ and 4-inch 
pots in a compost consisting of equal 
parts loam, leaf-mould, sand and manure 
from a spent Mushroom bed. Stand the newly- 
potted plants in a cold frame facing north on 
a bed of ashes ; failing this, they should be 
shaded by mats or tiffany. Prick out into boxes 
seedlings of later sowings, and treat them as re- 
commended above. Spray the foliage daily and 
admit air as the plants become established. 
Fumigate with a nicotine preparation if green 
fly becomes troublesome. One-year-old plants 
may be divided and re-potted ; we have a large 
batch treated in this way, and the plants will " 
flower during November in 6-inch and 7-inch 
pots. 

THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

By R. P. Brotherston, Gardener to the Earl of 
Haddington, Tyninghame, East Lothian. 

Globe Artichokes.— It is important tr> 
shorten the flower stems, most of which have 
given three heads this season. The plants may 
be expected to crop again in the autumn ; in the 
meantime young plants of the current year are 
coming into bearing and should be treated in 
exactly the same manner a9 the older ones. I 
allow a space of 6 feet by 4 feet between the 
plants, which require no attention throughout 
the summer beyond that above listed, with an 
occasional stirring of the soil to destroy weeds 
and maintain a loose surface. 

Potatos. —Disease may appear on the plants 
at any time now, and it is not a bad plan to 
lift the crop directly disease is detected, de- 
stroying the haulm by burning. All potatos, 
with the exception of Midlothian Early, are 
strong and vigorous, and the outlook for the 
later varieties is of the most favourable nature. 
It is remarkable that the plants are profusely 
flowered this season. 

Seakale.— This invaluable winter vegetable 
has grown less well with us than in some years, 
and I have found it necessary to apply a late 
dressing of fertiliser to hasten growth and: swell 
the crowns for early forcing. Plants propagated 
from portions of roots do not flower the same 
season, but specimens grown year after year 
naturally run to flower, and as soon as the 
spikes are observed they should be broken off 
just as in the case of Rhubarb. Old beds of 
Horse Radish also must be examined for a like . 
purpose. 

Watering. — Whilst it is obvious that irri- 
gation is an aid to the successful production, 
of certain vegetables — e.g., Cauliflowers and 
Celery — and that watering is essential on occa- 
sions of protracted droughts, at the same time 
watering should always be done with discretion. 
I have known such a water-loving crop as Celery 
to be spoilt by an excess of moisture at the 
roots, and for ordinary purposes the less tell- . 
aiice placed upon it the better. Last year at 
this time drought was so severe and the de- 
mands on the water supply so urgent that Celery 
was the one crop apart from newly-sown seeds 
for which it could be spared, and Celery had to 
be passed with just enough to each individual 



Jul* *3, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



53 



to preserve it from flagging. Usually I find a 
mulch of soil to be sufficient to keep this and 
some other crops in condition. For Celery it is 
sliced off the side of the ridges and spread to a 
thickness of 2 inohes over the surface of the 
trenches. This does not disturb any crop that 
may be growingon the ridges and has the addi- 
tional advantage at this period of expeditiously 
destroying seedling weeds which spring up 60 
abundantly. 

Winter ONiONS.-This crop is now ready to 
harvest, and if the bulbs are not quite ripe it 
will be neoessary to allow tlhem to mature before 
storing them. This may be effected in the same 
manner as previously advised for Shallots, but 
they may also be laid out thinly on a hard gravel 
or cinder path, or some vacant spot. If the 
root-end of the bulb is laid uppermost rain will 
have no injurious effect, whereas if this precau- 
tion be not taken the moisture will almost 
certainly cause the roots to grow. They will 
keep well enough stored dry and kept dry in 
heaps 

THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By W. Crump, Gardener to Earl Beauchamp, K.C.M.G., 

Madresfield Court, Worcestershire. 

Iris KAEMPFERi.-These beautiful hardy 
flowers are easy of cultivation and are best 
planted in masses of mixed colours on ine 
margins of streams or pools. They are easily 
raised from seed, which should be saved as 
soon as it is ripe from the best flowers. These 
Irises have flowered splendidly in these 
gardens planted in stations prepared as fol- 
lows : — The whole of the soil and subsoil was 
removed from irregular shaped spaces on the 
margin of a pool, each, say, 20 feet by 8 or 9 
feet, to a depth of about six inches below the 
level of the water. The bottom was broken up 
to allow the water to percolate to this lower 
stratum. On this was placed mud or decom 
posed vegetable matter, then on the top of 
this about one foot of turfy loam and leaf -mould or 
decomposed, sandy, garden refuse ; for the plants 
are gross feeders. If one-year-old seedlings are 
planted as soon as they are ready for shifting, 
they soon become large, well flowering clumps, 
quite equal to expensive, named varieties. The 
raising of choice, vigorous seedlings annually 
cannot be too strongly recommended, and would 
soon revolutionise the cultivation of these ex- 
tremely handsome hardy flowers. 

Galtonia candicans.— T h e s e handsome 
summer flowering plants need careful attention 
in staking, for the stems grow rapidly daily. 
Keep the Dutch hoe at work in all beds and 
borders, as all weeds are easily destroyed in the 
seedling stage. Galtonias are most effective in 
association with bronze-foliaged Paeonies, which 
they follow in bloom. 

Hydrangeas of the arborescens and grandi- 
flora types are flowering grandly. The plants last 
for a long time in bloom and are most effective in 
the front of flowering shrubs. The flower heads 
are borne on rather weakly stems and require 
supporting to stakes. H. paniculata grandiflora 
is a most useful and effective variety for grouping 
in the pleasure grounds. Now is a good time to 
feed the plants with soot or fertilisers, which will 
cause the flower trusses to grow larger. Madame 
Mouillere, Radiant, and other varieties of French 
raising are all acquisitions to summer flowering 
shrubs. 

Veronica.— V. salicifolium, V. Traversii and 
V. Kirkii are in glorious bloom, and all these 
species are quite hardy. The variety Autumn 
Glory is a dwarf grower and late bloomer, a 
gem of the family. Veronicas will flourish and 
flower freely when planted in ordinary soil, and 
their cultivation gives very little trouble. The 
tender varieties such as Veronique, Purple 
Queen, La Seduisante, Hulkeana and Blue Gem 
need shelter in winter, but they well repay for 
the trouble this entails. 

Spiraea aerifolia is, at the present time, 
the most beautiful of all the family, with its 
graceful feathery plumes, and the plant is as 
hardy as the English Oak. As soon as the 
flowers are over the shoots need pruning slightly. 



THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. 

By J. G. Weston, Gardener to Lady Northcotb, 
Eastwell Park, Kent. 

Morello Cherries.— T he se fruits are 
colouring rapidly, and before the nets are placed 
in position the new growth should receive atten- 
tion. If the trees were disbudded, as recom- 
mended in an earlier calendar, most of the new 
shoots that remain will be required, either for 
extension or for furnishing the wall space after 
the old fruiting wood has been removed. It is a 
little difficult to find room to train in all the 
young shoots while the fruit is hanging, but a 
little extra care in this matter will be well re- 
paid. Tie the shoots to the wires or nail them 
to the walls as the case may be, not covering the 
fruit unnecessarily, and see that the trees are in 
a thoroughly clean condition before arranging the 
nets. If traces of aphis remain, give the trees a 
good washing with clear water applied by means 
of the garden hose and water the roots in dry 
weather. At this stage it is not wise to employ 
insecticides. See that the mulching material is 
replaced after watering the roots and make the 
nets bird-proof before leaving them. Beyond this 
very little attention will be required until the 
fruit is ready to pick. 

Blackberries. -The plants are growing 
strongly, and if trained to fences or trellises, 
secure the young shoots to the supports before 
they become damaged by storms. They should 
be tied away from the fruit as much as possible, 
or there will be a danger later on of the latter 
being completely covered by the foliage. Fruit 
grown in full exposure to tne sunshine is always 
the best flavoured. Apart from growing 
Brambles in the orthodox manner on poles, 
fences, or trellis-work, Blackberries may be 
allowed to ramble over stones, rocks, or old 
walls in out-of-the-way parts of the garden. As 
Blackberries ripen late in the season, they are 
doubly welcome. 

The Loganberry.— The cultivation of this 
useful berry has increased in an extraordinary 
degree of late years, as its usefulness became 
better known. In dry seasons like the present 
one Raspberries are soon over, and then the 
value of the Loganberry is appreciated. Being 
of a robust and vigorous habit, the Loganberry 
sends its roots deeply into the soil, and is able 
to find moisture during times of drought. It is 
a very prolific bearer, and should tie planted in 
all gardens. New shoots at the base of the plants 
are growing rapidly, and should be secured out 
of harm's way for the present. After the fruit is 
picked, the old canes must be cut clean away 
and the young ones trained thinly in their places. 

Raspberries should be gathered only when 
quite dry. The canes should be gone over at 
frequent intervals, as the fruit ripens and 
deteriorates quickly. Owine to the soft nature 
of the berries they require handling with 
extra care. Those intended for transit should 
be placed in wide-mouthed bottles, which can be 
packed upright in boxes, or amongst the vege- 
tables in the vegetable hamper. 



THE APIARY. 



By Chloris. 
Judging.— Where small horticultural societies 
have exhibits of honey and wax, they erro- 
neously expect a gardener to award the prizes 
in this division also, forgetting that it requires 
an expert to do the. work as it ought to be done. 
With the object of helping those who may be 
called upon to perform the task I purpose giving 
a few hints. (1) Extracted honey must be first 
judged by its flavour, because it is a food, and 
if flavour is lacking, it cannot be enjoyed. 
When flavour is placed so prominently, one 
does not mean that the source can be at once 
named, but it should be mellow, and should 
leave no irritation in the throat when swallowed. 
Some qualities of . honey leave a burning sensa- 
tion in the throat. (2) Density will stand 
next, all prize-winning honey should be as dense 
as possible. (3) Colour. — Unfortunately there 
is a prejudice among amateur judges to con- 
sider light-coloured honey the best. It will be 
often found that a very light-coloured honey — 
even water-coloured — has very little Savour, 
and as flavour is the first essential in honey. 



this colour must not be allowed to rule out 
better flavoured samples. In the light classes 
it will be found that a bright amber should be 
the standard, while in other classes a medium to 
darker colour should be aimed at. (4) Aroma. — 
This needs a delicate palate for judging, for the 
best honey will have a very delicate aroma, and 
by this means the source is identified. To per- 
form the task, remove the cap, and at once smell 
the honey, and afterwards taste it. Herein is a 
hint for the exhibitor, to gain in this matter : 
immediately after extracting honey, bottle it, 
and place the cap in position before this fine 
aroma evaporates. (5) Brightness. — Honey 
should be bright and quite clear and free 
from bubbles and particles of wax. Encourage 
the use of screw-cap jars in preference to the 
tie-over, and should the honey when the cap is 
removed show scum — which is due to air bubbles 
■ — the exhibitor must lose points. 

Heather Honey is rather difficult to judge, 
for it has a sweet and at the same time a 
bitter flavour, and is dark amber in colour. Owing 
to its great density it i6 impossible to remove 
all the air bubbles; these give it a pretty 
appearance, but are often imagined to be du# 
to fermentation. 

Granulated Honey is sometimes ad- 
mitted early in the season, although it is more 
common in the autumn shows. Good honey in 
this class will be nearly white, smooth in grain. 
touching the glass all round, free from signs of 
fermentation, and, above all, of good flavour. 

Sections. — In this class capping will be 
first considered. Honey from Sainfoin will have 
cappings of a pale straw colour, and that from 
Clover, white. It is very unfair to have 
both classes together, they should be sepa- 
rate. The capping should be even and thin, 
not greasy-looking, and free from travel stains. 
The sections should be evenly filled, built or. 
foundation of worker base, and free from pop- 
holes Unfortunately, exhibitors are sometimes 
.'iven to faking popholes by ingeniously making 
a false cap of fine paper of the exact tint of the 
wax and in order to get well-filled sections 
others resort to syrup-feeding, and this may be 
discovered rather easily, for the cappings will 
be dull white with an unnatural look. Over- 
lacing must be punished. 

Wax -When wax is made from cappings only 
it will be almost white, but generally the colour 
is primrose. A good exhibit will be free from 
cracks, adulteration or bleaching, clean, plainly 
moulded, and delicate in aroma. When broken 
the cake will be flaky, and by this means 
adulteration is discovered, because adnlteraten 
specimens lack this characteristic. 

Tasting.- When tasting honey never put the 
taster in the mouth, but put the honey on 
the tip of the finger, and put that in the mouth 
and in the case of granulated honey, do not 
make deep holes in the samples, while section^ 
must have not more than a single cell broken 
for a tasting sample, because when more are 
injured the iectio£ are rendered valueless for 
sale and the exhibitor feels injured, and rigntij 
so, 'with such unnecessary damage to his pro 
perty. 

Ventilating a Hive where Supered. 
During the hottest part of the year it is essen- 
tial that hives should be ventilated, but this 
must be done without causing a draught. Many 
colonies swarm because of the excessive interna! 
and external heat. To avoid swarming, raise the 
hive on the stand from half to one inch by in- 
serting four wedges, one at each corner. W hen- 
colonies are very strong, it is an advantage to 
extend the alighting board by placing a board 
against the alighting board, and standing on the 
ground at any angle of 60°. 

Publications R eceived. -On the Lack 
of Adaptation in the Tristichacea and Podoste- 
macea. By J. C. Willis, M.A., Sc.D.— Botanical 
Garden, Rio de Janeiro. Reprinted from Pro- 
ceedings of Royal Society, B. Vol. 87, 1914.— 
Gardening for Amateurs. Edited by H. If. 
Thomas. Part 10. Price 7d. net. (Ca«sell 
& Co., London.)— Annalen des K. K. Natur- 
historischen Hofmuseums. By Dr. Franz 
Steindachner. Vol. 27, 1913, Vienna. 



54 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



rjuLT 18, 1914. 



EDITORIAL NOTICE- 



ADVEETISEMENTS should be sent to the 
PUBLISHER, 41, Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, W.C- 

Editors and Publisher. — Our Correspondents 
would obviate delay in obtaining answers to 
their communications, and save us much time and 
trouble, if they would kindly observe the notice 
printed weekly to the effect that all letters relat- 
ing to financial matters and to advertisements 
should be addressed to the Publisher; and that 
all communications intended for publication, or 
referring to the Literary department, and all 
plants to be named, should be directed to the 
Editors. The two departments, Publishing and 
Editorial, are distinct, and much unnecessary de- 
lay and confusion arise when letters are mis- 
directed. 

Letters for Publication, as well as specimens of 
plants for naming, should be addressed to the 
EDITORS, 41. Wellington Street, Covent 
Garden, London. Communications should be 

WRITTEN ON ONB SIDE ONLY OP THE PAPER, Sent OS 

early in the week as possible and duly signed by 
the writer. If desired., the signature will not be 
printed, but kept as a guarantee of good faith. 

Special Notice to Correspondents- — The 
Editors do not undertake to pay for any contribu- 
tions or illustrations, or to return unused com- 
munications or illustrations, unless by special 
arrangement. The Editors do not hold themselves 
responsible for any opinions expressed by their 
correspondents. 

Local News- — Correspondents will greatly oblige 
by sending to the Editors early intelligence of local 
events likely to be of interest to our readers, or of 
any matters which it is desirable to bring under 
the notice of horticultitrists. 

Illustrations— The Editors will be glad to receive 
and to select photographs or drawings, suitable 
for reproduction, of gardens, or of remarkable 
flowers, trees, etc., but they cannot be respon- 
sible for loss or injury. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 

TUESDAY, JULY 21— 

Southampton Hort. Soc. Sh. (2 days). 
WEDNESDAY, JULY 22— 

Leamington and County Sh. (2 days). Haywards 

Heath Sh. Preston Sh. (2 days). Cardiff Sh. (2 

days). Yorkshire Agric. Soc. Sh., Bradford (3 days). 

Watford Hort. Soc. Sh. Sevenoaks Hort. Soc. Sh. 
THURSDAY, JULY 23— 

Preston (Brighton) Sh. Roehampton Sh. Roy. Bot. 

Soc. meet. Herefordshire and West of England 

Rose Sh. 
FRIDAY, JULY 24— 

Cheadle Hort. Soc. 6h. (2 days). 



Averagb Mban Tempbraturb for the ensuing week 
deduced from observations during the last Fifty 
■Years at Greenwich, 63.0. 
Actual Temperatures : — 

London, Wednesday, July 15: Max. 73°; Min. 59°. 
Gardeners' ChronieU Office, 41, Wellington Street. 
Covent Garden, London, Thursday, July 16 
(10 a.m.); Bar. 29.6; Temp. 70°. Weather- 
Cloudy to fair. 
Provinces, Wednesday, July 15 : Max. 71°, Wey- 
mouth ; Min. 51°, Ma'lvern. 



Submerged 
Forests.* 



This, the 62nd volume 
of the Cambridge 
Manuals of Science, is 
one of the most interest- 
ing of that excellent series. 

Remains of forests buried beneath the 
sea between the tidemarks are common 
round our coasts, and the popular view of 
their origin is summed up pithily in the 
local name, " Noah's Woods," by which they 
are often known. Those who are patient 
and enterprising enough to explore the 
black, peaty soil in which the trunks and 
debris of trees are embedded may discover 
that the plant remains are mainly those of 
Oak, Hazel, Sallow, and Alder, mingled 
with those of lesser swamp plants, such 
for example as the rhizomes of Osmunda 
regalis. 

Much discussion has ranged round 
the causes which have led to the submer- 
sion of these forests. Fortunately, evi- 
dence pointing definitely to an explana- 
tion of the causes is to be derived from the 



» Submerged Forests. By Clement Rekl, F.R.S. Cam- 
bridge Manuals of Science. (Cambridge University Press.) 
Price Is. 



sections obtained in the course of excava- 
tions for the purpose of dock-making. In 
such cases series of strata are passed 
through. These layers form a sort of semi- 
lumber-room of the past and contain old 
shoes, mediaeval pottery, sunk boats, and 
drifted wreckage, all buried in the silt. 
Below this burial ground of the past 3,000 
or 4,000 years may be found a black, peaty 
soil showing like that previously referred 
to Alders and Hazels yet rooted in their 
original positions. Below this again may 
be found more silt, and a second remains 
of a tree-clad land surface, and yet 
deeper, reaching to so much as 50 feet be- 
low the present surface, the remains of 
older forests are to be discovered. Clearly 
nothing but land subsidence and silting 
up could have produced this state of 
affairs. 

Mr. Clement Reid describes in a series 
of interesting chapters the submerged 
forests of the Thames Valley, e.g., those 
brought to light during the excavations of 
Tilbury Docks. There the remains lie so 
deep as 60-70 feet below the present level, 
and the fact points to the conclusion that 
long ago the Thames had cut a level 60-70 
feet below its present bed. In those 
far-off times the southern part of the 
North Sea must have been a vast marsh, 
and the estuary of the Thames meandered 
so far eastward as the latitude of the 
Dogger Bank, and may indeed have joined 
waters with the Rhine-. 

Mr. Clement Reid traces the distribu- 
tion of the forests round the East Coast 
to the famous Cromer forest bed, and is 
able to show that in the Norfolk Broads 
we have an example of the effects of slow 
subsidence. The author estimates that 
this subsidence ceased about 2,500 years 
ago, and that since then the silting-up of 
narrow valleys has created estuaries, di- 
verted the sluggish rivers, and imparted 
their present characters to these delight- 
ful if somewhat treacherous haunts of the 
small yaoht. From the East Coast Mr. 
Clement Reid steps across to the Dogger 
Bank, which lies opposite Northumber- 
land, Durham, and Yorkshire, about 60 
miles from the nearest land. From an ex- 
amination of its contours and the remains 
of animals, etc., brought up by oyster- 
dredgers, he is able to reconstruct the map 
of Western Europe and to show that in no 
vastly remote period Denmark was joined 
by the Dogger Bank to the coast of York- 
shire, and that not improbably the then 
vast river, the Rhine, flowing northward 
caught up the waters of the Thames and 
bore them with its own to form a great 
estuary which debouched into the North 
Sea between the Dogger Bank and the 
Yorkshire coast. 

In like manner Mr. Clement Reid 
journeys round the coast and shows us 
that when the last obscure spot on the 
earth's surface has revealed itself to the 
intrepidity of the explorer there will re- 
main close at hand and at home illimit- 
ble scope for discovery. From the dim 
and defaced records of the ooze of our 
coasts we may yet reconstruct past episodes 
in the life of our land, and learn the 
causes which have been and are at work 
moulding it in its present fashion. To 



those who love that romance which science 
weaves with the warp of fact and the woof 
of inference, we recommend very cordially 
Mr. Clement Reid's fascinating little book. 



Coloured Plate. — The 6ubject of the 
Coloured Plate to be published with the next issue 
is Gloriosa RothschiLdiana. 

Some New Roses. — At several recent metro- 
politan shows Messrs. Wm. Paul and Son have 
exhibited large vases of their new, single- 
flowered H.T. Rose Waltham Scarlet, illustrated 
in fig. 21. The variety was derived from a cross 
between a T. and a H.T. rose, and possesses ex- 
ceptional garden value. The bushes commence 
to flower early in June and continue to yield 
a beautiful display until severe frosts occur. 
The plant is of a bushy, spreading habit, and 
produces large sprays of flower. The shapely 
buds are scarlet, and when the flower is fully 
expanded this colour becomes a rich pink. As 
a Rose for the garden and for supplying blooms 
for decorative purposes, this charming variety 
should prove a great acquisition. Augustus 
Hartmann (fig. 19) is a cerise-pink coloured 
Hybrid Tea variety, and is a Gold Medal Rose 
of the year, having received this distinction 
from the National Rose Society at the Metro- 
politan Exhibition on the 7th inst., where it was 
exhibited by Messrs. B. R. Cant and Sons. 
The blooms were the most vivid in colour of 
all the new varieties exhibited on that occa- 
sion, and the variety was generally regarded 
as the best new seedling of the year. 
Mrs. Bertram Walker, illustrated in fig. 20, is a 
fragrant variety of salmon colour with a suffu- 
sion of pink. This variety is also a Gold 
Medal Rose of the year, and is spoken highly of 
for its qualities as a .garden variety, the flower- 
ing being remarkably free and the constitution 
vigorous. It was shown by Messrs. Hugh Dick- 
son, Ltd. Margaret Dickson Hamill (fig. 22) was 
also awarded the National Rose Society's Gold 
Medal on the 7th inst. The blooms are fragrant 
and suggestive of Mme. Ravarv, but larger and 
flushed with salmon. The variety belongs to the 
Hybrid Tea race, and is said to possess unusual 
vigour. It was exhibited by Messrs. Alex. 
Dickson and Sons. 

R.H.S. Orchid Show, 1 91 5. -At the 
meeting of the R.H.S. Orchid Committee on 
Tuesday last the chairman, Mr J. Gurnet 
Fowler, asked the opinion of the committee as to 
the advisability of arranging for an autumn show 
of Orchids in 1915, it being now too late to con- 
sider the question for this season as the fix- 
tures had been published. The members present 
agreed that such a show should be arranged, and 
some expressed surprise that, after the very 
satisfactory experience of the exhibition held on 
Nov. 5 and 6, 1912, a similar event should not 
have been arranged for the present year. 

Church Army s City Gardens.— The 
Countess of Dundonald will distribute the prizes 
to successful plot holders of the Church Army'* 
eight " City Gardens" at the fifth annual prize- 
giving, which will take place at the Merrow 
Street "City Garden," Walworth, to-day (18th 
inst.). These "City Gardens" are waste build- 
ing plots, loaned by the respective authorities to 
the Church Army, dug over in winter by men 
out of work, and divided into free plots for mar- 
ried men with small wages. 

Horticulture at the Vienna Centenary 
Exhibition, 1915. — The k.k. Horticultural 
Society in Vienna has proved with its previous 
exhibition of Roses and shrubs that it is 
possible in Austria to hold exhibitions of 
horticultural products on modern lines. The 
large number of entries and the great in- 
terest shown by the public are proofs that 
a well-arranged horticultural exhibition may 



July 16, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



55 




FIG. 21— ROSE WALTHAM SCARLET : A SINGLE, H.T. VARIETY. 
(R.H.iS. Award of Merit, June 30, 1914— sec p. 54.) 



July 18, 1914] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



57 



rely on large support. Thus encouraged, the 
Society has decided to organise an exhibi- 
tion in 1915 on a yet larger scale. It will be open 
from May to October, and there will be exhibits 
of flowers, fruit, vegetables and cut flowers. The 
arrangements are in the hands of the General 
Secretary and Director, Mr. Kurt Schechner. 
It rests with the Austrian gardeners to embrace 
their opportunity and to show what they can do. 
Inquiries should be addressed to the Information 
Bureau of the Exhibition. 

"The Orchid Review."— The current issue 
of the Orchid Review contains some par- 
ticulars of the Reichenbachian Herbarium, 
by Prof. Zahlbruckner, Keeper of the 
Imperial Hofmuseum, Vienna, which will be 
read with interest. On May 6, the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of Prof. Reichenbach's death, a 
commission of the authorities and officials pro- 
ceeded to examine the Herbarium, and satis- 
tied itself that the eight cases in which the 
Orchids arrived from Hamburgh wexe complete 
and undamaged, after which the cases were 
opened, and an inventory was taken and the con- 
dition of the contents ascertained. With the 
greatest satisfaction it can be stated that the 
materials have not suffered by their long con- 
finement, and that they are in the same condition 
as when received. Some materials, however, 
were found that were not Reichenbach's pro- 
perty, and these are being separated with a view 
to their restoration to their original owners, iis 
accordance with claims made at the time that 
the Herbarium was sealed up. It appears that 
the specimens are in loose covers, and separate 
from the analytical drawings and a lot of beau- 
tiful water-colour paintings. The working up of 
the materials is'going steadily forward, and it is 
hoped to havo it completed by the end of the 
year. The material will then be incorporated in 
the General Herbarium and be placed at the dis- 
posal of the scientific world for purposes of study. 
The issue also contains an article on Miltonia vexil- 
laria and its varieties, with an account of their 
geographical distribution, a portrait of Lieut.- 
Oolonel Sir George L. Holford, and an illus- 
tration of a remarkable specimen of Aerides 
odoratum which flowered in the collection of the 
late Richard le Doux. 

Orchard House Trees at Shrewsbury. 

We are informed that the exhibit of pot fruit 
trees shown by the King's Acre Nurseries at the 
Royal Agricultural Society's exhibition (6ee p. 
42) was awarded a Gold Medal. 

Hops and Potatos in Germany.— His 

Majesty's Consul-General at Munich, in a report 
dated July 10, states that although wet and cold 
weather during May delayed growth, prospects 
for the Hop crop in Bavaria are very promising. 
Aphis attacks have been prevalent, but are de- 
creasing rapidly and not much damage has been 
done. At the beginning of July the plants looked 
healthy. The official report relating to the con- 
dition of the crops at the beginning of July 
states that Potatos in Germany frequently came 
up irregularly and are still patchy in places. The 
condition of the crop is given as 2.7 (2 = good, 
3 = average). 

Diamond Black Moth.— The Board of 

Agriculture and Fisheries desires to inform all 
farmers, especially those in Norfolk and Cumber- 
land, that a leaflet on the diamond black moth 
can be obtained, post free and gratis, on appli- 
cation to the secretary, Board of Agriculture and 
Fisheries, Whitehall Place, London. The larvae 
of this moth are doing great injury to Swedes 
and Turnips, especially in the districts men- 
tioned, but the cause of the injury does not 
appear to be recognised in many cases, as the 
caterpillars are very small. 

The late Dr. Jacques Huber.— The Kew 

Bulletin gives the following particulars of the 
iate Dr. Jacques Huber, Director of the Museum 
Goeldi, Para, whose death was recorded in the 



Gardeners' Chronicle (April 18, 1914, p. 276). 
Dr. Huber went to Para in the year 
1895, and was made Director of the Botanical 
Section of the newly-reorganised State Museum 
of Natural Science and Ethnography (now 
Museum Goeldi). Here he laid, out the 
botanic garden and undertook numerous scien- 
tific journeys into different parts of Brazil, the 
results of which added considerably to our know- 
ledge of the Brazilian flora. In addition to his 
general botanical and geographical studies he 
had an extensive knowledge of Para rubber and 
its cultivation, and many of his articles on Hevea 
and other rubber plants were published in the 



and a half of Latin, without distinctive type 
for the differential characters. The only help in 
this direction are comparisons with allied species. 
Of the Papuan species only preliminary descrip- 
tions are given. No new genus is described, and 
the species belong to a small number of genera, 
Dendrobium and Bulbophyllum being represented 
by fourteen each, and Glomera t>y eight. A num- 
ber of the Papuan novelties are from elevations 
of 10,000 feet and upwards, and belong to the 
genera Platanthera, Peristylus, Glomera, etc. 

The Rose Society of Ontario.-TIio first 
Annual of the Rose Society of Ontario con- 




Fir.. 22. 



-ROSE MARGARET DICKSON BAMrLL : COLOUR, ORANGE-YELLOW FLUSHED WITH SALMON. 

(Awarded N.R.S. Cold Medal on the 7th inst.— see p. M.) 



Bulletin of the Herbier Boissier. In March, 
1907, when Dr. Goeldi returned to Europe, Dr. 
Huber was appointed Director of the Goeldi 
Museum. 

NewOrchios.— The thirteenth number of the 
second series of the Bulletin du Jardin Botanique 
de Buitenwrg (March, 1914) 16 wholly taken up 
with descriptions of new Malayan and Papuan 
Orchids by Dr. J. J. Smith. About 75 species 
are described in as many pages. The 34 addi- 
tional Malayan species are fully described, 
occupying 52 pages ; thus averaging about a page 



sists of a pamphlet of 50 pages, illus- 
trated with photographs and coloured plates 
from Lumiere photographs. The Society was 
formed on July 19, 1913, under the presidency 
of Mr. E. T. Cook, whom many Rosarians in 
this country will remember, and we offer both 
Society and president our congratulations on 
the satisfactory beginning of their operations. 
Besides the holding of its various shows the 
Society has inaugurated a series of meetings 
during the winter months, at which lectures on 
matters relating to Roses and Rose-growing are 
discussed, and, in addition to giving an account 



58 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 18, 1914. 



of the doings of the Society, the Annual con- 
tains notices of these lectures. Mr. E. T. Cook 
discusses the Rose garden, and the culture 
of Roses. Mrs. Baines treats of Rose pests, and 
we gather from her article that the Roses of 
Canada suffer in much the same way as ours 
in this country. Soil and fertilisers are dealt 
with by Mr. Manton, the propagation of Roses 
by Mr. James Bkyson, and greenhouse Boses by 
Mr. Allen. The Annual also gives lists of 
varieties which are best suited for growing in 
Ontario. It is perhaps not surprising to find that 
the Hybrid Perpetuais provide a large proportion 
(about one-third) of these, doubtless on account 
of their hardiness. 

American Wheelbarrows in England. 

In talking recently with a Bradford merchant of 
builders' supplies, etc., who obtains American 
wheelbarrows from a Manchester importer, the 
statement was made that owing to the fact that 
wheelwrights in England will not trouble to make 
wheelbarrows, except when they are short of 
other work, there is a good sale for American 
wheelbarrows. They are well spoken of, being 
made of good wood, and selling at a reasonable 
price. They are imported knocked down, the re- 
tailer having merely to fasten them together with 
a few bolts, screws, and nails. One feature, 
however, is criticised, and that is that the wooden 
shafts are not hollowed out, as are the English 
ones, so as to afford a good, comfortable grip. 
The statement was made that if the American 
manufacturer would only attend to that detail the 
English wheelbarrows would never be asked for. — 
Florists' Exchange, U.S.A. 

Proposed Public Park at Loch Lomond. 

The committee appointed by the Glasgow Cor- 
poration to consider the suggestion to acquire a 
public park at Loch Lomond has reported in 
favour of the proposal. The price at which the 
promoters secured an option is £30,000, but the 
ultimate cost would be about £15,000. 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 

{The Editors do not hold themtelvee responsible for 
the opinions expressed by correspondent!.) 

Fastigiate Robinia.— Having read Prof. 
Henry's article in the Gardeners' Chronicle on 
Poplars, and noticing the remarks on fastigiate 
trees, I think that you may be interested to know 
that in our garden there is a very tall fastigiate 
specimen of Robinia Pseud-acacia. Many mis- 
take it for a Poplar. It has been planted quite 
twenty years. Miss Florence Grimsdick, Hay- 
wards Heath. 

The Lesser Narcissus Fly. — No objec- 
tion can possibly be taken to the tone of the letter 
of Mr. A. J. Bliss (p. 31). It is now recognised 
by him, as has been obvious from the first, that 
it is impossible for him to prove the negative; 
and I freely admit that it is for those who main- 
tain that, whether or not the larvae of this fly 
may at times feed on decayed matter in the bulb, 
they do equally at times feed also on the healthy 
bulb, and hence the dangerous character of the 
fly. That is the true issue, which I accept. And 
surely there has now been established more than, 
a strong prima facie case that this is so. I need 
not recapitulate the evidence summed up in my 
last note, but since that was written we have 
further evidence bearing directly on the issue 
stated. It comes in the shape of the following 
miaute from the proceedings of the last meeting 
of the Scientific Committee of the R.H.S. a6 
follows : — "Mr. Chittenden also showed a speci- 
men of Narcissus bulb sent him by Mr. Back- 
house with a number of the larvae of the lesser 
Narcissus fly feeding in the neck of the bulb 
under such circumstances as left little doubt that 
they were the originators of the attack, not 
merely followers feeding on damaged tissue due 
to other and earlier attack." And yet, in the 
face of all this, Mr. Bliss maintains that, in 
his opinion, " the case for healthy bulbs being 
attacked by the Eumerus is an increasingly weak 
one." In other words, the stronger the evidence 
the weaker the case. Truly, a remarkable con- 



clusion. He boldly expresses doubt concerning 
the cases which Mr. Chittenden has mentioned, a 
doubt which will certainly not be shared by any- 
one who knows the extreme care and acumen 
with which that gentleman carries out his investi- 
gations. But may I say that I venture to doubt 
the "doubt" of Mr. Bliss, for, marvellous to 
relate, he concludes his letter with the statement 
that he " joins in advising that all doubtful bulbs 
should be at once taken up and examined, and 
all containing larvae should be destroyed." But 
why, if the larvae are only doing useful 
"scavenger" work? Mr. Bliss is almost exact 
in his wording with the words of caution which I 
used at the outset, and which led Mr. Bliss to 
intervene with correspondence the whole trend 
of which was to show that the trouble involved 
by my suggestion was likely to be unnecessary. 
However, we welcome the convert even at the 
eleventh hour, and, all of us at last recommend- 
ing the same thing, it seems to me that the con- 
troversy ends. But Mr. Bliss raises a new and 
interesting point which, although at present a 
matter of speculation only, may have something 
in it. Referring to Mr. Chittenden's statement 
with reference to " the decay of the bulb follow- 
ing the attack of the Eumerus," Mr. Bliss sug- 
gests the possibility of the flies disseminating the 
disease as they fly from plant to plant in deposit- 
ing their eggs. I hope that Mr. Bliss will in- 
vestigate this point. If he will do so useful 
work will have been done. Charles E. Shea. 

In taking up my Daffodils this year I have 

come across many diseased bulbs, some with 
Eumerus grubs in them and some not, but all 
that had Eumerus in them were diseased, and I 
have obtained new evidence which, I. think, 
puts it beyond reasonable doubt that the 
Eumerus is simply a scavenger, never feeds 
on the living and healthy substance, and prob- 
ably never attacks a sound bulb. There is 
probably more than one disease present among 
my bulbs, but I am now referring only to those 
affected with what I take to be Fusarium 
bulbigenum, since the symptoms agree with 
those described by Mr. Massee in the Keiv 
Bulletin (No. 8, 1913) (see also Gardeners' 
Chronicle, December 13, 1913, p. 124). It 
is a characteristic of this disease in most 
of the bulbs which I have examined that 
it travels down the layers (scales) and 
not across them. Apparently it cannot pass 
through the skin of the scales ; at any rate, not 
in the earlier stages. When it reaches the base 
it spreads across and up the other layers 
(which till then remain quite fresh and healthy) 
till all the bulb is invaded. This accords well 
with the description of Fusarium mentioned 
abo\ e, in which it is stated that it is conveyed to 
the bulbs from the leaves in the first instance, 
and that in the earlier stages only the tips of 
the scales where these infected leaves have died 
off show the symptoms of the disease. If a 
bulb, in which the disease is in its early- 
stages, before it has reached the base, is 
cut in half longitudinally, the soft and brown 
layers in which the disease has spread are seen 
alternating with the quite healthy (white and 
solid) layers. In some such bulbs examined 
there were young Eumerus larvae which had 
penetrated about half an inch, and in every 
case they were feeding in and down the diseased 
layers, leaving the healthy scales entirely un- 
touched. The effect due to the Eumerus, from 
the top down to where they were found, is quite 
easily distinguished from the effect of the dis- 
ease (which has advanced some way beyond 
them), and could not be mistaken by anyone 
having a number of bulbs in varying stages to 
compare together. This fact — that in these par- 
tially infected bulbs the Eumerus feeds only 
on the rotting portions — taken together with all 
the evidence I and others have brought forward 
of the grubs feeding on diseased bulbs, of their 
being found in conjunction with other larvae in 
the same bulb, and of their being found feed- 
ing on the rotting substance of plants other than 
Daffodils, is surely very significant, and if all 
this does not constitute an absolute demonstra- 
tion, it does, at any rate, amount to an over- 
whelming probability that the Eumerus is solely 
a scavenger. No doubt this conclusion will not 
be unreservedly accepted until it has been con- 
firmed by the observations of trained experts, 



and quite properly so. But the proving of a 
negative is a long process if all the possible 
objections have to be tested and eliminated, and 
in tn© meantime I think all practical growers 
will be satisfied that a prima facie case has at 
least been established. Having taken up the 
unorthodox side in this question I may as well 
be hanged for a sheep as a lamb, and now that 
I have no longer any doubt that it is a scavenger 
I will venture to go a step further. So far from 
the Eumerus being a destructive pest, it is quite 
possible — it is even very likely — that it is bene- 
ficial, and should perhaps be encouraged rather 
than exterminated. For by feeding on diseased 
bulbs it eats up and, presumably, destroys all 
(or a great amount) of the fungus which would 
otherwise run its course uninterrupted, leaving 
the soil full of spores to start future infection. 
And if this is so it is evident that the whole- 
sale destruction of the flies may do great harm 
and result in an enormous increase of the 
Fusarium. I have already a certain amount of 
evidence in favour of this conclusion. — .4. /. 
Bliss. 

Narcissus Seeding. -A seed pod of Narcis- 
sus Mme. de Graaff, which had been cross-ferti- 
lised was accidentally broken off at about the end 
of May, just after it had attained its full 
growth. I quite thought it would prove worth- 
less, but decided to let it remain on the damp 
soil to see if any seeds matured. The broken 
end was left under the foliage and, being near 
to a wall on a north border, it was always moist. 
On June 29 the capsule showed signs of ripening, 
and was taken away. When opened six seeds were 
found inside, five of them fully developed, and 
one not so plump as the others. Thus after 
lying more than a month quite severed from 
the plant the pod has ripened six seeds at the 
normal time. It will be interesting to see if 
the seeds germinate. W. H. Divers, V.M.H., 
Belvoir Castle Gardens, Grantham. 

Grape Primavis Muscat.— I am sending for 
your table a bunch of Primavis Muscat or Early 
White Frontignan Grape. This fine variety, if 
better known, would undoubtedly become one of 
our foremost varieties for early use on account of 
its rich Muscat flavour. The berries are liable 
to crack, but this, as in the case of Madresfield 
Court, can, with a little management, be over- 
come, allowing the lateral growths to grow freely 
instead of stopping them in the usual way. 
Grown in the same house as Foster's Seedling 
and Biack Hamburgh, it is a month in advance 
of either of these varieties. There is only one 
vine here, and previous to this year the bunches 
have been almost worthless, nearly all the 
berries splitting just before ripening. How- 
ever, the entire crop has ripened this season with- 
out a single berry showing any signs of cracking. 
Perhaps some of your readers will give their ex- 
perience of this variety, the quality of which is 
of the first rank. .S'. Ely, Marlands, West 
Horsham. (The Grapes were very good, but 
would have been better for being left on the vine 
a little longer. — Eds.) 

Rheum Alexandrae.- In answer to Mr. H. J. 
Elwes (p. 457), I may state that Rheum Alex- 
andrae was introduced from China by Messrs. 
James Veitch and Sons through their collector, 
Mr. E. H. Wilson. It was distributed by Messrs. 
Veitch in the autumn of 1909, and since that 
time I have seen it growing remarkably well on 
the slopes of Coombe Wood Nursery. Though 
this nursery is unfortunately in a state of dis- 
solution, no doubt Messrs. Veitch could still 
supply it. The large, pale yellow, leaf-like bracts 
form a very striking feature, and fortunately 
the plant is more amenable to cultivation than 
its Himalayan relative — Rheum nobile. W. 
Truelove. 

- 'Ge rmination of Seedsi in the iFruit.— 

Recently on opening a fruit of Cereus lividus, 
which was one year old and quite ripe, I found 
that a quantity of the seed had germinated, and 
many formed cotyledons inside the fruit. This 
plant is a native of hot, dry regions, and the 
germination of the seedlings in this manner may 
be a special adaptation. I have nlanted the 
seedlings to note their progress. C. Robinson, 
si. Hilary Gardens, Cowbridgt. 



July 13, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



59 



SOCIETIES. 

ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. 

July 14. — There was a very poor attendance 
at the fortnightly meeting, held on Tuesday last 
in the Vincent Square Hall, Westminster, and 
the exhibition was the smallest of the year. The 
largest floral exhibit consisted of a group of 
perennial Phlox in great variety, and this was 
awarded a Gold Medal. The Floral Committee 
recommended four Awards of Merit to novel- 
ties. 

There were fewer groups of Orchids than usual, 
but a number of novelties were submitted for 
award, and the Orchid Committee recommended 
three First-class Certificates and one Award of 
Merit. 

No award was made to a novelty by the Fruit 
and Vegetable Committee, but this body awarded 
three Medals to groups. 

At the 3 o'clock meeting, in the Lecture Room, 
the twelfth Masters Memorial Lecture was <h 
livered by Professor J. Bretland Farmer, 
F.R.S. 

Floral Committee. 

Present: Henry B. May, Esq. (in the chair). 
Messrs. C. T. Druery, J. W. Moorman, C. R. 
Fielder, C. Blick, J. F. McLeod, John Dickson, 
Chas. Dixon, H. J. Jones, Chas. E. Shea, J. T. 
Bemiett-Poe, Chas. E. Pearson, W. P. Thorn 
son, E. H. Jenkins, E. A. Bowles. B. Crisp, 
John Green, F. W. Harvey, W. H. Page, John 
Jennings, B. Hooper Pearson, and W. Cuthberl- 

SOQ. 

AWARDS OF MERIT. 

Nemcsia, Marsden Jones' dark-flowered 
strain. — This is a vigorous large-flowered strain 
in which the orange ground colour of the flowers 
is overlaid to different degrees with deep 
maroon-black. Some flowers are but lightly 
dotted, some are almost a self-coloured maroon", 
and between these extremes the strain includes 
a number of variably dotted types of great 
beauty, always, however, with the orange ground 
colour. Shown by Mr. Marsden Jones, Malpas. 
Cheshire. 

Gladiolus Eldorado. — Some fine spikes carry- 
ing as many as 16 flowers each were shown of 
this new variety, which in its blotching 
shows the influence of the Lemoinei race, 
but the flowers are of the largest size, 
expanding to 4 or 5 inches in diameter, 
and the segments show a well-rounded 
broad form and good substance. The colour is 
pale yellow, with large scarlet blotches on the 
lower segments, which run back to the dark 
throat. The yellow ground colour is also in- 
fluenced by the thin shading of red which marks 
the exterior of the segments and shows through. 
It is one of the best garden forms. Shown by 
Messrs. Kelway and Son. 

Michcnixia Tchiliatclwffii (see fig. 23). — A 
handsome, little-known biennial, or even annual, 
discovered by the Russian explorer Tchihatcluf 
in 1849 in the Cilician Taurus. It has tall, rigidiy 
erect stems, with coarse, rough, sharply serrate 
leaves at the base, but is strikingly furnished in 
the upper half with a dense columnar mass of 
open white bells. The corolla has 8 lobes, which 
spread flat or recurve from a shallow tube. 
From this the large stigma protrudes, carrying, 
in the young flowers, a mass of yellow pollen 
from the anthers which are discharged on to it 
at an early stage. As a rule a cluster of three 
flowers breaks from each bract on the main stem, 
so that the inflorescence is richly furnished. It 
is figured at t. 7.742 in the Bot. Mag. The 
plants shown were inferior to those figured in 
the size of flower and plant, and in recording 
the award it should also be stated that the plant 
is too difficult and uncertain ever to find a place 
in common cultivation. Shown by Miss Will- 
mott. 

Other Novelties. 

Helianthus cucumerifolius, var. Stella, 
Sutton's Brilliant. — Under this extraordinary 
name Messrs. Sutton and Sons showed one of 
their best derivatives from Prof. Cockerell's Bed 



Sunflower. The flowers are bright yellow, recently given an Award of Merit. It shows the 

banded with brown on the inner third. The same branching habit, and should prove a fine 

Committee wished to see flowers again. garden plant. 

Veroascum Warley Pearl. — This is a white Primula pseudo-capitata. — This fine Primula 

sport from the beautiful Warley Rose which was was sent by Messrs. Bees, but on arrival it was 




Fig. 23. — michauxia tchihatcheffh : flowers white. 
(See Floral Committee's .Awards.) 



60 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Juli 18, 1914. 



found to be damaged. It is a better perennial 
than capitata, and shows stouter foliage and 
stronger dwarfer spikes. If less graceful than 
the old form, its better garden qualities will no 
doubt bring it to the front. 

GENERAL EXHIBITS. 

The largest floral exhibit was a collection of 
border Phloxes shown by Messrs. H. J. Jones, 
Ltd., Ryeoroft Nurseries, Lewisham. This im- 
posing display occupied a space of 600 square 
feet, and included 400 plants in 100 distinct 
varieties. In the centre .were batches of 
the fine white variety, Frau Ant. Buchner, 
and the pale, salmon-coloured Elizabeth Camp- 
bell ; whilst in the general group were such 
beautiful sorts as Mrs. R. C. Pulling, pink 
(new); Rijnstroom, rosy-pink; Mrs. W. Wraite, 
pale mauve and white ; Boule de Feu, glowing 
scarlet; and Henry Murger, white, with carmine 
•ye. (Gold Medal.) 

Mr. W. Wells, Junr., Merstham, also ex- 
hibited varieties of Phlox decussata. 

Messrs. H. B. May and Sons, Edmonton, 
exhibited, as a flower group, a collection of green- 
house and British Ferns, for which a Silver-gilt 
Flora Medal was awarded. The plants 
were exceptionally healthy, and included Adian- 
turn Veitchii, with young, rose-tinted fronds, 
Blechnum corcovadense roseum, Davallia tenui- 
folia Veitchii, D. fijiensis plumosus, Pteris 
Childsii, a finely-crested Fern, and Doryopteris 
(Pteris) ludens, with handsome, hastate fronds. 
The best of our native speoies were Athyrium 
filix femina plumosum, Polystichum aculeatum 
gracillimum, Scolopendrium vulgare grandi- 
oeps and Osmunds regalis cristata- (Silver-gilt 
Flora Medal.) 

Mr. L. R. Russell, Richmond, Surrey, staged 
an imposing group of Ivies, with a batch of the 
showy variegated-leaved Aralia mandschurica as 
a centre-piece. (Silver Bauksian Medal.) 

Col. the Rt. Hon. Mark Lockwood, Romford 
(gr. Mr. Cradduck), filled a large table with 
Fuchsias, for which a Silver-gilt Banksian Medal 
was awarded. 

Messrs. James Veitch and Sons, Ltd., Felt- 
ham, showed plants of Solanum Wendlandii, 
each about 6 feet high, and bearing large heads 
of the pretty lavender-coloured flowers. (Silver 
Banksian Medal.) 

Messrs. Stuart Low and Co., Enfield, also ex- 
hibited a batch of Solanum Wendlandii; as taH, 
well-flowered plants. 

Messrs. W. Cutbush and Son, Highgate, had 
an extensive exhibit of Gloxinias, in batches of 
distinct colours. 

Mr. James Douglas, Great Bookham, Surrey, 
showed fine border Carnations, the blooms — the 
best in the Hall — being splendid in form, of 
large size, and of handsome colours. The gem of 
the collection was Mi6s Rose Josephs, the colour 
old-rose; others of superior merit were Cecilia, 
yellow; Innocence, faint blush: Bookham Clove, 
Robert Berkeley, a scarlet variety of magnificent' 
form and large size ; Bookham White, and 
Evangeline, lavender-puce. (Silver Flora Medal.) 

Sir D. Gooch, Bart., Hylands Park, Chelms- 
ford (gr. Mr. Heath), exhibited choice blooms of 
Souvenir de la MaWiaison and Tree Carnations, 
the old Princess of Wales and the clove coloured 
Maggie Hodgson being the more conspicuous 
varieties. (Silver-gilt Banksian Medal.) 

Mr. O. Engelmann, Saffron Walden, showed 
Perpetual-flowering Carnations, of such sterling 
varieties as Carola, My Rose, White Perfection. 
Calypso and Mrs. C. W. Ward. (Silver Banksian 
Medal.) 

Mr. John Box, Lindfield, Sussex, exhibited 45 
varieties of Sweet Peas, decorated with spraye 
of Statice. The varieties included James 
Box, salmon ; Mrs. Cuthbertson, blush ; Agri- 
oola, pale mauve ; Nettie Jenkins, lavender : 
Illuminator, rosy-cerise; Ella Box, white, flaked 
with lavender ; and Mrs. Gibbs Box, pink. 
(Silver-en'lt Banksian Medal.) 

Mr Henry Eckford. Wem, Shropshire, also 
exhibited Sweet Peas. The variety Clematis is a 
fine shade of blue, and has purplish standards. 
Eckford's New Blue is also a striking variety. 
Others that were especially good are Duplex 
Spencer, King Manoel, maroon; Florence 
Nightingale and Colleen, a pretty bi-coloured 



flower, the standards being rose-pink colour and 
the wings much paler. (Silver Flora Medal.) 

Messrs. B. R. Cant and Sons, Colchester, 
were awarded a Silver Flora Medal for Roses. 

Messrs. W. Kordes and Krause, Witley, 
showed a small collection of Roses, including 
fine blooms of the variety Mme. Edouard 
Herriot. 

Rev. J. H. Pemberton, Havering-atte-Bower, 
Essex, showed his white, seedling Climbing 
Rose, named Pemberton's White Rambler. 

Mr. Amos Perry, Enfield, showed hardy 
flowers as a cool-looking corner group, with 
pans of Nymphaeas along the front. The exhibit 
was rich in Lilies, of whioli we noticed Lilium 
odorum, L. excelsum, L. canadense fl avium, L. 
pardalinum and L. Humboldtii ; also Japanese 
Irises, fine Phloxes, Delphiniums, the giant 
Armeria plantaginea gigantea, with pink flowers ; 
Gaillardias, Coreopsis tinctoria and numerous 
other fine border flowers. (Silver Banksian 
Medal.) 

Messrs. Kelway and Son, Langport, Somerset, 
filled a long table with Gladioli. This handsome 
exhibit was composed of exceptionally fine 
spikes of large, brilliantly-coloured varieties, 
amongst which we noticed Henry Drummond and 
Pioneer, two ohoice crimson sorts ; Christine 
Margaret Kelway, soft shades of pink and rose, 
with yellow in fche throat, and deep rose-coloured 
lines ; His Grace, rosy-red petals, the yellow 
throat marked with crimson ; Lady Montague, a 
pale variety, with big blotches of crimson-red on 
the two lower segments ; La Nuit, purplish blue ; 
and hybrids of G. primulinus, some with apri- 
cot and rose tinting. (Silver-gilt Banksian 
Medal.) 

Mrs. Atkinson, Locksheath, near Southamp- 
ton, exhibited a few spikes of Gladioli, the most 
striking variety being Orby, a scarlet flower 
striped with maroon. 

Hardy flowers were also exhibited by the 
Guildford Hardy Plant Nursery; Mr. 
Maurice Prichard, Christohurch, Hampshire 
(Silver Banksian Medal) ; Messrs. T. S. Ware, 
Ltd., Feltham ; and Messrs. Phillips and 
Taylor, Bracknell, Berkshire (Bronze Banksian 
Medal.) 

Mr. Howard H. Crane, Highgate, showed 
Violas and his race of miniature flowered varie- 
ties known as Violettas. Of these latter a selec- 
tion includes Eileen, mauve, with yellow eye; 
Rock Orange, rich golden-yellow ; Rock Lemon ; 
Primrose Beauty, Purity, Cecilia, purplish-blue ; 
Cynthia, pale lavender; and Estelle, the 
smallest of all. white, with suffusion of gold on 
the lower petal. (Silver Banksian Medal.) 

Messrs. Carter Page and Co., London Wall, 
exhibited pans of Violas in numerous varieties. 
(Silver Banksian Medal. t 

Violas were also shown by Mr. E. A. Turner. 
Bush Hill Park, Enfield. 

Orehid Committee. 

Present : J. Gurney Fowler, Esq. (in the 
chair), Messrs. Jas. O'Brien (hon. secretary), 
Gurney Wilson, W. Bolton, S. W. Flory, W. H. 
White, E. H. Davidson, J. E. Shill," W. H. 
Hatcher, W. Cobb, T. Armstrong, C H. Curtis, 
R. A. Rolfe, C. J. Lucas, Sir Harry J. Veitch. 
and Sir Jeremiah Colman, Bart. 

Only two important groups were staged, but 
the show was above the average for the season, 
and specially interesting in distinct novelties, 
three of which secured First-class Certificates and 
one an Award of Merit. 

AWARDS. 

Ftrst-Class Certificates. 
Miltonia vexillaria The Rev. W. Wills (see 
fig. 24), from J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Bracken- 
hurst. Pembury, Tunbridge Wells (gr. Mr. J. 
Davis). The largest and best-shaped light form 
of Miltonia vexillaria and of extraordinary 
substance. In tint it is unique, being of 
a delicate Peach-blossom, the veining slightly 
darker and the petals bearing a slight violet, 
flush at their bases. The broad labellum has 
a yellow disc on white ground, and three thin 
lines of red in front of the crest. It was raised 
from the varieties gigantea and Queen Alexandra. 
Odontoma Charlesworthii (Odm. Uro-Skinneri 
x M. vexillaria), from Messrs. Charlesworth 
kND Co., Hay-wards Heath. This is a jrreat tri- 



umph for the hybridiser, being a product com- 
monly designated by experts " a gem." The plant. 
is intermediate in growth between the parent*, 
but well shows O. Uro-Skinneri, which bore the 
seed. The erect inflorescence bore four flowers- 
flatly arranged as in M. vexillaria, but in 
texture and markings like the Odontoglos- 
sum, although enlarged to more than twice the 
size. The sepals and broader petals are blotched 
with reddish purple, the white ground show- 
ing through slightly in the central part of the 
petals and margin, and more so in the sepals. The 
lip is formed after M. vexillaria, but the broad' 
front is coloured the rich purplish-rose seen in 
the best forms of O. Uro-Skinneri as spotting. 
The crest is yellow with a white base, having 
beautiful ruby-red markings. 

Odontoglossum pereultum King George 
(Rolfeae X ardentissimum), from F. Mentieth 
Ogilvie, Esq., The Shrubbery, Oxford (gr. Mr. 
Balmforth). The fine form which secured an 
Award of Merit, July 2, 1912, but now greatly 
improved, especially in the size of flowers, which 
are white with broad transverse blotches of 
violet-purple. The spike bore 12 blooms. 

Award of Merit. 

Brasso-Catflei/a Ilenc (B.-C. Madame Chas. 
Maron x C. Dowiana), from Baron Bruno 
Schroder, The Dell, Englefield Green (gr. Mr. 
J. E. Shill). A superb flower of great size, the 
second crossing with C. Dowiana giving it 
broader proportions while still retaining the 
fringed lip. The sepals and petals are coloured 
lilac-rose. The lip is of rose colour, with a 
darker ray of purple in the centre and a large 
yellow disc. 

Cultural Commendation. 

To J. Gurney Fowler, Esq., Brackenhurst, 
Pembury (gr. Mr. J. Davis), for a superbly- 
grown, compact specimen of Cattleya Wars- 
cewiczii with six spikes bearing together twenty- 
three richly-coloured flowers (see fig. 25). 

To Elizabeth Lady Lawrence, Burford (gr. 
Mr. W. H. White), for a fine plant of Odonto- 
glossum Pescatorei with five branched spikes 
giving a perfect head of white flowers. 

GENERAL EXHIBITS. 

F. Mentieth Ogilvie, Esq., The Shrubbery, 
Oxford (gr. Mr. Balmforth), exhibited the new 
Odontoglossum Uro-anthum (Kegeljani polyx- 
anthum x Uro-Skinneri). The sepals and petals 
are yellowish-green, the sepals barred and the 
petals spotted with chocolate-purple. The white 
lip has a dark rose base and bands of rose spots. 

E. R. Ashton, Esq., Broadlands, Tunbridge 
Wells, showed Odontioda Hemptinneana Broad- 
lands variety. The sepals and petals are white, 
with orange-red spots in the centre, the broad 
margin being rose-coloured ; and Sophro-Laelio- 
Cattleya Sibyl, yellow tinged with purple, and 
having a red lip. 

H. S. Goodson, Esq., Fairlawn, Putney (gr. 
Mr. G. E. Day), showed Odontoglossum Snow- 
flake. The segments are spotted with purple, the 
margins being white. 

Messrs. Sandeb and Sons, St. Albans, were 
awarded a Silver Banksian Medal for an in- 
teresting group of hybrids and rare species, 
among the latter being the original form of 
Stanhopea tigrina, Masdevallia Gargantua, M. 
calura, M. simula, Anguloa eburnea, Ancistro- 
chilus Thompsonianus, Coelogyne Mooreana, 
C. sulpKurea, Ornithocliilus fuscus, Nanodes 
Medusae, Pfoysosiphon Loddigesii, Angraecum 
O'Brienianum. with a spray of fragrant white 
flowers; A. Grantii, like a small form of A. 
Kotschyi, Vanda Parishii, and Bulbophyllum 
densiflorum. 

Messrs. Stuart Low and Co., Jarvisbrook, 
Sussex, were awarded a Silver Banksian Medal 
for a group of show}' Orchids, among which were 
noted good Oncidium macranthum, O. amictum, 
Vanda teres, Cattleya Warscewiczii, one form 
without the usual yellow disc being near to the 
variety saturata : C. Mossiae Reineckiana Snow- 
flake, C. Rex, C. Gaskelliana alba, Odontioda 
Charlesworthii, some pretty Odontoglossum, An- 
giuloa Clowesii. Phalaenopsis amabilis Rimestad- 
iana. Dendrobium Dalhousieanum, D. Dearei, 
Cii'i'hopetalnm pulchrum, Bulbophyllum Lobbit 
Colossa and Epidendrum nemorale. 

Messrs. Flory and Black, Slough, sb.ov.cd a 
small group containing three of the fine scarlet 



July 18, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



61 



Disa grandiflora raised in their nursery, a good 
specimen of Dendrobium acuminatum, with a 
long spike of pretty rose-pink coloured flowers 
and five plants of the pure white Cattleya Gas- 
kelliana alba. 

Messrs. J. and A. McBean, Cooksbridge, 
staged a group in which were two deep-red forms 
of Odontioda Charlesworthii, good examples of 
their strain; 0. Thwaitesii, a large-flowered 
form of the pure white Dendrobium Dearei of 
the same small importation as that known as 
McBean's variety ; D. Sanderae ; some good 
•Odontoglossums ; and Laelio- Cattleya Aphrodite, 
with very fine, violet-purple coloured lip. 
Fruit and Vegetable Committee. 

Present: Jos. Cheal, Esq. (in the chair), 
Messrs. J. Willard, A. Grubb, A. Bullock, Geo. 
Keif, Win. Pope. Horace J. Wright, Owen 
Thomas, C. G. A. Nix and J. Davis. 

The most important exhibit in this section 
was a collection of fruit shown by Maldwin 
Drummond, Esq., Fawley, Southampton (gr. Mr. 
Lewis Smith). There were excellent bunches of 
Canon Hall Muscat Grapes; small-berried, but 
well finished Black Hamburgh Grapes ; excellent 
Beauty of Bath Apples, and Plum6, Currants, 
Figs, Nectarines, Gooseberries, Loganberries, 
Raspberries, Peaches, Apples and Pears, to- 
gether with pot fruit trees. (Silver-gilt Knightian 
Medal.) 

Messrs. W. Path and Son, Waltham Cross, 
showed pot fruit trees, including Figs, Cherries, 
•Gooseberries, Plums, Nectarines, and Apricots. 
The Apricot6, trained as dwarf standards, were 
splendidly fruited. (Silver Knightian Medal.) 

Eric Hambro, Esq., Hayes, Kent (gr. Mr. C. 
Davis) was awarded a Bronze Knightian Medal 
for a collection of fruit, including Black, Whit." 
and Red Currants, Raspberries, Strawberries, 
■Cherries and Plums. 



PERPETUAL-FLOWERING CARNATION 

The following new varieties have been entered 
upon the society's register during the half-year 
ended June 30 : — 

Ivy Seely. — Bright sabnon pink seedling from 
Marmion. 

Fidelio. — Burgundy red seedling from Mis. 
H. Burnett x Mikado. These two raised by 
Mrs. Seely, Wingerworth Hall, Chesterfield. 

Princess of Wales. — Perpetual-flowering 
" Malmaison," similar to Princess of Wales, but 
• onstant in habit. 

Mrs. Mackay Edqnr. — Pearl rosy pink. 

Countess of Pembroke. — Ant red. These three 
raised by Stuart Low and Co. 

Mrs. J. E. Lowe. — Salmon-pink. Raised by 
Mi. J. E. Lowe. Warwick. 

lied Benora. — Dark scarlet-red sport from 
Benora. Raised by Wn. Wells and Co. 

T. A. Weston, hon. sec. 



CONFERENCE ON SWEET PEAS AT 
THE WHITE CITY. 

July 8. — Mr. Leonard G. Sutton, who pre- 
sided at the Sweet Pea Conference at the White 
<Jity, Shepherd's Bush, on this date, spoke of the 
great bond of interest which the Sweet Pea pro- 
vides between the two great nations which are as- 
sociated in the exhibition being held in the 
grounds, and voiced the general regret that Mr. 
W. Atlee Burpee was not present to read his ex- 
pected paper on " The Development of the Sweet 
Pea in America." It was also regretted that on ac- 
count of the recent unfavourable weather and the 
many flower shows which are being held through- 
out the country, there was no exhibit of Sweet 
Peas in the building ; but he was glad to be ahle 
to introduce Mr. Chas. H. Curtis, who would 
read his paper on " One Hundred Years' Pro- 
gress with theiSweet Pea in England." 

Mr. Curtis first briefly outlined the history of 
the Sweet Pea, commencing with its introduction 
over 200 years ago, when Father Francis Cupani. 
of Naples, sent to his friend Dr. Uvedale, at 
Enfield, a few seeds of a purple climbing plant, 
Lathyrus odoratus, which was the parent of all 
the many varieties now cultivated. In 1768 there 
were only three varieties ; the original, which had 
dark purple standards and blue wings; 
Painted Lady, which bore pink standards and a 
white keel ; and a pure white variety. The 
greatest improvements in the flower have been 
effected within the past forty years, since when 



the varieties have shown a steady increase in size 
and improved colours. The advent of the 
Spencer, varieties in 1900 practically recreated the 
Sweet Pea, and we now have immensely improved 
sorts. Mention was made of the improved 
methods of cultivation, particularly for exhibi- 
tion and for market purposes. 

The Discussion. 

Mr. G. A. Weston and Mr. C. Orchard re- 
ferred to the reputed crosses between the Sweet 
Pea and the perennial Pea, and asked if Mr. 
Curtis knew of the existence of any such hybrids. 
In reply, the lecturer said that, in common with 
other persons, he had heard that the annual and 
perennial Peas had been successfully crossed, but 
as there was no evidence in the shape of plants to 
support this they must reserve judgment. 



There were four- exhibits in the open class for 
48 blooms of Roses, distinct. Mr. H. Richards, 
Warsash Nurseries, Southampton, won the 
1st prize with medium-sized blooms of Mrs. 
E. Mawley, G. Dickson, Mrs. A. Carnegie, 
the new Irish-raised seedling fiom Ni- 
phetos and Frau Karl Druschki ; Mr6. F. 
Hobbs, Mildred Grant, Hugh Dickson, 
Karl of Warwick, Lyon, and others ; 2nd, 
Messrs. D. Prior and Sons, Colchester, with 
larger but less shapely bloom6 ; although 
those of Mme. Melanie Soupert, Mrs. A. Cox- 
head, and Mrs. Charles Russell were unusually 
good ; 3rd, Mr. G. Prince, Longworth, who won. 
the 1st prizes for (1) triplets, and (2) for 12 
Tea or Noisette varieties. The varieties Mme. 
Jules Gravereaux, Bessie Brown, and Mrs. Con- 
way Jones were conspicuous in the class for 12 




-MTLTONTA VEXILLARIA THE REV. W. WTLKS : COLOUR, DELICATE PEACH-BLOSSOM; VEINING 

SLIGHTLY DARKER. 

!K. U.S. First-Class Certificate on July 14. 1914— see p. 60.) 



Mi. 1'. Gajidexkb referred to the fact that the 
first mauve Sweet Pea produced poor-looking 
crinkled seeds which it was thought would not be 
fertile, but experience has shown them to be of 
high germinative power. Sweet Pea seeds need not 
be perfectly round; in fa-ct, the mauve and pale 
lavender coloured varieties almost invariably have 
badly-shaped seeds. 



SOUTHAMPTON HORTICULTURAL 

July 1. — The annual exhibition of the South- 
ampton Royal Horticultural Society was held on 
the 1st inst., in the interesting grounds attached 
to South Stoneham House, the residence of Ellen 
Lady Swaythling. The show was not so large as 
in some previous years, but the quality of the 
exhibits was good. 



triplets, whilst Mme. C. Soupert, Marechal Niel, 
Mrs. E. Mawley, and White .Maman Cochet are 
a selection of the Teas and Noisettes. The 
bloom of White Maman Cochet was adjudged the 
premier bloom in the show. 

For 6 blooms of any red or pink varieties, 
Messrs. D. Prior and Sons secured the leading 
award easily with highly-coloured blooms of 
Mrs. A. Coxhead. Mr. Richards followed with 
G. Dickson in but moderate condition. In a 
similar cl iss for any one yellow or white variety, 
Mr. G. Prince won the 1st prize with shapely 
specimens of Mme. Jules Gravereaux. 

Only one exhibitor showed in the class for a 
meritorious display of representative varieties — 
Messrs. W. H. Rogers and Son, Bassett, South- 
ampton, who were awarded the 1st award. The 
varieties Rayon d'Or, Macrantha. British Queen 
.ill Avoca were conspicuous. 



62 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 18, 1914. 



Baskets of Roses in 3 varieties made a bright 
display. Messrs. D. Prior and Sons won with 
Rayon d'Or, Mrs. A. Tate, and Mrs. W. J. 
Grant in fresh condition ; 2nd, Mr. J. Mattock. 

The best dinner-table decoration was arranged 
by Mrs. E. Burnett, Holly Lodge, Westwood, 
Southampton, who employed Irish Elegance ; 
2nd, Mrs. Bealing, Bassett, Southampton. 
These two exhibitors exchanged placed in the class 
for a vase of Roses. W. H. Myers, Esq., Swan- 
more House, Bishops Waltham (gr. Mr. Ellwood) 
showed the best bowl of Roses. 

Local classes were well filled, and the exhibits 
were of much merit. H. D. Broughton, Esq., 
Beech Hurst, Andover (gr. Mr. H. S. Black- 
well), was placed 1st for 18 distinct varieties, 
and also for 6 triplets with high-quality blooms. 
Mr. E. P. Dash, Gosport, won the Local Ama- 
teurs' Challenge Cup, and also the " Munt " Cup 



also awarded a Gold Medal for Shrubs, Roses 
and Alpines. Mr. Wills, Southampton, showed 
Hydrangea and Caladiums. (Silver Medal.) 



LIVERPOOL HORTICULTURAL. 

July 9. — The sixth annual Rose and Sweet 
Pea exhibition, held under the auspices of the 
above society, took place on the 9th inst. in the 
local Corn Exchange. The entries were fully up 
to the average in numbers and the quality was of 
high merit. Sweet Peas were shown in large 
quantities and the blooms were of good quality. 

For 20 distinct vases of these flowers R. R. 
Anderson, Esq. (gr. Mr. N. Hughes), Birken- 
head, won the 1st prize with good spikes of ex- 
cellent colour, the best varieties being Senator 
Spenser, Lavender George Herbert, King White 



Esq., had the best basket and Mr. G. Cowley 
the best bouquet of Roses. 

For 12 vases of hardy herbaceous flowers, C. 
C'omer Wall, Esq. (gr. Mr. F. Reeves), West 
Kirby, won the Lst prize with an excellent ex- 
hibit, including fine Gaillardias and Gladiolus ; 
for six vases Mr. J. H. Warriner, Liscard, was 
awarded the 1st prize. 

For 6 varieties of Carnations, three blooms of 
each variety, Mr. Henry Lunt, Crosby, excelled, 
and this exhibitor was also placed 1st in the class 
for 12 blooms, distinct. The best Souvenir de la 
Malmaison Carnations were shown by Sir W. H. 
Tate, Bart. (gr. Mr. G. Haigh), Wootton. 

The best dinner-table decorated with Sweet 
Peas was arranged by Miss Newsham, Ormskirk, 
with a light, pleasing display of pink flowers. 
This exhibitor also excelled in the class for a 




Fig. 25. — cattleya warscewiczii, as shown by mr. j. gurney fowler. 
(R.H.S. Cultural Commendation on Tuesday last — see p. 60.) 



in the classes for growers of fewer than 300 
plants. 

Mr. H. E. Molyneux, Brantwood, Southamp- 
ton, had the best 6 bunches of garden or decora- 
tive Roses. 

Sweet Peas were well shown. Messrs. Too- 
good and Sons, seedsmen, Southampton, pro- 
vided the prizes in the leading class for 6 
bunches. Sir Randolf Baker, Ranstone, Der- 
set (gr. Mr. Usher), was easily 1st with a re- 
markably fine exhibit of such varieties as Lady 
Evelyn Eyre, Edrom Beauty, Dobbies' Cream, 
and King Manoel ; 2nd, Mr. Bealing. 

Non-Competitive Exhibits. 

Messrs. Toogood and Sons, Southampton, 
showed vegetables, for which a Gold Medal was 
awarded. Messrs. B. Ladhams and Son, Shirley, 
Southampton, were awarded a Gold Medal for a 
rockery and hardy border flowers. Messrs. W. 
H. Rogers and Son, Bassett, Southampton, -were 



and Dorothy Tapscott ; 2nd, L. Cooper, Esq. (gr. 
Mr. G. Kitchen), Shropshire. 

For 12 vases, distinct varieties, Mr. W. Bond, 
Formiby, was placed 1st with excellent spikes of 
Mrs. Cuthberteon, R. F. Fulton and Maud 
Holmes ; 2nd, L. N. Brooke, Esq. (gr. Mr. A. 
Neubrooke), Heswall. 

For 9 vases, Mr. Harold Aindow, Formby, 
led ; whilst for 6 varieties Miss Pollard, Hes- 
wall, was the 1st prize winner. This exhibitor 
showed good 6pikes of Sunproof Crimson. 

Roses. — For 12 Hybrid Tea Roses, distinct, 
James Berry, Esq. (gr. Mr. J. Orritt), Ormskirk, 
led with fresh, bright blooms of Avoca, Mme. 
Melanie Soupert, and others. For 12 blooms, 
distinct, J. Watson Todd, Esq. (gr. Mr. A. Grif- 
fiths), Spital, won in a well contested class; for 
6 trusses, distinct, Herbert Harding, Esq. (gr. 
Mr. T. Lambert), Bebington, excelled; the best 
two vases, 6 blooms in each vase, were shown by 
J. Watson Todd, Esq. ; whilst L. N. Brooke, 



table decorated with other flowers than Sweets 
Peas, using Rose Fireflame most effectively. 

In the amateurs' classes, Mr. H. Eaton Mercer, 
Malpas, and Mr. John Tapscott, Heswall, won. 
1st prizes for Sweet Peas ; Mr. Loo Thomson, 
Formby, for 12 and 6 blooms of Roses ; Mr. J. 
Green, Neston, for 2 vases of cluster Roses. Mr. 
A. Si'ENCE, Upton, and Mr. W. A. Crippen,. 
Huyton, showed the best single and double Be- 
gonias respectively ; Mr. Henry Lunt won the 
1st prize for Ca-rnations ; and Mr. James Green, 
Neston, was placed 1st for hardy herbaceous 
flowere. 

NON-COMPETITIVE EXHIBITS. 

Gold Medals were awarded to Messrs. Young 
and Co., Cheltenham, for Carnations; Mr. H. 
Middlehurst, for Sweet Peas ; and MessT6. 
Bees, Ltd., Liverpool, for Roses, Delphiniums 
and Alpines. 

Silver Medals were awarded to Liverpool 
Orchid Co., Gateacre, for Orchids; Mr. C. A. 



July 18, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



63 



Young, West Derby, for Carnations; Messrs. E. 
P. Kek and Sons, Liverpool, for Hydrangeas, 
Irises and other flowere; Messrs. Dicksons, 
Chester, for Ro6es and hardy herbaceous flowers ; 
and Messrs. W. Rowlands and Co., Liverpool, 
for Roses. 



ELSTREE HORTICULTURAL. 

July 9. — The annual show of the above society 
was, by the kind permission of the president, 
the Hon. Vicary Gibbs, held in the grounds of 
Aldenham House, on Wednesday, the 9th inst. 
Unfortunately the weather in the morning was 
showery, but towards mid-day it cleared, and 
the attendance was satisfactory. The number 
of entries was nearly double that of any preced- 
ing year. The exhibits were arranged in three 
marquees. 

In the competitive classes Messrs. F. Cant 
and Co., Colchester, were placed 1st for a dis- 
play of Roses ; this firm having won the cup 
offered in this class three times in succession, it 
now beoomes their property. In a class for Roses 
open only to amateurs the 1st prize and Cup 
was won worthily with magnificent blooms 
by J. B. B. Wellington, Esq., of Elstree (gr. 
Mr. J. Allen) ; 2nd, K. Edgcumb, Esq. (gr. Mr. 
W. Eggleton). Sweet Peas were shown grandly 
by Lord North (gr. Mr. E. Janes), who was 
awarded the 1st prize for these flowers ; 2nd, 
Sir Chas. Haddon (gr. Mr. 0. Hales), who also 
staged remarkably fine flowers; 3rd, G. M. Mob- 
wood, Esq. E. N. Kent, Esq. (gr. Mr. A. 
Clements), was successful in the class for hardy 
herbaceous flowers. Prizes were offered by 
Messrs. Sutton and Sons for a collection of vege- 
tables, and the 1st prize was won by Colonel E. 
Pkabce, followed closely by K. Edgcumb, Esq. 
The last-named exhibitor showed the best Be- 
gonias; 2nd, Colonel Pearce. G. W. Atkins, 
Esq. (gr. Mr. H. Lawrence), was placed 1st for 
Gloxinias. For six foliage plants K. Edgcumb, 
Esq., G. W. Atkins, Esq., and J. B. B. Well- 
ington, Esq., were placed in the order of their 
names. Table decorations were largely shown. 
The 1st prize was awarded to Mrs. Atten- 
borough, who had a charming arrangement of 
Carnations. The Amateur and Cottagers' 
classes were well filled, the produce being of 
very high excellence. 

One of the large tents was principally occupied 
with honorary exhibits. Mr. Amos Perry, 
Enfield, staged a large colleotion of Delphiniums 
and other hardy plants. Messrs. Barr and Son, 
London, showed pigmy trees. Carnations were 
shown splendidly by Messrs. Cutbush and Son, 
Highgate. Messrs. F. Cant and Co., Colchester, 
showed Roses ; and another striking feature was 
a grand display of Sweet Peas exhibited by Lord 
North, Banbury (gr. Mr. E. Janes). Mr. Henry 
Newman, Watford, exhibited a rook garden and 
Pinks. Messrs. Thompson and Charman, 
Bushey, 6howed hardy herbaceous flowers and 
Alpines. Messrs. Gleeson and Co., Watford, 
showed floral designs. Mr. Allan Porter, 
Horeham Wood, exhibited Delphiniums. The 
Hon. Vicary Gibbs (gr. Mr. E. Beckett) con- 
tributed a splendid collection of vegetables, in- 
cluding more than one hundred dishes, for which 
a large Gold Medal was awarded. 



REIGATE ROSE AND SWEET PEA. 

July 1. — This annual exhibition was held in 
the beautiful grounds of Brokes Lodge on the 
1st inst. The classes generally were well filled, 
and competition was, on the whole, keen. The 
Challenge Cup offered for 48 distinct varieties of 
Roses (open to nurserymen) was won by Messrs. 
B. Cant and Sons, Colchester. In the class for 
24 distinct varieties Messrs. J. Burrell and 
Co., Cambridge, secured the 1st prize with good 
blooms of Coronation, Bessie Brown, Ulster, 
Mabel Drew, Lady Barham, Earl of Gosford, 
White Maman Cochet and others ; 2nd, Mr. 
Henry Drew, Longworth. Mr. Drew led in 
the class for 18 distinct varieties, Teas or 
Noisettes, notable blooms in his collection being 
Molly S. Crawford, Mme. Jules Gravereaux, 
Mrs. H. Taylor, NitaWeldon, Mrs. Foley Hobbs, 
Mme. L. Constantin, Bridesmaid and Maman 
Cochet ; 2nd, Mr. John Mattock. In the class 
for 12 garden Roses, distinct, Messrs. Wm. 



Spooner and Sons, Woking, were successful, 
with such varieties as Rayon d'Or, Mrs. Aaron 
Ward, Excelsa, Philadelphia Rambler, The Far- 
quhar, and Doris ; 2nd, Mr. John Mattock. 

In the classes for amateurs, a Silver Cup was 
offered for 24 varieties, distinct, and was won 
by Mr. H. L. Wettern, with a grand collection 
including a magnificent bloom of Avoca, which 
was awarded the Silver Medal offered for the 
best bloom in the division. Mr. Charles Lam- 
plough showed best in the class for 18 blooms, 
distinct varieties, whilst the same exhibitor won 
the Challenge Cup offered for twelve varieties, 
distinct, open to growers of fewer than 1,000 
plants. 

In the Open Classes for Sweet Peas, the hand- 
some Challenge Cup offered for 12 bunches of 
distinct varieties was won by Mr. E. R. Janes, 
his varieties including Hercules, Dobbie's Cream, 
Edrom Beauty, E. R. Janes, King Manoel, Edith 
Taylor, Audrey Crier, and Lady E. Eyre ; 2nd, 
Mr. F. W. Franks. 

For 2 bunches of white Sweet Peas, Mr. Janes 
again led, staging White Queen. Mr. A. E. 
Usher was placed 1st for 2 bunches of a scarlet 
or crimson variety with The Squire and King 
Edward Spencer, whilst for 2 bunches of salmon 
shades, orange-pink or orange-scarlet, Mr. F. W. 
Franks was successful with Orange Perfection 
and Thos. Stevenson. The Premier Award for 
2 bunches of pink or cream-pink varieties was 
won by Mr. Janes with Doris Usher and Her- 
cules. 

Non-competitivb exhibits included displays 
of Roses by Mr. Elisha J. Hicks, Twyford, and 
Messrs. J. Cheal and Co., Crawley. Messrs. 
Wells and Co., Merstham, showed hardy 
flowers, whilst a magnificent exhibit of Sweet 
Peas was staged by Mr. Jas. Box, Lindfield, to- 
gether with one of English Irises, Water Lilies, 
Delphiniums and other hardy flowers. This ex- 
hibitor was awarded a Silver Bowl for the most 
meritorious non-competitive exhibit. 



MANCHESTER ROYAL BOTANICAL 
AND HORTICULTURAL. 

July 10 and 11. — The Rose Show and Summer 
Exhibition of this Society was held in the 
Botanical Gardens, Old Trafford, on the 10th 
and 11th inst. The nurserymen's classes were 
very poorly filled, and it is to be regretted that 
those who had entered but were unable to stage 
exhibits had not sent an intimation to that effect 
to the curator. 

Roses. 

Nurserymen's Classes. — There was only one 
exhibit in the class for 60 blooms of Roses, dis- 
tinct. The exhibitors were MessTS. G. and W. 
H. Burch, Peterborough, who were awarded 
the 1st prize for moderate blooms, the best being 
Horace Vernet (excellent colour), Lyon Rose, 
Mrs. Stewart Clark, and George Dickson. This 
firm also excelled in the class for 36 single trusses, 
distinct; 2nd, Mr. W. Brown, Peterborough. 
Messrs. Burch also led in the class for 12 Teas 
or Noisettes, Mr. Brown being 2nd. This ex- 
hibitor won in the class for 12 blooms of any 
crimson variety with George Dickson, the finest 
specimen in this exhibit being adjudged the 
premier bloom of H.P. or H.T. in the show. 
Mr. Brown was also the 1st prize winner in the 
class for 12 blooms of any white or yellow variety. 

Amateurs' Classes. — For 24 blooms, distinct, 
Mr. E. G. Herbert, Acton Bridge, led with 
blooms of fair quality ; 2nd, Mr. A. T. Hogg, 
Altrincham. For 12 blooms, distinct, Mr. J. B. 
Sawby, Sandiway, was placed 1st. 
. In the district section the 1st prize winners 
were Mr. G. H. Herbert, for 24 trusses, and 
Mr. H. Holt, Knutsford, for 12 trusses. 

Sweet Peas. — In the class for not fewer than 
60 nor more than 100 vases, Mr. R. Wright, of 
Formby, was worthily awarded the 1st prize with 
fine blooms, notable for their freshness and large 
size; the centre of the stand was occupied by a 
huge vase of the new variety Royal Purple, a 
flower of fine substance and colour intensified by 
the surrounding lighter colours. 

For 12 varieties in a class open only to amateurs 
ilr. J. S. Procter, Altrincham, and Mr. S. S. 
Rico were placed 1st and 2nd respectively. For 
a collection of not fewer than 25 varieties Mr. 
Rigg won the 1st prize. 



For 10 stove or greenhouse plants in bloom 
Messrs. J. Cypher and Sons, Cheltenham, ex- 
celled, as on former occasions ; and they also 
showed the best 6 fine foliage plants. 

For a group of miscellaneous plants, in and 
out of bloom, this Cheltenham firm had a charm- 
ing array, artistically arranged. Highly-coloured 
Crotons and numerous choice Orchids were fea- 
tures of this fine exhibit. 2nd, Mr. W. A. 
Holmes ; 3rd, Mr. W. G. Garner. 

Non-competitive Exhibits. — Gold Medals 
were awarded to Mr. A. J. A. Bruce, Chorlton- 
cum-Hardy, for Sarracenias and other plants ; W. 
H. Lee, E6q. (gr. Mr. G. Morbey), Heywood, for 
a collection of fruit trees; Messrs. A. Dickson 
and Sons, Newtownards, Belfast, for Sweet 
Peas ; Messrs. Caldwell and Sons, Knutsford, 
for hardy herbaceous flowers and Roses. 

Violas and Pansies were shown by Mr. R. W. 
Spicer, Whalley Bridge. 



LA SOCIETY FRANCAISE D'HORTICULTURE 
DE LONDRES. 

July 11. — By the kind invitation of Mr. N. N. 
Sherwood, the members of the French Gardeners' 
Society of London paid a visit to his charming 
residence at Kelvedon on the 11th inst. The 
party, consisting of about 120, left Liverpool 
Street Station at 11.20 a.m. They were re- 
ceived at Kelvedon by Mr. Sherwood, who enter- 
tained the visitors at luncheon. The afternoon 
wa6 spent in visiting the gardens and pleasure 
grounds, and in inspecting the neighbouring trial 
grounds of Messrs. Hurst and Son. At 5 p.m. 
tea was served on the lawn. The house 
is a delightful specimen of old English 
architecture, which has been skilfully and artis- 
tically restored in keeping with the original 
design. The old oak panelling and woodwork 
is peculiarly interesting, and the house forms an 
ideal country residence. Mr. Geo. Schneider, on. 
behalf of the members, thanked Mr. Sherwood 
for his hospitality. The members of the " Hortus 
Lodge " present also joined in the expressions 
of thanks. 



LAW NOTE. 



AMERICAN GOOSEBERRY MILDEW. 

On July 8 four Kentish fruit-growers were 
summoned at Bow Street for causing to be 
exposed for sale in Covent Garden Market Goose- 
berries affected with the American Gooseberrv 
mildew. 

In the case of one of the defendants, the magis- 
trate was not satisfied that he had knowingly 
consigned the diseased fruit, and the summons 
was dismissed upon payment of 14s. costs- 

The others were fined 40s. and 14s. costs, 
20s. and 28s. costs, and 40s. and 16s. costs respec- 
tively. 

The defendants in each case stated that every 
precaution had been taken to prevent d.'seased 
fruit being sent to market. 



©bftuat£. 

George Cuthbert. — The announcement in 
our last issue of the death of Mr. George Cuth- 
bert, senior, must have been received with 
deep sorrow and regret by a large circle of 
friends in the horticultural world, so widely 
was he known, and so greatly respected 
for his amiability, generosity, and high 
character. Since he met with a bad accident in 
1905, Mr. Cuthbert had not enjoyed the best of 
health, but it was only after his return from a re- 
cent visit to Hastings that he was taken seriously 
ill and was obliged to undergo an operation for an 
internal complaint. Mr. Cuthbert was born on 
July 21, 1839, and was a nephew of the Richard 
Cuthbert who founded the business at Southgate 
in 1797. He commenced his business career at 
Messrs. Paul and Son's Old Nursery at Ches- 
hunt. From there he went to Messrs. Sutton 
and Sons, Reading; thence to the now extinct 
firm of Messrs. Jacob Wrench and Sons, 
London Bridge ; and about 1865 became man- 
ager of the seed department of Messrs. John and 
Charles Lee's famous nursery at Hammer- 
smith, on the site now occupied by Olympia. 



64 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 18, 1914. 



He stayed with Messrs. Lee for ten years, 
and in 1875 joined his uncle George at South- 
gate. On the death of the latter in 1903, the 
business came into Mr. G. Cuthbert's po session, 
and he took his sons, George Henry and Richard, 
into partnership, his younger son James entering 
the fiim in the following year. As before stated, 
the business at Southgate was commenced 
in 1797 by Richard Cuthbert, who had 
previously been gardener at Hamilton Palace, 
in Lanarkshire, and Luton Hoo, in Bedford- 
shire, and who was a few yeare later joined by 
his nephew George. In the early days of the 
business the special feature of the nursery was 
the cultivation of the old double white Camellia 
and Fielder'6 White Azalea for cut flowers, and 
the nursery still contains a few grand old speci- 
mens of both plants, growing in the houses in 
which they were originally planted long before 
the duty was taken off glass or the era of tight 
glazing and heating by hot water commenced. 
For about the first half of the last century the 
Camellia had a great vogue, and the cut blooms 
of the old double white sold for excellent prices 
in Covent Garden market. The Camellia having 
gone out of fashion, the firm has long since 
specialised in the forcing of shrubs and bulbs, and 
their many triumphs with these subjects at the 
London exhibitions in recent years have earned 
for them high repute. Especially have they been 
successful in the cultivation and introduction 
of fine varieties of Rhododendron sinense 
(Azalea mollis), of which the varieties George 
Cuthbert and Ellen Cuthbert both obtained 
the Award of Merit of the R.H.S. Mr. 
Cuthbert was one of the oldest subscribers 
to the Gardeners' Royal Benevolent Insti- 
tution, and he served for several years 
on the committee of the Royal Gardeners' 
Orphan Fund, being succeeded by his e'dest son 
when, a few years ago, advancing years and in- 
different health compelled him to resign. Of 
both these institutions Mr. Cuthbert was a con- 
stant and gpnerons supporter. The funeral took 
place at Southgate on Saturday last, in the pre- 
sence of the members of the family, all the 
emplovpes of the firm, and a number of friends. 
The business will lie continued by the sons under 
the old style and title of R. and G. Cuthbert. 




Correspondent^ 




Asphalting Garden Walks : Asphalt. To as- 
phalt garden paths use one measure of tar to 
two measures of any one of the following 
materials, which you may find it most con- 
venient to use : — Cinders, gravel, stone or 
granite chippings, or shingle. Chippings or 
shingle would answer your purpose best. 
Make a hole in the centre of the material used, 
and pour the tar into it and mix to the con- 
sistency of mortar. Then lay it on the paths 
previously prepared for its reception to the 
thickness of three or four inches. Make this 
level and insert therein a few sandstones, as 
you suggest, before the material sets; following 
with a light, even covering of sand, prefer- 
ably silver-sand. This will give a good finish 
to the work. Finally, pass a light roller over 
the walks thus made before the materials have 
become quite set. The tar will not require 
being boiled this weather. 

Bottlkd Pkas : ./. K. D. Air must have got 
into the jars, or perhaps they were not abso- 
lutely dry. Another possibility is that they 
were not stored in a cool, dry p.ace. The usual 
pi. in is to put the peas into dry, wide-mouthed 
bottles, shaking them down till they are 
packed in as closely as can be. Wind some hay 
round the lower part of each bottle, then stand 
them all upright in a large saucepan with coldl 
water enough to reach to the necks. Bring' 
the water to the boil and keep it boiling forj 
two hours. Cork the bottles as soon as possible, 
and have them in the water till it is cold. 1 
Cover the corks en:iiely with sealing-wax or 
with melted paraffin, to exe'li'de all air an<| 
store in a cool, dry p'ace. After sealing the 
bottles thoroughly bury them in a dry part of 



the garden. The peas, if all air ifi excluded, 
will then keep about five months. 

Bulbils in Leaf Axils of Tulip : W. H. D. 
Although not common in this genus it is very 
general for bulbous monocotyledons (Lilies, 
etc.) to produce bulbils in the axils of their 
leaves. It may well be that the hot, dry 
season has induced the formation of axillary 
bulbils in the May-flowering Tulips. Inas- 
much as a bulb is nothing more than a bud 
in which the leaves have become fleshy, there 
is nothing very remarkable in the appearance 
of aerial bulbs in plants which grow from a 
bulb A parallel case is presented by the 
Potato, which upon occasion produces axillary 
tubers on its aerial stems. 

Carnations : N. H. P. We do not undertake to 
name varieties of Carnations or other florists' 
flowers, and should advise you to send the' 
flowers to a grower, who can compare them 
with others in his collection. 

Clematis Failing : If. H. IF. The trouble is 
not due to disease, the cultural conditions are 
at fault. 

Clover on Lawn : J. P. and Son. Dress the 
lawn with sulphate of ammonia, which will 
cause the grass to grow so luxuriantly as in 
time to crowd out the clover. 

Conifers Diseased : A. D. W The fungus 
Fomes acinosus is present on the roots. In all 
probability a fungus is present at the collar 
of the Cedar tree. 

Cucumbers Diseased : E. G. The trouble is due 
to Cucumber mildew. Spray the plants with 
liver of sulphur at the rate of j oz. in 2 
gallons of water. If you are using the Bor- 
deaux mixture for other purposes that specific 
may be used for the Cucumbers at half the 
usual strength. 

Cucumbers Spotted : T. G. IF. The plants are 
affected with Cucumber leaf-spot. If there 
is at present no fruit on the plants they should 
be sprayed with the Bordeaux mixture ; but if 
fruits are present, use liver of sulphur in- 
stead. 

Fern Unhealthy : Mid. The injury is caused by 
eelworms. The plants cannot be cured, and 
should be burned and the soil and pots steri- 
lised thoroughly. 

Grapes Diseased : E. J. T. The berries are 
affected with "spot" disease, caused by the 
fungus Gloeosporium ampelophagum. Dredge 
the vines with flowers of sulphur at intervals 
of ten days. On the second occasion add a 
small quantity of quicklime, and increase the 
quantity on each successive application, but 
always use a little more sulphur than lime. 
Next winter, when the vine is resting, drench 
the rod with a solution of sulphate of iron. 
Collect and burn all diseased leaves, shoots 
and fruit. 

Grapes Failing to Swell : A. J. We have 
carefully examined the specimens sent, but 
can find no trace of any disease which could 
account for the berries failing to swell. We 
should be inclined to attribute the trouble to 
some error in culture or improper atmospheric 
conditions. 

Ivy-Leaved Pelargoniums : T. E. IF. The 
blisters on the leaves are caused by insect 
punctures. Too much moisture at the root is 
the cause of yellowing of the foliage. 

Melons Dying : IF. H. Y. The plants are at- 
tacked by " Sleeping" disease, and the soil is 
infected with the fungus. Specimens that are 
affected with sleeping disease cannot be cured, 
for the fungus enters the roots and develops 
with the plants. Take the precaution to steri- 
lise the soil in which the crop was grown. 

Names of Plants : A. C. D. Periploca graeca, 
Lathyius salivus. — A. T. H. The Roses were 
withered; 6, Iris Monspur; 7, I. aurea.— B. J. 
Slurry. 1, Periploca graeca; 2, Phillyraea lati- 
fo'ia. — J. J . and Son. 1, Agrostis sp. (pro- 
bably) ; 2, Agrostis canma ; 3, Avena flaves- 
cnis ; 4, cannot identify without flowers. — 
R E. IF. Aristolochia elegans.— IF. J. R. 1, 
Vanda suavis ; 2, Cypripedium Remus (Bullen. 
ianum x purpuratum).— S. 0. 1, Oncidium 
amictum; 2, Oncidium sarcodes; 3, Oncidium 



fiexuosum ; 4, Oncidium pubes. — A. J. D. T 
South Wales. Gaura Lindheimeri. — IF. M. 1, 
Potentilla atro-sanguinea ; 2, Mesembryanthe- 
mum mutabile. — W. J. B. 1, Next week ; 2, 
Lythrum salicaria ; 3. Nepihrclepis todaeoides; 
4, Adiantum cuneatum Pacotii ; 5, Selaginella 
Mertensii variegata; 6. Selaginella umbrosa. — 
War sash. Magnolia glauca. 

Nectarines Splitting : A. George. The trouble 
has been caused by too much water at the 
roots at the stage when the fruits were set- 
ting. It may be that the border requires at- 
tention, the drainage being choked. 

Onions : IF. Wood. Onion mildew is present. 
Spray the plants with a solution of sulphate of 
iron, 1 ounce to 3 gallons of water. Next 
spring spray in anticipation of the disease, 
which is almost certain to reappear. 

Pea Duke of Albany : H. Miles. The disease 
is caused by a fungus called Rhizoctonia, which 
is present in the soil. The plants should be 
treated with quicklime, or gaslime if procur- 
able. Watering is not to be recommended. 

Peach Leaves Riddled : It. Hyslop. The trees 
are affected with Cercospora circurnscissa 
(Shot-hole fungus). It is too late too adopt 
remedial measures this season. In future spray 
with a solution of liver of 6ulphur when the 
leaves have just unfolded, and twice again 
at intervals. 

Peas Diseased : M. S. The sample you sent 
became very dry during transit, and we should 
be glad if you would send a fresh one, in- 
cluding the roots of the Pea plant. There 
were a number of larvae in the box in which 
your specimen was sent, but these were pro- 
bably of the Common Cabbage Moth (Mames- 
tra brassicae). — G. H., Pea, and H. G. G., 
Richmond. The fungus Ascochyta pisi is caus- 
ing the injury, and the disease cannot very well 
be checked now. Burn all infected haulms, and 
do not sow Peas on the infected land again for 
some time to come. — G. IF. G., Llandaff. We 
are thoroughly examining the specimen sent, 
which appears to be suffering from a bacterial 
disease. The disease usually becomes more pro- 
nounced at the time of flowering, and hitherto 
no cure has been discovered. The organism 
is often present in the plant before any ex- 
ternal symptoms appear, and thus it is possible 
to get a fair crop even from diseased plants. 
We would suggest that it would be well not 
to grow the same variety again, as it seems 
very susceptible. 

Roses : H. S. (Portadown) and M. R. Tbo 
Roses were too withered to identify. 

Strawberry Plants Failing : /. A. C. The 
plants are attacked by eelworms, and beyond 
recovery. Burn all the plants, and add quick- 
lime to the soil to destroy the worms. 

Sweet Pea Spike with Seven Blooms : T. Tim- 
son. The spike of R. F. Felton variety with 
seven blooms exhibits fasciation, to which the 
unusual number of flowers is due. We have 
received specimens of Peas with seven blooms 
on former occasions. See Vol. LIV., pp. 259. 
345. 

Ten-week Stocks Dying : W. Jackson. The 
grub belongs to an, insect called Phorbia bras- 
sicae. After the eggs have been laid it is too 
late to take measures for destroying the pest. 

Tomato Diseased : Iris. Your Tomatos are 
affected by a bacterial disease. It is probable 
that the infection has been carried by insects 
from one plant to another while they were 
flowering; well fumigate the house in order tn 
keep it free from insect life. 

Tomatos Failing : S. T. If the disease attack- 
ing your plants is black-stripe, it must have 
been present in the seed, which is often the 
case. If 60, you will readily understand that 
there is no cure, the disease having developed 
in the very earliest stages of the plant ; and we 
should advise you to destroy all the plants 
attacked, and obtain fresh seed from another 
source. 



Communications Beceived — F. r.— W. 0. A.— 
F. A.— W. E. M— D. B .— G. St. Ox— 0. K.— A. K.— 0. H. 
—0. F. O.-J. V. C— H. W.— W. M.— D. H. P.— Whit 
tlngham— G. P. F.— J. M.— W. H. D— H. W. W.— 
.7. W.— D O. B.— J. C— G. W. B.— H. M.— Inquisitor— 
H. M.— F. n. & Co.— D. B. A., Teddington— M. S.— 
A. G.— J. Cocliburn. 



July 25, 1514.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



65 



THE 



(& Btbmtts (& Ijrmtirk 

No. 1,430 .—SATURDAY, JULY 86, 1914. 



CONTENTS. 



Abbotsbury in early June 

Appointments from Kew 

Biennials, hardy .. 

Books, notices of — 
Preservation of Out- 
door Timber 

i lelerj . bacterial rot of. . 

Cider Anples in the Cher- 
bourg district . . 

Damage at a nursery 

Di corative exhibits at 
t he N" at ional Rose 
*iety*s show.. 

Forestry conference at 
bhe White City 

( 1 1. iriosa Rothschildiana 

i seberry mildew pro- 
secutions 

Gunu ersburv , M i . 
Leopold de Rotbs- 
i hikl's gardens at 

Hydrocyanic acid gas and 
its uses in horticulture 

Italy, notes from 

Kew, thunderstorms .it 

London gardens 

Plant notes— 
Globularia incanescens 
i.it bonis modesta 

Poplars, the Black 



Rosary, the — 
Roses, past am I pr< si ill 
The classification of 

cultivated Roa 8 
Societies— 
Birmingham Hort. . . 

Cardiff Hort 

( rloucester Rose ami 

8weet Pea 
Hoi-t. Club 
Manchester & North 

of England Orchid 
National Oaraatiou . . 

National Sweet Pea -. 

Northof England Hort. 
Royal Horticultural 75, 
Saltaire Rose 
Scottish Horticultural 
United Hort. Benefit 
and Provident 

Week's work, the 
Flower garden, the . . 
•' French " garden, the 
Fruits under glass 
Hardyfruitgarden, tin 
Kitchen garden, the .. 
Orchid houses, the . . 
Plants under glass 

Woburn, experiments ;i< 

Yew tree, an old. . 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Ralls Park, Hertfordshire, views in the gardens at 7: 

Gaatrodia elata infected by rhizomorphs of ;> fungus 

(Hi ibularia incanescens . . .. 

i • [i >i iosa Rothschildiana citrina 

Gioriosa Rothschildiana. (Coloured Plate.) 

Mat held House, Hertfordshire 

l 'nil ei i -tubes attracted chemiotactically towards the 

stigma 

Populue Lloydii, 67; P. robusta, 66 ; Leaves and twigs 

of the various Black Poplars in cultivation .. 
Vew in Bersted Churchyard 



HYDROCYANIC ACID GAS AND ITS 
USES IN HORTICULTURE, 

Hydrocyanic acid gas (HCN) was discovered 
I Scheeje, a Swedish chemist, in 1782, but its 
true composition was not known until 1815. It 

' railed prussic acid by its discoverer, and 
this name has survived to the present time. 
It occurs in nature in combination with other 
bodies in a large number of plants, e.g., Prunus 
amygdalus var. amara, P. Laurocerasus, etc. It 
is -usually prepared by the action of dilute sul- 
phuric acid on potassium ferrocyanide, when the 
following reaction occurs : — 

2K 4 FeC 6 N„ + 3H 2 S0 4 
= FeK„FeC G N 6 + 3K : S0 4 + 6HCN. 

In this process the potassium ferrocyanide 
is dissolved in water, the diluted acid is added 
and the mixture distilled, when a solution of 
the gas in water collects in the receiver. This 
process is obviously not available for horticul- 
tural purposes, since, for such purposes, it is 
necessary to bring the acid in the form of gas 
into contact with the pests which it is desired to 
destroy. This can be done conveniently by 
treating an alkaline cyanide with a suitable 
acid, when the gas is at once liberated. 

Hydrocyanic acid, when perfectly pure, is a 
colourless liquid boiling at 26° C. It is one of 
the most deadly poisons known. It is soluble 
in water, and a solution containing two per cent, 
by weight is used in medicine. The solution is 
only slightly acid, but with alkaline hydroxides 
cyanides are formed, though it has no action on 
alkaline carbonates. On standing, the solution 
gradually decomposes, forming a variety of com 
pounds, dependent on the conditions. The 
most important compound produced in tin's de- 
composition is formic acid (H.COOH). which re 



suits from the hydrolysis or combination with 
water of the hydrocyanic acid, thus : — 
HCN + 2H 2 = H.COOH + NH X 

This change takes place very rapidly when 
the solution is heated with acids or alkalies, 
so much so that if, in the manufacture of hydro- 
cyanic acid from potassium ferrocyanide, strong 
sulphuric acid be used instead of dilute acid, 
no hydrocyanic acid is evolved at all. In this 
case the acid is totally hydrolysed to formic 
acid, and this becoming dehydrated by the sul- 
phuric acid gives rise to carbon monoxide, 
thus : — 

K 4 FeC 6 N 6 + 6By3 + 6H so, 
= 3(NBy 2 S0 4 + FeSOj + '-'K,S( i, + ii( !( >. 

There is also evidence that a little of the 
formic acid produced here, and also when 
alkaline cyanides are used, attacks the sulphuric 
acid and reduces it, producing sulphur dioxide 
(SO s ), according to the equation : — 

ll.sn, + ll.idoir =-JH,0 + I'll, * S<>, 

These facts are of the utmost importance to 
the horticulturist, for the destructive nature 
of sulphur dioxide, formic acid and carbon 
monoxide gases is well known. One part by 
volume of sulphur dioxide in ten thousand parts 
of air is sufficient to injure delicate foliage. 
The proportion of these destructive gases 
evolved from sodium or potassium cyanide and 
sulphuric acid appears to bo dependent on 
the temperature. If the sulphuric acid and 
water be quite cold when the cyanide is added 
the danger is least, but even then the heat 
generated during the reaction does cause 
secondary reactions. To correct this, oxidising 
agents such as potassium bichromate have been 
added to the diluted acid before the addition 
of the cyanide, but without result. It must, 
therefore, be apparent that any system of fumi- 
gation dependent on the interaction of sulphuric 
acid and cyanides must be attended with danger 
to delicate plants, even when pure ingredients 
are used. The danger is much increased by the 
use of impure sulphuric acid. Commercial sul 
phuric acid, if made from iron pyrites, contains 
varying quantities of arsenic ; this is present 
in the evolved gas, and may be a frequent 
source of the destruction of foliage, as also are 
the oxides of nitrogen which are often present 
in the crude oil of vitriol. If sulphuric acid be 
used at all, only the pure acid and not the 
commercial variety should be employed. In 
the treatment of dormant stock, or in the use 
of hydrocyanic acid on hardy trees, etc., the 
absolute purity of the gas is not of much 
moment, but for the more delicate operations 
performed by the modern horticulturist tne 
gas produced must be absolutely pure, the 
temperature of the gas must be as low as possible 
and the gas must be as free as possible from 
steam. These desiderata may be obtained by 
the use of phosphoric acid instead of sulphuric 
acid. The gas is evolved more regularly, it 
it quite free from impurities, the heat of 
generation is less and, as a result, the gas itself 
is cooler and the amount of aqueous vapour 
carried mechanically is reduced to a minimum. 
The phosphoric acid used should contain 66 per 
cent, by weight of real acid, and have a specific 
gravity not less than 1.5. With sodium cyanide 
the reaction, for all practical purposes, may 
be assumed to be represented thus : — 

2NaCN + H^POj = Na.,HP0 4 + 2HCN. 

It follows from the equation that equal parts 
by weight of phosphoric acid and sodium cyanide 
are necessary, and, since one ounce by volume of 
the acid of above strength contains one ounce by 



weight of true acid, the measurement of the acid 
is simplified. 

The cyanide used may be either potassium 
cyanide containing 99 per cent, or sodium 
cyanide 130 per cent. The latter salt is manu- 
factured on a large scale for use in the extrac- 
tion of gold. Since 100 parts by weight of sodium 
cyanide are equal in cyanide content to 130 parts 
of standard potassium cyanide, it is put on the 
market as 130 per cent, cyanide, a term which 
is apt to confuse. It should be remembered 
that ten parts by weight of sodium cyanide 
are equal to thirteen parts by weight of potas- 
sium cyanide. Potassium cyanide having a 
lower value than 98 per cent, should not be used 
for fumigations. 

The use of hydrocyanic acid for the destruc- 
tion of insect pests was appreciated in America 
many years ago and exhaustive experiments have 
been carried on from time to time under Govern- 
ment inspection in the United States. These, 
for the most part, deal with the application to 
fruit trees rather than to inside plants. Since 
its introduction into this country about 1898 
it has been employed with a varying degree of 
success. It is, however, becoming otf more 
urgent importance that horticulturists should 
appreciate the value of the process and make 
themselves acquainted with the safeguards 
necessary to its successful application. This 
is the more necessary since various Govern- 
ments have seen the wisdom of excluding the 
import of plants affected by pests. An ideal 
application of the process can only result from 
a practical study of the effects of the gas on 
both insects and plants, and the conditions must 
be such that the resisting powers of ttie insects 
must be overcome without reaching the point 
at which the resisting powers of the plants would 
fail. Each insect and each plant has its own idio- 
syncrasies. Plants of a succulent nature can 
less easily resist the action of soluble gases 
than those of harder wood. The resisting 
powers of the insects have been very much over- 
rated, with the result that excessive use of 
the fumigant has been the rule. A proportion 
of hydrocyanic acid gas equivalent to 0.005 per 
eent. of the atmosphere of a house is sufficient 
to destroy aphides, whilst a proportion of 0.10 
per cent, will kill any mature insect. The gas 
has practically no effect on the eggs, larvae and 
pupae of insects. The principal causes of non- 
success with the process may be summarised as 
follows : (1) The use of excessive quantities of 
the gas for a short time rather than the use 
of less with a longer period of contact ; (2) 
the use of impure materials ; (3) the disregard 
of the essential conditions that the plants and 
atmosphere must be dry, the temperature must 
not exceed 60 F. and that fumigation must not 
be performed whilst the plants are in active 
assimilation, i.e., in sunlight. We have found 
that the best results are obtained when the 
houses are fumigated at dusk and opened on 
the following morning. The measurements of 
the house should be very carefully made and 
the exact amount of each ingredient should • e 
used'. The cyanide should be dropped into the 
acid direct by means of a suitable appa- 
ratus, and. in no circumstances should it 
be enclosed in paper, which renders the process 
more than usually dangerous, nor, if sulphuric 
acid be employed, should it be enclosed in any 
metallic covering which in the process of solu- 
tion might assist reduction. In large houses 
several bowls should be used to ensure as even 
distribution as possible. Fans are quite un- 
necessary. The house should be tightly closed 



66 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 25, 1914. 



up after the fumigation and warning notices 
should be placed on the doors. In case of the 
accidental inhalation of the gas, the person 
should be kept in the open air and a handker- 
chief saturated with ammonia should be held 
over the mouth. A mixture of sulphate of iron 
and magnesia should be administered. Sodium 
cyanide has been used invariably by us, and the 
following proportions will be found satisfac- 
tory : — 

For green aphis : — Sodium cyanide, £ oz. ; 
phosphoric acid, £ oz. ; water, £ oz. for each 
1,000 cubic feet. This will not scorch any 
plants. One application is sufficient. 

For black or white aphis, thrips and scale : — 
Sodium cyanide, j oz. ; phosphoric acid, | oz. ; 
water, 1 oz. for each 1,000 cubic feet. This 
will not scorch mature plants. One application 
is sufficient. 

For mealy bug and red spider in house of 
mixed plants : — Sodium cyanide, 1 oz. ; phos- 
phoric acid, 1 oz. ; water, 4 ozs. for each 1,000 
cubic feet. Some few young shoote may be 
affected at this strength, but to a very slight 
extent only. 

For mealy bug on dormant vines, etc : — 
Sodium cyanide, 2 ozs. ; sulphuric acid, 4 ozs. ; 
water, 8 ozs. for each 1,000 cubic feet. 

Fumigate three times at intervals of a week 
to ensure complete destruction. After vines 
have started growth it is unsafe to fumigate 
them. The best time is after the fruit nas 
been gathered and before the leaves have fallen. 
At this period the mealy bug is active and is 
more easily destroyed than later, when it reaches 
a semi-quiescent state. 

During the past ten years we have carried out 
some hundreds of fumigations in this country 
and on the Continent, with, primarily, sodium 
cyanide and sulphuric acid, and latterly sodium 
cyanide and phosphoric acid. Having estab- 
lished the fact that 1 oz. of sodium cyanide with 
phosphoric acid for each 1,000 cubic feet is 
fatal to all ordinary pests, and that no injury 
ensues except to the young shoots of the most 
delicate plants, we secured the co-operation of 
many leading horticulturists, and asked them 
to make independent fumigations of mixed 
houses using 2 ozs. sodium cyanide, 2 ozs. phos- 
phoric acid, and 4 ozs. water to each 1,000 cubic 
feet. In all cases fumigation was earned out at 
dusk and the houses opened out the following 
morning, half an hour elapsing before entry. We 
submit, as a result, lists of (A) six typical fumi- 
gations carried out recently by ourselves ; (B) 
plants in mixed houses absolutely uninjured by 
the phosphoric-cyanide process at 2 ozs. per 1,000 
cubic feet ; (C) plants showing slight injury under 
this process. 

List " A." 
Six typical fumigations, with results. 

1. House of Carnations badly infested with 
greenfly. Phosphoric-cyanide, g oz. to 1,000 
cubic feet. All fly killed at one application. 
Flowers and foliage quite uninjured. 

2. House of Chrysanthemums which had been 
lifted from outside. The plants were covered 
with black fly. Phosphoric-cyanide, ^ oz. to 
1,000 cubic feet. All fly killed at one applica- 
tion. Foliage uninjured. 

3. House of Cyclamen infested with thrip. 
Phosphoric-cyanide, \ oz. to 1,000 cubic feet. 
All insects killed. Flowers and foliage un- 
touched. 

4. House of Palms with scale. Phosphoric- 
cyanide, i oz. to 1,000 cubic feet. Scale killed : 
foliage untouched. 

5. House of Begonia Gloire de Lorraine in- 
fested with mite and thrips. Phosphoric- 
cyanide, 3 oz. to 1,000 cubic feet. Insects all 
killed ; flowers and foliage uninjured. 

6. House containing about 4,000 Bay trees, 
taken from outside and infested with mealy bug. 
Capacity of house 200,000 cubic feet. Sulphuric- 
cyanide process, 12^ lbs. cyanide, 25 lbs. sul- 
phuric acid distributed in 25 bowls. Two fumi- 



gations at intervals of 24 hours. All insects killed 
and trees quite uninjured. 

List " B." 

Plants uninjured by phosphoric-cyanide pro- 
cess, 2 ozs. to 1,000 cubic feet : — 

Anthuriurns, one in flower, Amaryllis, young 
growths, Anthericum, Adiantum cuneatum, 
Abutilon Savitzii, Acacia dealbata, Asplenium 
bulbiferum, Allamanda, Azalea indica, Acalypha 
hispida, Bouvardia, Calanthe Veitchii, Crotons, 
Cattleya labiata, Chrysanthemums, Cinerarias, 
Celosia pyramidalis, Carnations, Clivia, Cyperus 
alternifolius, Cactus, Centropogon, Cypripedium 
in flower, Dracaena, Dendrobium formosum, 
Dieffenbachia, Eucharis grandiflora, Eucalyptus 




Fig. 26. — populus robusta at glasnevin on 

the right ; ordinary lombardy poplar 

on the left. 



Globulus, Eulalia japonica, Epidendron, Fuchsias, 
Francoa ramosa, Fittonia, Gardenias, Gesneria, 
Gloxinia in flower, Habrothamnus, Humea ele- 
gans, Ixora, Impatiens Sultani, Lomaria gibba, 
Musa Cavendishii, Marguerite Mrs. F. Sander, 
Nephrolepis, Orange, Oncidiums, Pancratium 
fragrans, Palms, Poinsettias, Panicum plicatum, 
Pilea muscosa, Pandanus Veitchii, Rondoletia, 
Strobilanthes Dyerianus, Stephanotis, Selagi- 
nellas, Tradescantias. 

List "C." 
Plants showing injury by phosphoric-cyanide 
process, 2 ozs. to 1,000 cubic feet : — 



Adiantum cuneatum, young fronds slightly 
damaged ; Asparagus plumosus, young growths 
slightly damaged ; Asparagus Sprengeri, young 
growths slightly damaged ; Begonia Gloire de 
Lorraine, slight dropping of flower, foliage un- 
injured; Browallia, tips scorched slightly; 
Coleus thyrsioideus, defoliated ; Cyclamens in 
flower, some flowers slightly damaged ; Helio- 
trope, badly damaged ; Jamaica peppers, slightly 
scorched ; Mimosa pudica, leaves dropped after 
a week ; Mackaya bella, slightly scorched ; 
Marguerite Mrs. F. Sanders, tips scorched ; 
Salvia Bethellii, tips scorched ; Tacsonia, slightly 
injured; Coelogyne cristata, foliage injured 
slightly ; Odontoglossum, leaves marked near 
tip. F. Pilkington Sargcant and F. C. Edwards. 



THE BLACK POPLARS. 

(Concluded from ji. £.) 

5. Populus marilandica, Bosc. This hybrid, 
like the preceding four, has glabrous twigs, but 
the leaves in shape strongly resemble P. nigra, 
from which it may be distinguished by the pre- 
sence of glands at the base and stray cilia on the 
margin of the blade, and by the placentae and 
6tigmas being variable, 2, 3, or even 4 in num- 
ber. This originated early in the nineteenth cen- 
tury, and specimens so named from trees at 
Montpellier in 1833, and Carlsruhe in 1845, can 
be seen in herbaria. It is always female, and 
has been erroneously identified by Hartig, 
Koehne, Schneider, etc., with P. canadensis, 
Michaux, which is one of the later names of the 
true American species. It is not very vigorous, 
but a tree at Kew near the Palmhouse measures 
90 feet high by 8 feet in girth. 

The two remaining hybrids (6 and 7) have as 
one parent Populus nigra, var. betulifolia, and 
in consequence their twigs are covered, like it, 
with pubescence. In the preceding five hy- 
brids, the corresponding parent is the glabrous 
Populus nigra, either in its ordinary spreading 
form (var. typica) or in its fastigiate sport (Lom- 
bardy Poplar), and in consequence the twigs are 
glabrous. 

6. Populus robusta, Schneider (see fig. 26). 
This was found in 1895 in Simon-Louis' nursery 
near Metz, and during my visit there in 1913 I 
was shown the spot where the seedling was 
picked up, about 20 feet distant from an 
old tree of Populus angulata (about 80 
feet high and 8 feet round}. This bears 
female flowers regularly, and one of these, 
giving origin to the seedling, must have been 
pollinated by the pollen of Populus plantierensis, 
a tree not far off (see above). From the latter 
parent is derived the hairy twigs and the nar- 
row columnar habit, with ascending (not verti- 
cal) branches, which characterise P. robusta. 
This is believed by M. Jouin to be the finest of 
all the hybrids, and three trees on good soil in 
his nursery are at 18 years old about 90 feet in 
height, with stems 5i to 6j feet round at 5 feet 
from the ground. At Glasnevin, on poor, shal- 
low soil, in an exposed situation, there is a fine 
specimen of P. robusta, which was obtained as 
a cutting in 1899. It measures about 46 feet in 
height and 2 feet 3 inches in girth. Its remark- 
able straight stem, with very narrow ascending 
branches, is well seen in fig. 26 contrasting with 
the fastigiate habit of the much older Lombardy 
Poplar on the left. If this tree is found to bear 
wind well, as it appears to do at Glasnevin, it 
may be of considerable economic importance in 
Ireland, where the Black Italian Poplar is broken 
to pieces by the constant prevailing wind and 
heavy storms that are so common in most dis- 
tricts. It would provide speedily excellent tim- 
ber for box-making, as the stem can be pruned 
readily to a considerable height before the 
branches become too large. 

7. Populus Lloydii, Henry (see fig. 27), is simi- 
lar to P. robusta in the pubescent branchlets and 
shape of the leaves, but is a female tree with 



July 25, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



67 



flowers bearing 2 or 3 stigmas. Its origin 
is obscure, but one of the parents is probably 
the English Black Poplar (P. nigra var. betuli- 
folia). The only large specimens that wo liave 
seen are at Leaton Knolls, near Shrewsbury, the 
residence of Major Lloyd, where three trees mea- 
sured, in 1910, 120 feet high by 13 feet in girth, 
110 feet by 11 feet 2 inches, and 98 feet by 
10i feet (see fig. 27). Smaller trees have been 
noticed near Cambridge, and. at Turnham Green. 

Until lately all the hybrid Poplars in cultiva- 
tion have been picked up as chance seedlings, 
but the artificial production of fast-growing trees 
is now being tried. I have four hybrid Poplars 
at present which were raised from seed, pro- 
duced in 1912 by fertilising a Populus angu- 
lata(9)at Kew with pollen of P. trichocarpa. 
These four seedlings have made very rapid 
growth, and bear most beautiful foliage, inter- 
mediate between the two parents. It will be 
noticed that the new hybrid is a cross between 
two Poplars belonging to different sections of the 
genus. At a future date I shall describe in detail 
this artificially produced Poplar. 

Fig. 28, reduced from a plate in Trees of Great 
Britain, Vol. VII., t. 409 (1913), will be of use 
for the discrimination, by the leaves and twigs, 
of the various Poplars mentioned in this article. 
.4. Henry. 



HARDY BIENNIALS. 

(Concluded from p. 19.) 



MICHAUXIA. 

In the Michauxias we have distinct and orna- 
mental plants of considerable merit for the gar- 
den. M. campanuloides is the best known, and 
is an effective plant, about 4 or 5 feet high. 
carrying a number of white flowers of distinct 
character. M. Tchihatcheffii is a biennial on 
some soils. It. also, has white flowers in summer. 
Raised from seeds sown in May or June, they 
bloom the following summer. 

OENOTHERA. 

Oenothera biennis, one of the Evening Prim- 
roses, is a tall, rather coarse plant, 3 feet or 
more high, with yellow flowers, which open in 
early evening. The best form is called Lamarc- 
kiana. Oe. taraxaicifolia, a biennial in some 
soils, is a trailing species witli white flowers. 
These can be raised from seeds sown in the open 
or under glass in April, May, or June. The two 
first sow themselves very freely. 

ONOPORDON. 
The Onopordons include some fine Thistles, 
such as 0. Acanthium, the Scotch Thistle, grow- 
ing 6 feet high and having silvery foliage and 
purple flowers: 0. bracteatum, also silvery and 
6 feet high ; 0. Salteri, 8 feet : and 0. tauricnm, 
6 feet. These are very effective, and give the 
finest plants if sown where they are to bloom. 

SAXIFRAGA MUTATA. 

Admirers of the Saxifrages may be reminded 
of the biennial S. mutata, a distinct species, about 
9 inches high, giving a good supply of orange- 
coloured flowers. Sow in pots from May until 
July, and prick out when large enough. 

SEBUM SEMPERVIVOIDES. 

This is a striking biennial Stonecrop, with 
rosettes like those of a Houseleek, and scarlet 
flowers. It is only suitable for growing on the 
rockwork, and likes a dry soil and a sunny 
position. 

VERBASCUM. 

Of the numerous stately biennial Verbascums 
only a few are obtainable from seeds, but when 
once introduced into a garden they generally sow 
themselves freely, and the resulting seedlings, if 
undisturbed, procluce th.e most vigorous plants. 
Seedlings can be raised under glass or in 



beds in the open, and transplanted in summer or 
early autumn to positions where they are to 
bloom. The best species of which seeds are 
obtainable are V. olympicum, 6 feet, yellow, with 
tomentose leaves, and V. phlomoides, also yellow, 
about 5 feet. high. 

SILENE OOMPACTA. 

The best of the biennial Silenes, S. compaeta, 
is a useful border plant, growing to a height of 
about 2 feet, and giving large heads of small, pink 
or mauve flowers in clusters. It is of easy culti- 
vation in any common soil. 

PERENNIALS AS BIENNIALS. 

A number of flowers, generally classed as per- 
ennials, succeed much better when treated as 
biennials, and some of these are named below. 



purple ; Pentstemons of most species ; Pole- 
monium confertum mellitum, 1 foot, yellow ; 
Primula sikkimensis, li foot, yellow ; and Bed- 
ding Pansies. 

MYOSOTIS. 
The Forget-me-not is a perennial plant, but 
it suits the convenience of gardeners to treat 
it aa a biennial. The seeds are sown out-of- 
doors in May or June, the seedlings transplanted 
in October, and they come into flower in the fol- 
lowing spring with the bulk of the Dutch bulbs. 
Forget-me-nots like a moist situation, and they 
frequently succeed better in comparative shade 
than in full exposure to the sunshine and winds. 
Some of the best effects to be seen anywhere are 
produced in the pleasure grounds at Kew, the 




FlO. 27. — POPTTLCS IXOTDn, HYBRID, growing AT LEATON KNOLLS, SHREWSBURY. 

(See p. 66.) 



The list might be extended, but those enumerated 
will be found to yield good results : — 

Abronia umbellata, trailer, yellow ; Anchusa 
italica and varieties, 4 feet, blue ; Brickellia 
grandiflora, 1{ foot, pale yellow ; Calandrinia 
umbellata, 6 inches, crimson ; Callirhoe involu- 
crata, trailer, crimson ; Campanula mirabilis, 2 
feet, pale blue ; Catananche caerulea, li foot, 
blue or white ; Cineraria maritima, 3 feet ; Core- 
opsis grandiflora, 3 feet, yellow; Delphinium 
cardinale, 3 feet, scarlet; Delphinium 
nudicaule, lj foot, scarlet; Delphinium Zalil 
(syn. sulphureum), 3 feet, yellow; Iberis gibral- 
tarica, 1 foot, white and purple ; Iberis gibral- 
tarica hybrida, g foot, white and purple ; In- 
carvillea Olgae, 3 feet, rose-purple ; Linaria 
alpina, trailer, violet and orange ; Lychnis coro- 
naria, 2£ feet ; Lychnis Lagascae, 4 inches, rose- 



Forget-me-nots forming a carpet, so to speak, 
in some of the large shrubbery beds. The 
writer has seen these great breadths of delicate 
blue in the afternoon sunshine, when they seemed 
like the very reflection of the heavens. These 
effects are obtained from varieties of Myosotis dis- 
sitiflora and M. alpestris, two of the finest being 
those known as Victoria and Perfection. Another 
species, M. azorica, was introduced from the 
Azores in the middle of the nineteenth century. 
This species blooms rather late, and has dark 
blue flowers ; the variety Imperatrice Elisabeth 
is an unusually grand form. The rock-gardener 
ia most familiar with M. alpestris, the Alpine 
Forget-me-not. It has sky-blue flowers, and the 
habit of growth is cushion-like, just such as is 
suitable for edging in rockeries. The pillar 
Forget-me-not, M. stricta coelestina, is a modern 



6b 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[Jcly 25, 1914. 



novelty that grows about 12 inches high, form- 
ing a pyramid, and suitable for cultivation in 
pots. The flowers are sky-blue. S. Arnott. 



ABBOTSBURY IN EARLY JUNE. 

1 took the opportunity whilst at Weymouth 
in the early clays of June of paying a visit to 
Abbotsbury, and was shown round by the head 
gardener, Mr. Kempshall. Cordyline australis 
was flowering everywhere profusely, and great 



imperialis 30 feet in height, which commenced' to 
flower in February, was still in bloom, and 
Drimys Winteri, which also began to bloom in 
February, still, held some perfect bloom clusters. 
This shrub was 25 feet high. Philadelphus Man- 
teau d'Hermine, with double white flowers, was 
very pretty, and Citharexylum Bessonanum, with 
blue blossoms, was deliglitful. In a moist spot 
there were large groups of Primula Bulleyana 
and P. Beesiana. Young plants of Ailanthus 
Vilmoriniana had leaves 6 feet in length. A fine 
shrub of Halesia hispida was in full flower. Mag- 




: 




marilandica, 



l.lovdii 



Fig. 28. — populus 



LEAVES AND TWIGS OF THE VARIOUS BLACK POPLARS IX CULTIVATION. 

(See p. 67.) 



clumps of Beechorneria bracteata and B. yuc- 
roides were throwing dozens of tall, Ted flower- 
spikes aloft. Senecro Haastii, which is said to be 
rare in New Zealand, was in flower, and there 
were numbers of plants brought from China by 
Mr. Wilson, among which were Lonicera Maackii 
covered with white flowers ; Clematis Armandii, 
with white, narrow -petalled blossoms; Lonicera 
tomentella, white; Neillia sinensis in flower; 
Spiraea Veitchii, Lonicera Koehneaua, bearing 
yellow blossoms. Cordyline Banksii was in fine 
flower, and the very rare Cordyline Parryi was 
also in bloom ; and there was a good plant of 
tiie New Zealand C. atropurpurea. Paulownia 



nolia Campbellii, nearly 50 feet in height, and 
20 feet through, looked the picture of health, 
and last spring bore over a hundred and fifty 
flowers. The uncommon Pittosporum grandi- 
florum was bearing its creamy-while flowers, 
and the very rare Villaresia mucronata, be- 
lieved to be the only specimen in England, was 
carrying its white blossoms. This latter speci- 
men is 60 feet high and has very bright, 
Holly-shaped leaves. Rhododendron Nobleanum 
started flowering early in October, and the 
various hybrids and species kept up the display 
until the date of my visit. Abelia triflora, from 
the Himalayas, was 25 feet in height : the Lapa- 



gerias, which flower abundantly in the late autumn, 
were in robust health; Tricuspidaria lanoeolata, 
20 feet in height, was crimson with flower, and 
it 6eeds freely here. T. dependens, the white- 
flowered species, which is generally said to bloom 
very sparsely, flowers with the greatest freedom 
at Abbotsbury. The plant, 12 feet in height, 
was said by Mr. Kempshall to have been white 
with flower last year. The pale yellow Cytisus 
pallidus was a sheet of bloom. Camellia reticu- 
lata, 12 feet in height, growing as a shrub in 
the open, bore hundreds of flowers this spring, 
some of them measuring 8 inches across. The 
splendid plant of Lagerstroemia indica, 30 feet 
in height, is pink with flowers in August, and 
on one ocasion at least has borne so many as 
200 spikes of bloom. This is doubtless the 
finest specimen in England, for in other 
gardens where it is met with it is rarely 
more than a few feet in height. There is a 
glorious specimen of Rhaphitamnus cyanocarpus, 
30 feet in height and 25 feet in diameter, which 
in the spring is a dense sheet of blue. Stran- 
vaesia glaucescens, 30 feet in height, said to be 
the finest example in England, was just coming 
into flower. In the spring its leaves are scarlet. 
Erica aa'borea, 20 feet, was fine in the spring. 
Crataegus tanacetifolia wa6 a sheet of white. 
There was a fine young plant of Olearia insignis ; 
Leptospermum baccatum was looking well ; and 
probably the finest plant of Philesia buxifolia in 
England' was over 5 feet across and 3 feet in 
height and' was already bearing numerous buds. 
There was a shrub of Ehretia serrata from the 
Himalayas, about 10 feet in height, but it has 
never flowered as yet. There was a healthy plant 
of the very rare Restio subverticillatus. Cornus 
brachypoda, from Japan, was over 12 feet in 
diameter and was bearing large, flat clusters of 
white flowers. Magnolia compressa was in blos- 
som, and Mar lea begonifolia was coming into 
bloom; in July the white flowers with yellow 
stamens are very effective. Pittosporum 
i Tassi folium was bearing its maroon-ooloured 
Bowers in quantity. Fa-gus betuloides was 50 
feet in height. Dianella longifolia was bearing 
spikes of pale blue flowers 3 feet in height, and 
Veronica Girdwoodiana was covered with blue 
blossoms. Edwardsia chilensis and Laurelia 
aiomatka wire imported direct from Chili 
last autumn and are doing well. Cornus 
foliolosa was coming into flower, and there were 
rfill blossoms on a fine shrub of the yellow - 
llowered Callistemon salignus, 15 feet in height. 
Magnolia hypoleuca, 35 feet in height, is said to 
have flowered here for the first time in England. 
There are good plants of Fremontia californica, 
the rare Litsea japonica, Buddleia salvifolia, 
and Corokia virgata, the last-named being 10 
Eeet in height. A splendid specimen of 
Acacia dealbata is fully 60 feet high : 
lloheria populnea, 12 feet, flowers freely in 
the. autumn ;. and there were fine specimens 
of Buddleia auriculata, which bears clusters of 
yellowish-white flowers all through the winter 
which are very sweetly scented. In a bed of 
seedlings and small plants raised from cuttings 
and layers were noticed Olearia moschata, 0. 
oleifolia, O. nummularifolia, O. semidentata, 0. 
dentata, O. illicifolia, Acacia Baileyana, Myr- 
sine Urvillei, Veronica macrocarpa, Gevuina 
Avellana, Isopogon formosus, Vella Pseudo- 
cytisus, Senecio Monroi, Melaleuca decussata, 
Origanum microphylla, Melaleuca elliptica, Dry- 
andra formosa, Leptospermum Nichollsii, 
L. Chapmannii, and L. Liversedgii. When these 
grow to a sufficient size they will be lifted from 
their present bed and planted out in the gar- 
dens. A pretty plant was Prostanthera lasi- 
.i.nthos, bearing pale blue flowers, though some 
. if the horticultural dictionaries say that the flowers 
are white tinged with red. Fagus betuloides is a 
plaint about 35 feet high, and this year is bear- 
ing fruit, but it is not yet known if the seeds 
will be fertile. Eucryphia cordifolia is show- 
ing flower again this year, and several Banksias 



July 25, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



09 



and new and rare Melaleucas are being tested 
lor outdoor culture. As the Castle is being 
rebuilt after being burnt down the rock garden 
which lies immediately in front of it could not 
be -visited. Wyndham Filzkerbert. 



MR. LEOPOLD DE ROTHSCHILD' 
GARDENS AT GUNNERSBURY. 



The high Cedars which are said to be among 
the first planted in England, and other fine trees 
with which the Gunnersbury estate is studded, 
form a natural setting for majiy beautiful and 
varied garden scenes, some of which are tropical 
in their effect. 

The rich collection of trees and shrubs give 
at this season great beauty to the garden, the 
variety of the tints of green being remarkable. 
no two species seeming to have exactly 
the same shade. Clumps of golden shrubs 
afford patches of colouring, and the forms 
of Crataegus give bright colour at salient 
points. A huge specimen of Crataegus 
tanacetifolia in flower was a most striking 
subject. Rose-coloured and white-flowered 
Robinias, Philadelphuses, great masses of Roses 
trailing over bushes, walls, and on Pergola* 
partly covered with the showy leaves of Vitis 
Thiinbergii and other vines, were all splendidly 
in flower at the time of my visit. In 'beds and 
borders are dwarf Roses in great masses, the 
favourite kinds being planted in beds by them- 
selves. 

Summer flowers of a tender nature brighten 
the scene at various points, although summer 
bedding is kept well within bounds, the per 
manent beauty of the estate being relied on for 
effect. Here and there are elevated beds of 
Paul Crampel and other Pelargoniums, the 
beds being 'built in tiers in conical form ; and 
in one part is an arrangement of beds, each in 
basket form, the handle covered with trailing 
Roses, the principal subject in the beds being 
pink Begonia Major Hope, between which are 
planted the silvery Leucophytum Brownii, 
Pelargonium Omphale, and P. Snowflake. 

Viewed from the terrace the fine expanse of 
water, with the variously-coloured Water Lilies 
and ornamentally arranged banks, forms a 
beautiful scene to which the stately trees in the 
background give an effective setting. 

To glance at a few of the striking features in 
the gardens under the care of Mr. James Hud- 
son we note that the fine specimens of scented 
Pelargoniums, Pomegranates, and great stan- 
dard Aloysia citriodora (from cuttings rooted 
by Mr. Hudson 24 years ago) are in their posi- 
tion on the terrace by the mansion. In the 
sunk garden, -with beds of Rose Caroline Testout 
in the middle, the bays form a Fuchsia garden 
of standard plants well in bloom. 

The large heated Lily-tanks in the open are 
thickly set with the deep blue flowers of 
Nymphaea stellata and N. pulcherrima, the 
latter being the darker; and the best of all 
large blue Nymphaeas, N. gigantea Hudsonii. 
In the Japanese garden, Palms, Bamboos and 
other plants of tropical aspect have reached 
large proportions, and beneath them Primula 
japonica and other Primulas, Azalea balsamae- 
flora and many pretty flowering shrubs are in 
bloom, colour being also given by the foliage 
of Japanese Maples. The Gunneras exhibit 
their huge leaves in contrast with the finely-cut 
Ferula gigantea, and the long blades of 
Phormium tenax, some of which are sending 
up blooms. 

Near to the mansion, where some alterations 
were necessary, Mr. Hudson has successfully 
moved and planted on the opposite bank some 
very large shrubs, one of which, a huge mass of 
Rhododendron ponticum over which Tropaeolum 
speciosum (Flame Nasturtium) rambled and 



always made a brilliant show in its season, was 
shifted only after considerable hesitation lest 
the Tropaeolum might be lost. However, a large 
mass of earth in which the Tropaeolum was es- 
tablished was removed with the Rhododendron, 
and it is now growing as strongly as when in its 
original position. The fine bank of Heaths was 
also moved successfully, and the plants of white 
and purple Menziesia polifolia are covered with 
bloom. A stretch of new lawn in front, pre- 
pared and sown only a few weeks ago, is now 
in perfect condition. 

The terrace on the Gunnersbury Park side, 
under the care of Mr. Reynolds, has the pillars 
fronted by tall specimens of Ivy-leaved Pelar- 
gonium Souv. de Cha6. Turner, standard P. 
King of Denmark, and white Lilies arranged 
with Grevillea robusta elegantissima, and tall 
Dracaenas, and edged with Isolepis gracilis. 

Orchids. 

In both Gunnersbury House and Gunnersbury 
Park gardens the Orchids grown are the showy 
kinds useful for cut flowers and decorative pur- 
poses, and include houses of Cattleyas and 
liaelias. Some useful lessons in the erratic be 
haviour of certain Orchids bear out the fact, 
which we have often urged, that there is more 




Fig. 29. — globularia incanescens : colour of 
flowers pale blue. 

ill securing a suitable place fur many kinds of 
< Irohids than there is in any special treatment. 

Phalaenopsis are known to be difficult sub 
jects to cultivate. Some people have spent much 
money on Phalaenopsis onlv to see the plants de- 
cline, while the fortunate few have no trouble 
with them. 

In the front of a low, warm moist house Mr. 
Reynolds has several large specimens of 
Phalaenopsis amabilis Rimestadiana which, at 
a distance, have grown out of recognition as 
Phalaenopsis, the plants having tall, stout stems 
bearing in one case eighteen large, fleshy, bright 
green leaves without a. blemish, and a good 
supply of fine white flowers. The plant will 
not grow satisfactorily in any other house on 
the establishment, but in this particular one 
it requires but little attention. 

Odontoglossums used to give trouble at Gun- 
nersbury until the cool moist house in which 
they have been grown for some years past was 
selected, and now they are robustly healthy and 
well furnished with spikes ; in the same house 
the useful white Masdevallia tovarensis, the red 
Cochlioda ISoezliana, and fine pans of scarlet 
Sophronitis thrive. Vanda teres, noted as 
flowering finely at Gunnersbury, also thrives in 
its selected position, and has flowered well this 



season, a pure white variety occurring among tne 
rose forms, and of it Mr. Reynolds remarked 
that the pure white form lasts longer in bloom 
than those of the rose type. Mr. Hudson was 
also fortunate in selecting the right position for 
the fine lot of Dendrobium fonnosuni giganteum, 
including some seedlings which cam.} up in the 
gardens ; and also for the original lot of Vanda 
coerulea, which he basketed and suspended 
where they now are in fine condition. A more 
recent batch in pots was placed in a similar 
house, but the plants did not thrive, and they 
are being basketed and placed in the house with 
the original stock, so far as space will permit. 

Fruits both indoors and out form a leading 
feature in Mr. Leopold de Rothschild's gardens, 
and this season has been an exceptionally good 
one. Peaches, Nectarines, Crapes, Plums, 
Cherries, and other fruits, both in the orchard 
houses and on walls, have cropped abundantly. 

As an instance of quick development Mr. Hud- 
son drew my attention to a batch of dwarf Figs 
in pots raised from cuttings rooted just over 
five months ago. The plants are already bear- 
ing fruits, and will continue to give a useful 
supply. B. 



PLANT NOTES. 



GLOBULARIA INCANESCENS. 

I'iik tilobularias belong to the Natural Ordei 
Siiagineae, and are natives of Europe and Asia 
Minor, several being found in the Mediterranean 
region. With the exception of the tender, shrubby 
l!. Alyppum, they are dwarf hardy perennials 
with evergreen leaves, and blue or white flowers 
in round capitate heads, from which character 
they are sometimes known as Globe Daisies. Al- 
though they are pretty plants for the rockery, 
yet they can scarcely be classed as choice or 
first-class rock plants, with the exception of 
Globularia incanescens (fig. 29), a newcomer 
which is a real gem. From a tight cushion of 
dark-green foliage leafy flower stems arise 2 
inches high in May and June, and bear lovely 
pale-blue flower heads rather more than half an 
inch across. Starting to flower with a neigh- 
bouring plant of Edraianthus Pumilio, it was 
still fresh and good when the Edraianthus was 
over. There is something so charming in its 
fluffy, globular flower heads, neat and compact 
habit, that this Globularia wins praise from 
all lovers of Alpines who have seen it. The 
leaves are half an inch long, oval, with pointed 
ends on thin stalks i to J of an inch long. 

The plant is growing in a granite morain.- 
1 part soil to 5 parts granite chips, where Edrai- 
anthus and the true Campanula Raineri are also 
thriving. C. F. Ball, Glasncvin Botanic '.'"< 
dens. 

LITTONIA MODESTA. 
A neab ally of the Gloriosas, this Liliaceous 
climbing plant will thrive in a somewhat lower 
temperature than its congeners. The Littonia is 
a native of Natal, whence it was intro 
duced 60 years or so ago. It has never been com- 
mon in gardens, and, save in botanic gardens, is 
rarely seen in cultivation, though it is an ex- 
ceedingly pretty climbing plant for the warm 
greenhouse during the summer months. The 
tubers, which pass the winter in a dormant state, 
are very like those of a Gloriosa, but smaller. 
In the spring they should be shaken quite clear 
of the old soil and re-potted in a rich open com- 
post. In conditions favourable to growth green 
succulent shoots will soon push up, and these 
support themselves by slender tendrils. The 
flowers, which are produced from the axils of the 
leaves, are of a drooping bell shape, about a 
couple of inches across, and of a bright orange 
colour. A succession of blossoms is kept up for 
some time. Nearly related to Littonia is Sander- 
sonia aurantiaca, also a native of Natal Liki 



70 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 25, 1914. 



the other plant, it is a climber, but scarcely to 
the same extent. The flowers of Sandersonia are 
urn-shaped, and of a bright orange colour. Both 
plants need the same treatment. W. T . 



NOTICES OF BOOKS. 



Preservation of Outdoor Timber.* 

The destruction of wood by "rotting" de- 
pends on the work of living organisms, especially 
fungi. Moisture, air, and a suitable tempera- 
ture are necessary conditions in the destructive 
growth of the lowly plants that induce decay in 
structural timber. Wood may be completely 
permeated with air, or it may be completely 
saturated with water, and in either case show 
but ' little 6ign of decomposition. If, however, 
both water and air are present to a sufficient 
extent the conditions of decomposition are at 
their best, and decay will proceed more or Jess 
rapidly, the rate depending on the temperature. 

Methods of Treatment. 

(1) Surface Applications. — A coat of paint laid 
upon wood assists in its preservation because it 
excludes moisture, and to some extent air; but 
painting will only be effective if the wood has 
been thoroughly dried before the paint is laid 
on. Should the wood be wet to begin with, or 
imperfectly seasoned, painting may do more 
harm than good, because the moisture will be 
imprisoned and prevented from escaping, and 
conditions favourable to decay will be thereby 
created and maintained. 

Besides oil paint, several other substances are 
used to waterproof wood, such as coal tar, and 
although the latter is objectionable from 6ome 
points of view, it makes an excellent coat, which, 
being more or les6 elastic, admits of the con- 
traction and expansion which the wood under- 
goes under the influence of changes of tempera- 
ture. A coating that cracks readily is quite un- 
suitable, because through the openings thu6 
formed water and the 6pores of fungi gain an 
entrance and decay is rapidly set up. 

(2) Charring. — At one time, and to some ex- 
tent still, posts used for gates, fences and sheds 
were charred for 1 to 2 feet at the part that 
would come immediately above and below the 
surface of the ground. That part of a post is 
the point of weakness because there decay 
begins and there it progresses most rapidly. 
The effects of charring are due to the destruc- 
tion of wood to the depth of half an inch or so, 
the resins, gums, tannin, etc., which this wood 
contains being driven in front of the heat until 
they saturate a layer, which then acts as a pro- 
tecting mantle to the deeper wood. To be effec- 
tive, charring must proceed so far as to convert 
a considerable amount of wood into charcoal— a 
mere singeing or scorching of the wood will do 
more harm than good, as it will cause the wood 
to crack and form openings for the entrance of 
fungi, but will not have proceeded so far as to 
saturate a layer of wood with resin, etc. The 
destruction of the surface wood is necessarily 
accompanied by a weakening of the post, and it 
is doubtful whether, on the whole, the charring 
of posts is a profitable process. 

(3) Impregnation with Creosote.— Of the 
various methods that are practised for increas- 
ing the durability of timber, that which at pre- 
sent occupies the foremost place is the applica- 
tion of creosote. This substance owes its efficacy 
to the fact that it is a virulent plant poison, so 
that wood which contains a considerable quantity 
of creosote is more or less completely protected 
against the attack of decay-inducing organisms 
such as fungi. Wood, when in its natural state, 
holds certain substances (starch, proteins, etc.) 
which are the special food of fungi, but when 
these are saturated by creosote they are incap- 
able of sustaining fungoid life. Creosote also 
acts a6 a preservative to some extent owing to 
the fact that it displaces air and water in the 

* Boa',1 ,,i Agriculture '">'l Fisheries Leaflet No. 284. 



tissues of the wood, and these, as stated above, 
are essential to the process of decay. 

It may be stated that many other substances 
besides creosote have been used as preserva- 
tives, such as copper sulphate, zinc chloride and 
corrosive sublimate, but on account of their cost 
or because they are poisonous to animals, or on 
account of their being easily washed out by rain, 
or because they corrode metal, they have all 
been supplanted more or less completely by creo- 
sote, except in countries where this substance is 
much dearer than in Britain. 

The amount of creosote or other fluid that 
wood will absorb varies greatly with the species 
and other factors. Heartwood takes up much 
less than sapwood, damp wood takes up less than 
dry, slow-grown pine takes up less than fast- 
grown, and conifere as a rule take up less than 
broad-leaved trees. The wood that is subjected 
more than any other to the process of creosoting 
is Baltic yellow Deal, otherwise known as Baltic 
Red Wood, which is precisely the same species 
as Scotch Pine. This is the wood chiefly used for 
railway sleepers and also used for telegraph 
posts, so that enormous quantities have to be 
treated annually. As a rule the railway com- 
panies specify that each cubic foot shall contain 
one gallon of creosote, and for estate purposes 
this is as much as one can afford, since creosote 
now generally costs 4d. or more per gallon. By 
the absorption of a gallon, therefore, the cost of 
the wood is raised by 4d. or more per cubic foot, 
apart from considerations of labour and interest 
on plant. Certain soft woods, however, can 
absorb up to four gallons of creosote per cubic 
foot, and many will take up two gallons. Apart 
from all question of cost, there is little to be 
gained by exceeding one gallon, for in the course 
of time the excess beyond what the wood can 
really hold will simply flow out into the soil and 
be lost. 

The great value of creosoting for estate pur- 
poses consists in this, that it so prolongs the 
"life" of low-class timber as to enable such 
material to be used for fencing and other pur- 
poses. Spruce and Scotch Pine thinnings, for 
instance, which will only last for three or four 
years if used as posts in their natural state, will 
if creosoted remain serviceable for from twelve 
to fifteen years. Larch thinnings, although 
more durable than Spruce or Pine, should also 
be creosoted before being used as posts. There 
are several broad-leaved species which on many 
estates furnish large quantities of small wood, 
and which in their natural state are not worth 
the labour of using for fencing purposes, but are 
thoroughly serviceable when creosoted. To this 
group belong Alder, Beech, Hornbeam, Syca- 
more, Ash, Birch and Poplar. Even coppice Oak 
has little durability when in its natural state, 
and ought always to be creosoted before use. 

Pressure Plant. 

On a large 6cale creosote is usually applied 
under pressure, and this process entails the pro- 
vision of a somewhat costly plant. But on 
account of the thoroughness and rapidity with 
which the impregnation is carried out the outlay 
on a pressure plant is justified where a large 
amount of timber has to be dealt with, and such 
plants are now to be found on many estates. 

Soakaoe Plant. 

(a) Hot. — On small estates the cost of erect- 
ing and working a pressure creosoting plant is 
prohibitive, but excellent results can be obtained 
by simpler methods. Many make use of an iron 
tank erected on brickwork in such a way that 
the creosote can be raised 'to near the boiling- 
point by means of a fire underneath the tank. 
Immersion in such hot creosote for eight or nine 
hours will confer on wood most of the benefits 
got from two or three hours' treatment in a 
pressure chamber. The tank should be pro- 
tected against rain by means of a light roof, and 
precautions must be taken against fire, creosote 
being highly inflammable. 

(b) Cold. — Even a tank where the creosote can 
be heated is, however, a more elaborate arrange- 



ment than is necessary upon a farm or quite 
6mall estate. While heating assists in driving 
the creosote into the wood, cold creosote will 
enter almost as far if more time be allowed. 
Even where only a few hundred posts (stobs) are 
being used it pays well, unless the wood is 
mature Larch or Oak, to provide a tank in which 
the lower part of each post can be treated. Re- 
membering that the upper part of the post will, 
in its untreated condition, usually last for many 
years, it is the lower part only that requires 
treatment; the posts may, therefore, be set ver- 
tically in the tank, about one-third of their 
length being immersed in the liquid. If it is 
desired to treat gates, hurdles, and rails, the 
tank must be proportionately longer and deeper, 
but a very simple arrangement suffices to treat 
the lower half of a fencing post. An ordinary 
intermediate fencing post is generally placed in 
the ground to a depth, at most, of about 2 feet, 
so that the part " between wind and water" will 
be treated if it is immersed in creosote to a 
depth of 2i feet. A suitable receptacle for the 
creosote is a galvanised iron tank 8 feet long, 
2^ feet wide, and 3 feet deep. Thi6 will hold 
150 to 200 ordinary posts placed vertically, and 
will when required also admit of about a dozen 
straining post6 being laid horizontally in it. 
When the posts are set in the trough the liquid 
is fairly rapidly absorbed, and as the level falls 
more creosote must be added. The posts should 
stand in the liquid for three or four weeks, and 
if a fresh lot is inserted without loss of time it 
i6 evident that two to three thousand can be 
passed through in a year. Four ordinary posts 
will absorb about a gallon of creosote, so that 
the cost of material for each post is only about 
one penny, and the labour and interest on the 
cost of the trough are practically negligible. It 
is desirable that the process should be con- 
ducted away from buildings, but a light roof 
should be provided to keep off the rain. Need- 
less to say, the drier the wood to start with the 
better will be the results. As a 40-gallon barrel 
of creosote is rather inconvenient to handle, it is 
an advantage to construct a small platform at 
one end of the tank on to which the barrels may 
be unloaded from the cart. One or two sheets 
of corrugated iron should be placed in such a 
position that when the posts are removed from 
the tank and set up to drip, the creosote that 
runs off shall flow back into the tank. 

It is surprising how high creosote will rise in 
certain kinds of wood, and it is not unusual to 
see the material showing on the upper surface 
of a 5-foot post when not more than 2 feet are 
immersed in the creosote. 

Many miscellaneous articles which come in 
contact with 'the soil, such as sheep troughs and 
poultry coops, last much longer if creosoted. 



THE ROSARY. 



ROSES, PAST AND PRESENT. 

The caprice of custom is nowhere illustrated 
more strikingly than in the history of the Rose 
as a cultivated plant. Of that history, M. D. 
Bois, the distinguished editor of the Bevue 
Horticolc, discourses in the May number of that 
journal. He points out that although the Rose 
has been cultivated from time immemorial in 
France, its premier position in the garden has 
only been reached in that country during the 
last century. Yet in ancient times this flower 
was already queen of cultivated plants. Ancient 
Egypt cultivated the Rosa sancta Richard, an 
ally and indeed probably a geographical form of 
R. gallica, and its flowers, so well preserved as 
to be still recognisable, adorned Egyptian mum- 
mies. The Romans set apart rosaria for the 
cultivation of the flower, and possessed varieties 
with single and with double flowers, and the 
fashionable Roman paid high prices for flowers 
obtained by forcing during the winter months. 
The beautiful custom of wearing garlands on 



July 25, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



71 



oeremoiiial occasions — now lapsing in an age with 
too strong a sense of the ridiculous — found for 
the Rose constant employment in antique times 
and throughout the Middle Ages, and as M. Bois 
observes, up to the 17th century Members of 
Parliament, magistrates, and University mag- 
nates attended public ceremonies crowned with 
garlands and bearing bouquets in their hands. 
The attenuated survival of this ancient custom 
is met with to-day in the bouquet, which is the 
perquisite of the patrons of bazaars, and in the 
floral bunches with which the crews of eights 
successful in making bumps bedeck themselves 
on Isis and on Cam during the " Mays " and 
"Eights" week. But in the Middle Ages this 
love of flowers — which we sometimes and mis- 
takenly imagine that our age has discovered — 
was so widespread that the French Parliament 
had an official florist with the title Rosier de la 
Cour, and with gardens in the vicinity of Paris 
at Fontenay-aux-Roses. 

But in the Middle Ages, though the cult of 
flowers was wide, their cultivation was confined to 
the gardens of monasteries and of chateaux — 
m other gardens utility decreed the cultiva- 
tion of vegetables and fruits and simples. With 
the rise of French gardening the role of the 
Rose was also restricted, for its freedom of 
growth and habit assorted ill with geometric 
regularity. Not till the 18th century, when 
new plants began to invade our gardens, did the 
Rose recommence its career of popularity. Up till 
that time the Roses commonly cultivated in 
France were R. de Provins, of mixed R. canina 
and R. gallica blood ; R. centifolia, known and 
grown by the Romans; the Damask Rose, 
R. damascena, which owed to the Crusades 
its advent in Western European gardens, as 
did also the Provence Rose ; varieties of 
R. alba, R. pimpinellifolia, R. lutea, and R. 
moschata complete the list. Their flowering 
season was short, and in those days of larger 
leisure new varieties came but slowly. 

At the beginning of the 19th century they 
numbered about 100, and of these varieties about 
one-third were singles. 

With the introduction of English gardening 
into France the Rose found and made full us<5 
of occasion for dominion : occasion rendered 
more opportune because of the new species then 
being or but recently introduced. Thus, Rosa 
chinensis (R. indica var.) came to us from 
India in 1766, R. rugosa from Japan in 1784, the 
Bengal Rose, R. semperflorens, in 1789, the Tea 
R. indica fragrans from India in 1795, and R. 
bracteata in the same year. Eight years later 
R. laevigata was introduced from North 
America, and the Banksian Rose, R. Banksiae, 
arrived from China in 1807, and so on for other 
species and even hybrids. 

The invaders and the natives soon commingled, 
and from their union arose the Hybrid Per- 
petuals in 1842. Issue of the long-settled Pro- 
vence Damask and Cent-feuilles, and of the Tea 
or of R. semperflorens, they renewed the popu- 
larity of the flower by the renewal of their 
blossoms ; they possessed likewise powers of 
resistance to cold, which stood them in their 
conquest in good stead. First among them 
came La Reine and Baronne Prevost (1842), then 
a famous series including Ulrich Brunner fils, 
General Jacqueminot, Baronne A. de Rothschild, 
Frau Karl Druschki, and those which trace an- 
cestry on one side to the Bengal Rose, and also 
Hybrid Perpetuals such as Le Vesuve and 
Ducher. 

Noisette Roses came as hybrids from America 
in 1804, and their mixed blood has become yet 
more mixed, as appears in the so-called Noisette 
Hybrids such as Reve d'Or and Madame Alfred 
Carriere. The Tea Rose likewise aided in the 
triumph of the flower, for despite its ten- 
derness it has helped to give us not only the 
H.P.s, but also chance variations characterised 
by long season of flowering, and also the Hybrid 



Teas, of which section La France appeared in 
1867, and was followed by Madame Abel 
Ghatenay, Caroline Testout, Uruss an Teplitz, 
Mildred Grant, and many another in that 
gracious band. 

From the Rugosas also have been raised 
hybrids which add further to the variety at the 
disposal of the gardener. Nor even so is the 
list complete. M. Bois, in his masterly sum- 
mary, deals justly with the various other Roses, 
which testify in such marvellous manner to the 
resource of the genus and of the hybridist, and 
from his review the reader, though he may be 
no rosarian, can understand and acknowledge 
the wide-flung empire of this prolific queen of 
flowers. 

THE CLASSIFICATION OF CULTIVATED 
ROSES. 
The papers published in the 1914 Annual of 
the National Rose Society on the subject of the 
classification of garden Roses have undoubtedly 
provided a convenient basis for the discussion of 
this question. I am obliged to White Rose for 
his criticism of my scheme of classification (p. 
431), and Ms able review of the subject has 
enabled mo to grasp a weak point that I had 
hitherto overlooked. 

In the first place I should like to say that in 
putting forward a scheme for the re-classification 
of garden Roses I desired to evolve one of ex- 
treme simplicity and one that would give growers 
of Roses for all purposes the exact information 
they require. Consider for a moment the old 
system of classification as used by the National 
Rose Society, and with this consider the modern 
complexity of parentage. Raisers have produced 
new classes, or rather new races, of Roses. Not- 
withstanding this the system of classification has 
stood still, and it now fails to meet require- 
ments. The botanical classification is not in 
question. The work of the National Rose Society, 
however, does not appeal to the botanist, but 
almost wholly to the cultivator, and principally 
to the cultivator of Roses for decorative pur- 
poses in the garden and in the home. That 
being so, the present method of classification is 
practically useless as a guide to the selection of 
suitable varieties, and information of a definite 
character cannot now be obtained from it. For 
example, what does the term "Hybrid Per- 
petual " convey to the rosarian? If words mean 
anything one would naturally expect to find in 
this section Roses of a perpetual-flowering 
character, but this is not so. Then we have the 
Hybrid Teas. The term " Hybrid Tea " was 
probably good enough a decade ago, but to-day 
the section is unwieldy and embraces several dis- 
tinct types, so that a radical change, is necessary. 
The same criticism might apply with equal force 
to almost every section of Roses in the existing 
scheme of classification, and what is required is 
a simple, but nevertheless accurate, alternative, 
and one that is likely to stand for nearly all 
time with but little modification or alteration. 
If a scheme be adopted which divides Roses 
into classes, such as Hybrid Teas, Hybrid 
Austrian Briars, Hybrid Rugosas, etc., then, 
owing to the activity of raisers in intercrossing 
and using species that have hitherto been 
neglected, it must soon become involved like the 
one now in use. 

While Rose has shown where the vice of over- 
lapping creeps in in the scheme which I submitted 
to the National Rose Society. I suggested to 
put Roses into three primary divisions : — (1) Per- 
petual-flowering Roses; (2) Summer flowering; 
(3) Autumn flowering, each division being sub- 
divided into sections as follows : — (A) Garden 
or decorative Roses; (B) exhibition Roses; (C) 
semi-double ; (D) single. White Rose points out 
that overlapping would occur in these sections 
because garden or decorative Roses (Section A) 
would be found in all the sub-divisions, while 
exhibition Roses (Section B) would also be found 
in Section A, and to a less extent in Section C. 
Upon consideration of this I think it might be 



advisable to drop Sections C and D altogether, 
and qualify the Roses found in Section A with the 
addition of the words "semi-double" or 
" single " where required after the name of each 
particular variety. This would still mean that 
exhibition Roses would be found in Section A, 
but I hardly think this would be a weak point. 
I take it that the Roses which would be placed 
in Section A will be by far the most important 
varieties, and sorts purely of an exhibition 
character must now take a secondary position. 
Roses of the Bessie Brown, Queen of Spain, or 
Mildred Grant type are not in great demand, as 
compared with garden Roses, in these days. 
Differentiation must undoubtedly be made, even 
in the case of garden or decorative Roses, be- 
tween varieties of a cupped, globular, and pointed 
character, and after the name of the variety 
there would require to be some sign indicating 
the nature of the formation of the bloom. That, 
however, is a very simple matter. I am glad to 
observe that the Rev. Joseph Pemberton has de- 
parted from the beaten track in his first cata- 
logue of Roses, and in this respect it is unique 
and will assuredly tend to hasten the adoption of 
a more satisfactory method of listing Roses than 
is now found in commercial circles. George M. 
Taylor, Mid-Lothian. 



NOTES FROM SOUTHERN ITALY. 



The month of April was one of the driest on 
record. The days were hot, the nights cool, 
with north winds, and there was no rain. 
Such weather is very favourable to Irises ; mine 
flowered splendidly, and the unusually large 
seed vessels bore witness for a long time to 
the past glory of the blossoms. Iris Junonia 
had the largest fruits; they measured 15cm. 
by 12cm. Tulips have also done well, but their 
flowering season was very short; the Darwin 
Tulips flowered for only eight days. It is a 
curious fact that my plants of Le Negrier and La 
Noire, which I have had for ten years, have not 
shown any sign of breaking, while La Candeur, 
Pride of Haarlem, and Maiden's Blush have all 
broken, not a single bulb being the true variety. 
T. fulgens is also broken. Of the Italian Tulips, 
only Tulipa neglecta and T. Billietiana are 
broken; the rest, e.g., T. Fransoniana and T. 
planifolia, are still self-coloured. 

Young plants, newly established, suffered con- 
siderably, although copiously watered ; the 
young shoots of Abies were damaged by the 
dry winds, and Cedars have also suffered in 
exposed places. 

Allium giganteum produced a flower-head of 
the circumference of cm. 0.50, and cm. 1.50 
high. Unfortunately, it does not yield any 
seed, and the bulbs produce no offsets, so I have 
not been able to multiply my stock. It is 
curious that no seeds are produced, as I have 
seen bees and other insects visiting the flowers, 
and have also pollinated them artificially ; and 
my other Turkestan Alliums are seeding freely, 
e.g., A. rosenbachianum. 

Primula Bulleyana is growing in the grass, 
and flowering freely ; and so is P. japonica. On 
the rockery, the rare Disporuni pullrnn (Uvu- 
laria chinensis), is producing its drooping purple 
bells ; and Deutzia corymbosa and D. discolor 
major is covered with snowy blossoms. It is to 
be regretted that the flowering time of these 
pretty shrubs is so short, especially in warm 
weather. Most of the Roses, with the exception 
of Ramblers, are quite over — they only blos- 
somed for about a month ; the plants 
are beginning to flower for a second 
time after severe pruning. The old La 
France is still one of the finest Roses we have, 
and almost everlasting ; we have here some very 
old bushes which are flowering luxuriantly, and 
showing no trace of weakness. Willy Midler, 
l-'ratte <li Salerno, Italy. 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



'.!";.v 25, 1914. 




The Week's Work. 




THE ORCHID HOUSES. 

By II. J. Chapmjk, Gardener to Mrs. OOOKSON, 
Oakwood. Wylam-on-Tyne. 

Autumn -flowering Cattleyas.— Such 
species as Cattleya aurea, C. Bowringiana, C. 
Warscewiczii (gigas), C. labiata, C. Harrisoniae, 
C. guttata, C. granulosa and allied species, as 
well as the numerous hybrids of this section, 
will now be well advanced in growth, and will 
need every encouragement which heat, light, and 
moisture can give them. The results attained at 
the flowering period will depend on the maturing 
of the growth before the flowers appear. After 
the leaves have developed, and the new pseudo- 
bulb commences to form, as much light should be 
allowed as is not likely to Tesult in scorching; 
of the leaves. This will assist the ripening 
of the pseudo-bulbs and the development 
of the plant. Many of the autumn-flower- 
ing Cattleyas are apt to begin a second 
growth immediately after the first growth has 
reached maturity. This is frequently a cause of 
plants failing to flower, or remaining soft and 
sappy when growth is completed. The produc- 
tion of secondary growth is therefore undesirable, 
and causes a good deal of trouble to the grower. 
Plants which begin to grow again early in the 
season may possibly be induced to complete it by 
affording them every encouragement to make 
rapid growth. Where it commences later, the 
want of light and the dull, damp weather 
of autumn prevent the plant from pro- 
perly maturing and ripening, and the plant may 
take several seasons to regain its normal vigour. 
Plants completing their growth should not only 
be exposed to the light, but also to dry atmo- 
spheric conditions, and a free circulation of air. 
This is the best way to prevent or check 
secondary growth. Freshly imported plants 
3 11 ust be kept under close observation. The 
insect pests to which they are subject in their 
native habitats make their appearance as the 
new growth develops, and if not removed they 
.^>on cause injury and permanent disfigurement. 
Small 6cale insects should be carefully removed as 
soon as the miniature white specks show on tie 
leaves. Thrips must be kept under by Tegular 
.praying and vaporising. 

Denorobium. These plants are now rapidly 
developing their pseudo-bulbs in the hot divisions. 
They should be exposed to the light as much as 
possible ; the only protection they require is thin 
scrim or shading, sufficient to prevent actual 
scorching. The plants should be syringed two 
or three times a day. Admit plenty of 
fresh air through the ventilators during the 
hottest part, of the day, but close the house 
early in the afternoon, and secure a hot, 
humid atmosphere during the present month by 
damping and syringing whenever the outside con- 
ditions are favourable. The roof ventilators may 
be opened a little late at night, to prevent ex- 
cessive condensation. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By W. Crump, Gardener to Earl Bbaochamt, K.O.M.G., 

Madresfield Oourt. Wereestevshin, 

The Formal Garden.— There is much 
everyday work to be done in this department, 
for everything should be kept in a complete state 
of neatness; the edges perfectly trimmed, and 
the lawns closely mown. Unshapely plants must 
be pinched back and pegged down. All decayed 
leaves and flowers must be removed, and water- 
ing constantly attended to. If there be any 
carpet bedding the lines of the designs must be 
kept clearly defined and truly balanced by the 
removal of superfluous growths, though many 
leaders will probably be of the opinion that more 
pleasing effects are produced uy a more natural 
Arrangement of summer bedding plants that is 
free from 6uch hard surface line6. However, it 
s remarkable that the public takes an intense in- 
•erest in the very rigid carpet bed representing 
:i clock in motion (see fig. 82, Gardeners' 



Chronicle, September 16, 1905), which is to be 
seen at Prince's Gardens, Edinburgh. 

The Annual Garden.— This will now be the 
gayest part of the garden. If little tops of Pea 
sticks were pushed in amongst the groups of 
plants in their earlier stages as advised in pre- 
vious calendars, the plants will have grown up 
through the sticks and quite hidden them ; and 
thus grown, no rainstorms or rough winds will 
break them down. Many of the half-hardy sec- 
tions sown either in autumn or very early spring 
are effective planted in large, iregular groups, 
such as Pentstemons, East Lothian Stocks, Cos- 
mos, and Godetias, whilst Alonzoas, Nemesias, 
Marigolds, Scabious, Salpiglossis, Dianthus, Aster 
sinensis, Zinnias, Verbenas, Petunias, and Heli- 
chrysums, sown later- in spring, can be relied upon 
for continuous flowering all summer. Dahlias, 
Michaelmas Daisies, with other autumn flowering 
plants, must receive constant attention, and will 
require careful staking. Keep thin, weakly side- 
growths well thinned out from the ba6e, andappiy 
a little stimulant in the shape of soot or arti- 
ficial manure. Keep weeds in subjection by the 
timely use of the hoe whilst the weeds are young. 

Conifers.— On choice Conifers not more than 
one leader should form ; if there are more, re- 
move them at once with the long-handled 
primers. Cones should also be removed in the 
early stages, as these tend to weaken the 
annual growth. The weeping form of Nor- 
way Spruce (Abies excelsa inverta) should be 
staked afresh each year. This particular form 
will produce a very effective feature in the land- 
scape if planted in groups. Abies canadensis 
(Hemlock Spruce) is another most graceful tree, 
with drooping, plume-like branches. A. Douglasii 
is the quickest groweT of all the family. Cupres- 
sus macrocarpa lutea should be in every collec- 
tion. 

PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

Bv C. H. Cook, Gardener to the Earl of Derby, 
Knowsley Hall, Lancashire. 

Cineraria.— Plants of the first sowing (now 
in 2-inch pots) are showing roots, and should be 
transferred into pots 3i inches or 4 inches 
in diameter. A suitable compost consists of 
three parts turfy loam, one part leaf -soil, manure 
from a spent Mushroom bed, and enough sharp 
sand to keep the compost open. A frame with 
a north aspect will suit the plants during the 
summer. Place a bed of ashes inside the 
frame, dust the ashes with soot, and half plunge 
the pot6 ; this will keep them moist and less 
water will be required. A close watch must be 
kept for the leaf maggot, which must be removed 
as soon as found. Spraying with a much- 
diluted insecticide may serve as a preven- 
tive. As the plants become, established 
the lights may be removed from the frames at 
night and replaced each morning. Later 
sowings may be pricked off into boxes as soon as 
they are strong enough to be handled. They 
should be cultivated in shade. 

Calceolar i A.-A close watch must be kept 
on the seed-pans, in case the young seedlings 
damp off. Should damping take place, remove 
the affected parts, and admit more air to the 
frame, closely shading from sunshine. As soon as 
the seedlings can be handled they should be 
pricked off into boxes containing equal parts 
loam and leaf-soil, with an ample supply of 
sharp sand. Allow the seedlings 1 inch of room 
each way in the boxes. Stir the soil round the 
planus with a pointed stick if it becomes caked. 
The after-treatment of Calceolarias is similar 
to that of Cinerarias. As the plants develop 
remove them into 2-inch pots, using a compost 
as before, but adding a little sifted manure 
from Mushroom beds. A further sowing may be 
made forthwith, and treated as directed in a, 
previous calendar. 

Adiantum.— Adiantums in pots which are to 
be used later for decorative purposes, either as 
pot plants or as cut fronds, may be gradually 
hardened off and exposed to the light. This will 
strengthen the fronds, and they will remain 
fresh for a considerable time after cutting. 
Young plants may be repotted, using good 
loam, a little manure and some sharp sand. 
Avoid using peat, unless the loam is very 
stiff ; the fronds of plants grown in peaty soil 



are soft and fleshy, and of little use in a cut 
state. In potting seedlings of Adiantums, it is 
a good plan to pot three or four together in a 
clump ; these make a furnished plant much 
quicker than if potted singly. Give the young 
plants plenty of heat and atmospheric moisture, 
and when developed treat as advised for old 
plants. 

Gloriosa superba.— A top-dressing should 
be given to plants of robust growth : a mixture 
of loam, peat and charcoal will suit them well. 
The shoots should be supported by stakes or by- 
string stretched across the house near the roof. 
Weak liquid manure or soot water Applied about 
once a week will be found beneficial. 

Gineral Remarks.— No time should be lost 
in making out orders for bulbs. Freesias will 
not stand much forcing, and to secure early 
flowers the bulbs must be potted up as soon as 
they can be obtained. 



FRUITS UNDER GLASS. 

By W. Hedlby Warrbn, Gardener to the AstonClintoc, 
Park Estate (the Rt. Hon. Lord Rothschild), Buck- 
inghamshire. 

Peaches, and Nectarines.— Expose uie 
fruit to the direct rays of the sun ; in some 
cases this may be done by means of strips of 
wood placed under the fruits to support them 
free of the foliage, and requiring no further 
fastening than merely resting upon the wires of 
the trellis. If the fruit seems to press too 
much upon the wood, a small piece of wadding ' 
or other soft material may be introduced be- 
tween the fruit and the wood. Continue to 
regulate and tie the young growths on trees in 
later houses, allowing ample space between each 
branch. Pay unremitting attention to maintain- 
ing the proper degree of moisture at the roots, 
giving copious supplies of liquid manure when 
moisture is required. A mulching of decayed 
manure or other suitable material will help to 
keep the soil damp by preventing excessive 
evaporation. As the crops of fruit are cleared 
from the trees take the opportunity to 
examine each tree for signs of unhealthi- 
ness. It occasionally happens that, although 
the border has been carefully prepared 
and the trees have hitherto appeared healthy, 
a tree may become unhealthy during the 
progress of growth, the leaves prematurely turn- 
ing yellow and falling before their time. 
This often happens in the case of trees which 
have been grown in pots, through the roots 
becoming matted around the sides of the recep- 
tacle. The tree should be taken up and re- 
planted with the roots spread outwards from the 
stem. When a tree has been planted for several 
years, and then shows signs of failing health, 
it is usually on account of some defect in the 
soil or drainage of the border. Nothing short of 
properly draining the border and the substitution 
of fresh soil will set matters right. Many valu- 
able trees which are lost might be saved by 
timely attention to thi6 common cause of failure. 
If a tree is in a defective state by reason of the 
poorness of the soil, applications of suitable 
manure or manure water to the border will 
frequently restore the tree to health. Trees 
which require lifting and root-pruning must not 
be dealt with before September or October, but 
notes should be made of each tree's requirements 
as soon as they are observed. 

Vinery. — Young vines planted at the 
time advised in a former calendar should 
be encouraged to make all the growth pos- 
sible between now and the end of August. 
Do not, for the present, check the laterals too 
severely ; a rather free extension of these growths 
will induce free root action, and tend to the de- 
velopment of the young rod. Red spider should 
be carefully and promptly destroyed, for once" 
this pest has found a lodging place upon 
the foliage growth will cease for the remainder 
of the present season. Until the main rod shows 
signs of turning brown copious supplies of 
water may be given to the roots without fear of 
injury. 

Strawberries.— The earliest runners, al- 
ready layered in small pots, will soon be 
ready to be detached from the parent plant. 
Preparations may therefore be made for placing 



July 25, 1914.] 



1 HE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



to 



them in their fruiting pots, using a compost as 
directed in the calendar fur July 11. A little 
soot may be sprinkled over the crocks in each 
pot to prevent the ingress of worms. Pot firmly, 
keeping each crown well above the level of the 
soil, and lightly syringe the plants morning and 
evening until they are well established. 



THE KITCHEN GARDEN. 

Bf R. P. Brotobrston, Gardener to tine Earl of 
Haddington, Tyninghame, East Lothian. 

Lettuce. — Make full sowings at once of 
both the Cabbage and Cos kinds for late autumn 
and early winter use. The old Hick'6 Hardy Cos 
is still unsurpassed for sowing at this time. A 
small-hearting Cabbage variety is to be preferred 
to the larger kinds. Another sowing should suc- 
ceed this one about three weeks hence ; and 
from these, it may be expected that Lettuces 
for winter use will be available. The soil should 
be thoroughly pulverised for these sowings, and 
the seedlings transplanted whilst still small. 

Corn Salad.— As a substitute for Lettuce a 
sowing of Corn Salad may now be made, to be 
followed at short intervals by others, to produce 
salad foT spring and winter use. It is better 
known in France by the name of Mache. It re- 
quires no special cultivation, but should not be 
sown in highly manured soil ; if sown in lines 
it is more easy to keep clean than if sown broad- 
oast in beds. The round-leaved kind is to be 
preferred. 

Tomatos.— If there is space for a few pots 
of Tomatos for winter fruiting, seeds should 
be sown at once, and the resulting plants grown 
under as hardy conditions as they will bear, at 
least in the earlier stages of growth. The main 
point ;s to have strong plants with the fruit 
well forward before winter sets in ; they can 
then mature slowly as required. Plants .setting 
fruit now will provide Tomatos from the 
autumn until February ; but they must not 
be forced. There is perhaps no better variety 
for winter than Carter's Sunrise. The Tomato fly 
is often troublesome at this season. The best spe- 
cific for its destruction is vapour of nicotine, the 
applications to be repeated occasionally as re- 
<|uired. If the foliage grows too large it must be 
partly removed, and all axillary growth rubbed 
off as it appears". Abundance of ventilation should 
be provided in closely-glazed structures, but 
plants fruiting in frames need less ventilation, 
though an excess of atmospheric moisture should 
be prevented. Close pinching is advisable for 
outdoor plants. 

Garlic— The cloves should be lifted and 
stored as soon as the leaves begin to wither, and 
Rocambole can be treated in the same way. 

Turn ips.- Sow enough of Snowball or other 
white-fleshed variety of Turnip to produce small 
roots for autumn eating. The soil must be friable 
and not too dry. 

Vegetable Marrows. -These will now be 
growing fast, and will require frequent attention, 
or too many shoots will appear and get en- 
tangled together. The fruits should be gathered 
when still young and thrown away or otherwise 
disposed of if not required rather than be per- 
mitted to grow large and be the means of check- 
ing production. When water is required apply 
weak manure-water or water with superphosphate 
of lime dissolved in it. 



THE HARDY FRUIT GARDEN. 

»F J. G. WrafOw, Gardener to Lady Noribcotb, 
Eastwell Park, Kent. 

Apricots.— Since thinning the crop at the 
* J nd of May the fruits have swelled favourably 
.tnd there are promises of an excellent crop. 
Up to the time of writing very little rain 
has fallen in this district, and we have 
been compelled to water our fruit trees. 
During hot, dry weather trees growing on 
walls become very dry at the roots, partly 
because of the situation and partly because 
the tbrickwork absorbs a considerable amount 
of water from the ground. In these cir- 
cumstances it is scarcely possible to over- 
water wall trees in times of drought. But it 
must be remembered that repeated light water- 
ings are not desirable: a good drenching at in- 



tervals, followed by hoeing and mulching, is 
much the better practice. Syringing the trees 
late in the afternoon is very beneficial in hot 
weather, for it will help to keep both fruit and 
foliage clean and healthy. Secure all young 
shoots to the wall and pinch the lateral growths 
at the second leaf. Expose the fruits to the sun- 
shine and air in order that they may develop a 
good flavour. Wood lice and earwigs are often 
troublesome to wall trees, and will soon spoil 
much of the fruit if not destroyed. Pieces of 
the hollow stalks of Broad Beans, or small 
flower-pots with a little dry hay or moss in 
them, should be fixed amongst the branches as 
traps, and such traps should be examined at fre- 
quent intervals. 

Peaches and Nectarines. — The hot and 

dry weather of June and July suited these 
fruits admirably, and at the present time they 
are more than usually promising. Keep the 
shoots neatly fastened to the wall and expose 
the fruits to the sunshine as much as possible. 
This should be done at the commencement of 
the season, for if allowed to be shaded till quite 
large and then suddenly exposed to the hot sun 
both Nectarines and Peaches are apt to become 
injured by scalding. Remove in their entirety 
extra strong growths that would upset the balance 
of growth : gross wood is rarely fruitful, and if 
there is an excessive quantity the tree should be 
marked for lifting in the autumn with a view 
to root-pruning. An examination in the autumn 
will prove whether root-pruning is necessary, 
in which case the long, straight roots must be 
dug up and shortened, and the fibrous ones in- 
duced to grow near to the surface. The small 
feeding roots can then be .supplied with the 
necessary materials to build up moderate and 
firm growth, whi.h is essentia] for good cropping. 
One of the mistakes made by beginners in 
outdoor Peach culture is that of leaving to.. 
much wood in the trees. This mistake starts in 
the early spring by not disbudding sufficiently, 
and is generally continued at each subsequent- 
operation by retaining too many of the young 
shoots. It is rare that one sees a Peach or Nec- 
tarine tree trained too thinly; on the contrary, 
most of these trees have far too many shoots. 
This practice is responsible for many partial 
failures. The stoning period being over, the roots 
may be fed at intervals until the fruits com- 
mence to ripen, when clear water only should 
be afforded. Concentrated fertilisers may be 
sprinkled over the roots and washed into tin 
ground with water, or liquid manure frost the 
farmyard may be employed, but neither should 
be used when the soil is dry. If there is 
doubt as to the soil being dry water it well the 
day before the fertilisers are applied. Estab- 
lished trees bearing full crops require large 
quantities of water. Stir the soil again after 
watering and replace the mulching materials. 
Syringe the trees in the afternoons of hot days 
to keep the fruit and foliage clean. If red 
spider appears, spray with an insecticide at 
once, and repeat the spraying at convenient inter- 
vals until the pest is exterminated. 



THE "FRENCH" GARDEN. 

By Paul Aquatias 
Outdoor Crops.— The fine weather of tin- 
past weeks has necessitated increased watering 
of the various crops. This must be done systema- 
tically, and each crop should be watered at least 
once a week. The morning can be reserved for 
the Melons, Cucumbers and seedling beds, and 
the hose may be used from 4 p.m. till late at 
night whenever possible. Oops thus watered 
thrive much quicker than others, and are 
saleable at a better rate owing to the 
shortage from the fields in dry weather. 
Beans planted outside late in May are 
now bearing, and will be followed by those 
sown in the open. The last batch is inserted 
four rows in a bed 4 feet 6 inches wide, allowing 
a wide path (16 inches to 18 inches) to facilitate 
the work when the frames and lights are placed 
on this crop late in September. A dwarf variety, 
such as N egro, ie preferable ; the growth must 
be helped by watering and hoeing to hasten the 
formation of the pods before chilly nights set in. 
The last batch of Celery is now planted in the 
ridges previously prepared. Where proper atten- 



tion is given to watering, and an occasional dress- 
ing witn phosphate, this batch proves itself valu- 
able, especially for late supply in February and 
March. The earthing-up is not begun before the 
end of October, which month is the best growing 
period. As soon as the Cauliflowers are marketed 
from the cloche beds the ground is prepared, as 
explained, for the old beds for frames. Carrot 
Chantenay is sown thinly broadcast and 
covered with one inch of well-decayed manure, 
which not only conserves the natural moistuie. 
but also helps the root to retain the bright colour 
round the collar. A late supply of Cauliflowers 
is now set among the Melon beds, 15 plants per 
frame. They clash with the heavy supplies from 
the field in September and October, and are un- 
profitable where they have to be despatched by 
rail, but they are useful for local trade. BroccoHs 
such as Walc.heren, Leamington, and Late Quee:. 
are excellent varieties for yielding a constant 
supply until Cauliflowers are again available. 

Melons.— The warm weather has greatly 
favoured the ripening of the fruits in the first 
beds. They are now examined daily, and cut as 
soon as the ring round the base of the stalk 
cracks. They are placed in a cool cellar on a 
layer of soft hay, and are ready for the table when 
the skin turns yellow and the base of the fruit 
gives way under the pressure of the thumb. They 
am packed in deep boxes, papered separately . 
tvith wood wool or dry grass between each fruit, 
to prevent bruising during transit. The demand 
for Canteloupe Melons is increasing yearh . 
Owing to the fragility of the fruit and its bad 
keeping qualities fruiterers prefer a direct supp - 
to buying imported fruits on the wholesale mai- 
ket, which are generally unsatisfactory, as they 
have to be cut green for safe travelling. They aiv 
easily known by the shrivelled stalk, which is 
not disconnected at the base. The plants must on 
no account get dry at the roots, and ventilation 
should be admitte-d day and night, except in wet 
weather. When the frames and lights are at 
liberty from the Melons they should be trans- 
ferred to the last planted beds; the cloches aie. 
now too small to shelter the fast-growing shoots. 
Nursery Beds.— Where an autumn supply of 
Lettuces is required seeds of Cabbage Lettuce. 
Vauxhall Defiance and Cos Lettuce Hardy 
White are inserted. It is essential to sow veiy 
thinly to prevent bolting. They are planted 
in a 4-foot 6-inch bed late in August, and r< - 
ceive the shelter of either cloches or frames from 
late in September. They are ready for the 
market in October, when the material is at, 
liberty for rearing young Lettuces for spring. 

Cabbages. — During the last mild winter 
spring Cabbages were marketed before the end 
of April, and were exceedingly scarce till the 
September-sown were available. It may be 
more profitable to select early and mid-ear:y 
varieties for next season, such as Early 
Market or Harbinger, with Myatt's Offen- 
ham and Early Etampes. The seeds will be 
inserted during the coming week in a well-pre- 
pared bed, and covered with a good layer of 
well-decayed manure. Owing to the quick 
growth at this time of the year, preparation is 
made forthwith for pricking out the young seed- 
lings early in August. This operation well re- 
pays the extra labour involved by producing 
sturdy and even plant6, and by permitting, with- 
out loss, a delay which may be advisable should 
the final planting in October be postponed through 
unforeseen circumstances. The root grubs have 
been very prevalent this year among the Bras 
sica tribe, and a dressing of the beds with 
''round lime is advisable. 



Bacterial Rot of Celery.— A heart rot 

of Celery brought about by a motile bai - 
teriuni is described by Mr. H. Woemald i 
Journal of Agricultural Science, VI., II., May. 
1914. The disease may manifest itself in the 
outer leaves and may spread to the inner leaves, 
causing the heart to decay. The bacterium B- 
apivorus appears to be a wound parasite, and 
probably carries on its damage durin. thi 
winter when Celery is stored. It is recon 
mended that diseased leaves should be removed 
before storage, and that plants showing ^i. 
heart rot should be burned. 



74 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 25, 1914. 



EDITORIAL NOTICE. 



ADVERTISEMENTS should be sent to the 
PUBLISHER, 41, Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, W.C- 

Editors and Publisher. — Our Correspondents 
would obviate delap in obtaining answers to 
their communications, and save -us much time and 
trouble, if they would kindly observe the notice 
printed weekly to the effect that all letters relat- 
ing to financial matters and to advertisements 
should be addressed to the Publisher ; and that 
all communications intended for publication, or 
referring to the Literary department, and all 
plants to be named, should be directed to the 
Editors. The two departments, Publishing and 
Editorial, are distinct, and much unnecessary de- 
lay and confusion arise when letters are mis- 
directed. 

Letters for Publication, as well as specimens of 
plants for naming, should be addressed to the 
EDITOHS, 41, "Wellington Street, Covent 
Garden, London- Communications should be 

WRITTEN ON ONB SIDE ONLY OF THE PAPER, Sent OS 

early in the week as possible and duly signed by 
the writer. If desired, the signature will not be 
printed, but kept as a guarantee of good faith. 

Special Notice to Correspondents. — The 

Editors do not undertake to pay for any contribu- 
tions or illustrations, or to return unused com- 
munications or illustrations, unless by special 
arrangement. The Editors do not hold themselves 
responsible for any opinions expressed by their 
correspondents. 

Local News- — Correspondents will greatly oblige 
by sending to the Editors early intelligence of local 
events likely to be of interest to our readers, or of 
any matters ivhich it is desirable to bring under 
the notice of horticulturists. 

Illustrations— The Editors will be glad to receive 
and to select photographs or drawings, suitable 
for reproduction, of gardens, or of remarkable 
flowers, trees, etc., but they cannot be respon- 
sible for loss or injury. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 

TUESDAY, JULY 28— 

Roy. Hort. Soc. Ooms. meat and Nat. Gladiolus 

Soo. Sh. at R.H.S. Hall. 
WEDNESDAY, JULY 29— 

Bishop's Stortford Hort. Soc. Sh. Nonnanby Estates 

Agri. and Hort. Soc. (2, .day!*). 
THURSDAY, JULY 30— 

midland Carnation Soc. Sh. at Edgbaston Bot. 

Gardens (2 days). Roy. Lancashire Agric. Soc. Sh. 

at Liverpool (4 days). Co. Clare Summer Sh. 



Avbragh Mean Temperature) for the ensuing week 

deduced from observations during the last Fifty 

Years at Greenwich, 62.3. 
Actual Temperatures : — 

London, Wednesday, July 22 : Max. 72° ; Min. 55°. 

Gardeners' Chronicle Office. 11, Wellington Street. 
Covent Garden. London. Thursday, July 23 
(10 a.m.) ; Bar. 29.4 ; Temp. 63°. Weather- 
Dull. 

Provinces, Wednesday, July 22 : Max. 78°, Lowes- 
toft ; Min. 51°, Buxton. 



SALES FOR THE ENSUING WEEK. 

TUESDAY, WEDNESDAY, and THURSDAY— 

Clearance Sale of the whole of the Glass Erections, 
Hot-water Piping, Trade Buildings, Vans, Tools, 
Utensils, etc., at Veitch's Nurseries, King's Road, 
Chelsea, S.W., by Protheioe & Morris at 12. 



The Fourteenth Report 
Experiments of the W'oburn Experi- 
at woburn. mental Fruit Farm, by 
the Duke of Bedford 
and Mr. Spencer Pickering, treats of 
Potato-spraying, trenching, the distribu- 
tion of soil particles, the effect of one crop 
upon another, Black Currant mite, and 
loss of weight of manure in transport. 

The primary object of the experiments 
in Potato-spraying was to ascertain the 
amount of Woburn Bordeaux paste which 
is equivalent in fungicidal action to a 
given quantity of ordinary Bordeaux mix- 
ture. This determination is useful, 
because much less copper sulphate is 
used in the paste than in the 
ordinary mixture. Otherwise one more 
addition to the thousands of trials 
carried out in this and other countries for 
the prevention or reduction of Potato 
disease may be regarded as unnecessary. 



Some of them have been carried out for 
many years in succession, and in a great 
number of districts, giving results which 
could not be equalled in importance by ex- 
periments at the two stations in two years 
described in the report. It has been 
amply proved that spraying with Bordeaux 
mixture usually reduces the proportion of 
diseased tubers and increases the bulk of 
sound ones, the latter result being due 
partly to the effect of the spraying in pro- 
longing the life of the haulm. As to the 
comparative results of using the Woburn 
paste and the ordinary mixture, those 
shown in the tables of the report are in 
favour of the latter, except when the quan- 
tity of the former was so much as 30 lb. 
to 100 gallons of water. When the results 
are practically equal any advantage would 
be measured by the respective costs of the 
preparations, which the report does not 
state. 

Trials of spraying twice or thrice do not 
appear to have given sufficient advantage, 
where there was any, to justify in- 
creased expense. Another result indicates 
the inferiority of soda Bordeaux mixture 
to the ordinary one made with lime, which 
is antagonistic to the results of trials 
carried out by the Irish Department of 
Agriculture. 

The results of experiments in trenching 
land for fruit and other crops have been 
previously published. The operation car- 
ried out was that which is known as bas- 
tard trenching, in which the lower layer 
of soil is stirred without being brought 
to the surface. Contrary to the almost 
universal opinion of market and other 
gardeners, Mr. Pickering declares that 
trenching, as a rule, does only an insigni- 
ficant amount of good when no manure is 
incorporated with the lower layer of soil, 
the exception being where there is a hard 
pan under the surface soil, which prevents 
the roots of plants from extending down- 
wards. But in market gardening manure 
is either dug in deeply while trenching is 
done, or soon sinks in when dug into the 
top spit; and in ordinary fields prepared 
for fruit planting there is usually a hard 
pan under the surface which requires 
breaking up. Mr. Pickering holds that 
the effects of trenching or breaking-up the 
under soil by means of a subsoiler follow- 
ing the ordinary plough are sometimes 
beneficial and at other times injurious to 
the growth of fruit trees and bushes. On 
the average, however, he declares that the 
results are not worth the expense of the 
operation. Gardeners and fruit-growers, 
however, will require a great deal more 
evidence than the Woburn experiments 
have supplied to convince them that a prac- 
ice sanctioned by the experience of culti- 
vators of the soil from time immemorial is 
a useless one. 

Experiments for throwing light upon 
the distribution of the fine particles of the 
soil, which are most important for the 
nourishment of plants, are to be regarded 
only as preliminary, and the report states 
that much more extensive investigations 
will be necessary to establish any general 
conclusions. The proportion of fine par- 
ticles in the surface soil is shown to have 



been greatly affected by the amount of 
rainfall, and there are indications of the 
distribution of those particles by rain also 
to lower strata. 

The effect of one crop upon another 
is chiefly dealt with in connection 
with fruit trees grown in grass land, 
in respect of which trials carried out 
at Ridgmont and elsewhere have been de- 
scribed in previous reports. What appears 
now is only a confirmation of the conclu- 
sions previously announced by Mr. Picker- 
ing, that confirmation being based upon 
recent pot experiments. No more valu- 
able lesson is to be derived from the 
Woburn Fruit Farm experiments than that 
the growth of fruit trees in grass impairs 
their vigour, and even leads in some 
cases to their destruction. That es- 
tablished trees often flourish well enough 
in grass land is admitted; but even then 
they grow less vigorously and produce 
smaller fruit than in arable land. It is 
also true that the dwarfing effect of grass 
may be mitigated greatly, if not entirely 
counteracted, by very liberal mulching of 
the trees with manure or other organic 
matter; but this only proves that the ' 
dwarfing action is counteracted more or 
less by the manuring. It is probable that 
if Apple trees were grown in two adjoin- 
ing plots, one in grass and the other tilled, 
those in the latter would make at least as 
much growth without any manure as 
those in the former with an annual mulch- 
ing. 

We can point to other experience which 
confirms that reached at Woburn. Part of 
an orchard of trees six years from the 
planting was allowed to grass itself over. 
The result in two or three years, in spite 
of manuring, was the serious dwarfing of 
the trees, while those on the adjacent arable 
land continued to flourish. The differences 
in growth of new wood, size and colour of 
the leaves, and size of fruit were very 
striking. Four years after the grassed 
part of the orchard was grubbed up, and 
in a single year the appearance of the out- 
side row of Apple trees left under grass, 
which had less than half its root area in 
the land restored to arable cultivation, 
was better in all respects than the 
row next to it, which remained entirely 
under grass. Two years later all the 
grass was dug in, and the increased vigour 
of the trees quickly became very striking, 
though some of the weakest growers, such 
as Lane's Prince Albert, were dwarfed 
beyond complete recovery. 

Mr. Pickering repeats his earlier conclu- 
sion to the effect that the injurious results 
of growing trees under grass are due to 
a toxic substance developed by the grass, 
and his elaborate pot experiments are cited 
in confirmation of this conclusion. Dr. E. 
J. Russell contributes an article to the re- 
port, in which the same conclusion is set 
forth. 

The great improvement in the growth of 
trees which takes place after grass has been 
dug in is partly explained by experiments 
indicating apparently that the leachings 
from grass roots, though injurious to trees 
or plants when allowed to reach their roots 
without oxidation, become beneficial after 



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July 25, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



75 



exposure to the air. No toxic element 
has been actually detected, and the hope of 
identifying it, Dr. Russell explains, is 
dimmed by the quickness with which it 
becomes oxidised when exposed to the 
atmosphere. 

It is further pointed out that the sup- 
posed toxio action of the emanations fron. 
the roots of grass and other plants may 
be either direct or indirect, in the latter 
case acting through the agency of bacteria 
in the soil. 

Both Mr. Pickering and Dr. Russell 
maintain that the results of their experi- 
ments exclude all suggested causes of the 
deficient growth of trees under grass other 
than the toxio action of the grass roots 
upon the roots of the trees, either directly 
or by affecting injuriously the beneficial 



than clean maiden or two-year-old bushes 
planted without rendering a plantation 
barren for three years. 

The vexed subject of deficient weight in 
town manure conveyed by rail is well 
treated in the report, and evidence is given 
of fraudulent conduct on the part of some 
contractors, and of negligence on the part 
of a railway company. 



Our Supplementary Illustration. 

Gloriosa Rothschildiana, one of the showiest of 
the climbing Lilies, forms the subject of this 
week's coloured illustration. The original form 
of Gloriosa Rothschildiana was collected by 
Major H. B. Rattray in the Victoria Nyanza 
region, Uganda, and it flowered at Tring Park. 
It was described and illustrated in the 



the better from the less showy kinds. In scien- 
tific classification the species are by some autho- 
rities divided into climbing and dwarf or non- 
climbing, but the division is artificial, for all 
are provided in some degree with the tendril-like 
continuations to the leaves, which prove that, 
morphologically, they are all climbers. The 
species are easy to cultivate if the proper seasons 
of growth and rest are observed. To begin with, 
in early spring the dry tubers should be potted 
singly in small pots in sandy peat and loam. 
When growth commences they should be given 
a shift into large pots, using sandy loam and 
leaf-mould for the compost. The plants should 
then be placed in the warm house, each 
beneath that part of the roof over which they 
are intended to run, and strings placed for them 
to run over. When the growths are well ad- 
vanced flower commences and continues until 
the resting season arrives. If portable plants 
for decorative purposes are required the 




Fig. 30. — gloriosa rothschildiana citrina : colour of flower, citron-yellow and claret-purple. 



bacteria of the soil. The conclusion would 
be more convincing if the poison could 
be isolated and identified. 

A trial of immersing cuttings of Black 
Currants in hot water for the purpose of 
killing mites in big buds proved a failure, 
as a temperature high enough to destroy the 
mites killed nearly all the cuttings also. 
It is to be observed that no cuttings con- 
taining big buds should be used for raising 
bushes. They should be taken from young 
bushes which have not become visibly in- 
fested. Another experiment, not yet con- 
cluded, is that of cutting infested bushes 
to the ground level and repeating the 
operation in the next two seasons. This 
is said to have proved completely success- 
ful in one instance. It is an expensive 
way of raising bushes, and in all proba- 
bility those ultimately raised if free from 
mite at first •will not remain so longer 



Gardeners' Chronicle, May 23, 1903, p. 323. The 
flowers, reduced in our Coloured Plate, are over 
6 inches across. This form is still by far the best. 
the later importations, which vary much in size 
and colour, not being equal to it. The variety 
citrina (see fig. 30) has citron-yellow flowers 
with claret-purple bands, and closely approaches 
the Lake Tanganyika form known as G. Car- 
sonii. As with some sections of Lilium, the 
botanical features in Gloriosa whi'oh serve 
to distinguish between the different species 
are but slender, the chief specific char- 
acters being those of size and colour rather 
than of structure. Primarily, most of the 
species can be placed under either G. superba 
or G. virescens (simplex), G. Rothschildiana 
and G. 'Carsonii coming under the latter 
species, but for garden purposes the great supe- 
riority of the above-mentioned varieties over the 
Natal form of G. virescens known as G. Plantii 
and the more inferior typical forms from some 
other localities renders it desirable to keep the 
names at present in use in order to distinguish 



growths should be trained round wire globes or 
sticks placed round the edges of the pots. The 
turning yellow of the leaves and decay of the 
stems indicate that no more water is required, 
and the plants in the pots as they are should be 
stored in a dry place in a temperate house and 
water withheld until the growing season comes 
round again. During the period of growth weak 
liquid manure may be given with benefit. 

Royal Horticultural Society.— The 

next meeting of the committees will take place 
on Tuesday, the 28th inst., in the Vincent 
Square Hall, Westminster. At the .three o'clock 
meeting in the Lecture Room the Rev. Canon 
Horsley, M.A., will deliver an address on 
"Swiss and Alpine Flora." 

Appointments from Kew.— Mr. F. Glover 
and Mr. W. N. Evans, members of the garden- 
ing staff of the Royal Botanic Gardens have been 
appointed, on the recommendation of Kew, Sub- 
inspectors for the purposes of the Destructive 
Insects and Pests Acts under the Board of Agri- 
culture and Fisheries. 



7li 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 25, 1914. 



Forestry Conference at the Anglo- 
American Exposition.— The conference ar- 
ranged in connection with the Forestry Ex- 
hibition at the Anglo-American Exposition, 
Shepherd's Bush, took place on Thursday, 
July 16. The morning session commenced 
.it 11 a.m., when Sir Herbert Maxwell, 
Bart., presided, and in the afternoon the 
• hair was taken by Sir William Schlich. 
Four papers were read, and both these and the 
discussions proved exceedingly interesting and 
instructive. Unfortunately the audience was 
small, being limited to about 25 persons in the 
morning and 35 in the afternoon. 

London- Gardens.— This is the title of an 
association organised by Mrs. Sullivan, 32, Vic- 
toria Street, Westminster, for the purpose of 
encouraging the cultivation of small gardens in 
London and also to interest town dwellers 
generally in window and roof gardening. The 
first annual exhibition will be held in the Royal 
Horticultural Hall, Vincent Square, Westmin- 
ster, on September 9. Amateur horticultural 
societies, associations, and individual exhibitors 
within the L.C.C. area are invited to compete 
for the prizes in the various classes. 

Cider Apples in the Cherbourg Vice- 
Consular district.— The crop of cider Apples 
in the Cherbourg district promises to be above 
an average, and nearly as good as that of 1913, 
which was exceptionally large. There being a 
large reserve of cider from last year growers 
will probably be glad to find an outlet for the 
1914 crop, and there should be a fair amount of 
Apples available for export from the district 
at reasonable prices. 

Thunderstorms at Kew.— The Kew Bul- 
l"tin records that on two occasions within a 
month of each other, in May and June last, two 
Atlas Cedars in Kew were struck by lightning. 
On the first occasion, the evening of May 22, one 
of the tall Atlas Cedars forming the avenue from 
the Pagoda to the south-west end of the lake was 
struck and its bark torn off in a curious spiral, 
the rupture encircling the trunk three or four 
times. Some of the bark was thrown thirty 
to forty yards away. During the same storm 
three flagstones in the paved path that sur- 
rounds the iron fence of the Japanese gateway 
(which stands not far from the Cedar) were 
lifted from the ground — one of them turned com- 
pletely over. The Cedar struck on the second 
occasion stands in the Rose garden. The bark 
'if this tree was also partially peeled off, but 
the injury was not so great as in the case of 
the tree struck during the earlier storm. 

Damage at a Nursery.— An act of vandal- 
ism, involving an estimated loss of £200, was 
committed at Messrs. Fatrbairns', Botcherby 
Nurseries, Carlisle, last week. Many Sweet Peas 
were observed to be flagging, and on examina- 
tion it was discovered that the plants had been 
salted. The wire supports had a^so been re- 
moved. So far no clue has been obtained of the 
l>erpetrators of the outrage. 

Gooseberry Mildew.— At the Old Street 
Police Court on Wednesday last summonses 
under the Gooseberry Mildew Order (1914) were 
heard against a number of fruit growers in the 
Maidstone district of Kent, and the evidence Was 
to the effect that in all cases quantities of Goose- 
berries affected with the disease to a greater or 
lesser extent had been consigned by defendants 
to Spitalfields Market for sale. Penalties were 
imposed in five cases. 



be of some interest to those who admire relics of 
antiquity of this kind. This tree stands in 
Ber6ted churchyard, near Bognor, Sussex. It is 
about 30 feet high, as near as I could tell, and is 
5 feet in diameter across the hollow part of the 
trunk at about 3 feet from the ground, so that the 
girth when entire would be about 15 feet. The 
hollow faces the west, and the shell of wood that 
now remains is about 6 to 8 inches thick. The 
top of the tree is broken off, and the effect of the 
westerly winds is seen by the manner in which 
the development of branches in that direction is 
arrested, so that the tree is lop-sided and has been 
propped up to prevent its destruction by gales of 
wind. There appears to be no definite history of 
it, but its age is reported to be about 800 years. 
This, however, seems very doubtful, as, accord- 
ing to Dr. Lowe, the rate of growth of the Yew 
i6 at the most about 1 foot in diameter in 70 
years, which would make the age of this tree 
between 350 and 400 years. N. E. Brown. 

Table Decorations at the National 
Rose Society's Show. -Great inconvenience 
was caused to the exhibitors, mostly ladies, of 
the decorated tables, baskets, bowls, and vases 
at the Metropolitan Rose Show of the N.R.S. by 
the shaky condition of the boarded floor. If the 




Fig. 31. 



-OLD YEW IN BERSTED CHURCHYARD, 
SUSSEX. 



HOME CORRESPONDENCE. 

An Old Yew Tree.— The decrepit Yew 
tree shown in fig. 31 appears to have been un- 
known to. Dr. J. Lowe, as it is not enumerated in 
lis well-known book on The Tew Trees of 
Great Britain and Ireland, and may therefore 



members of the Executive Committee are not 
aware of this defect the steward in charge should 
point it out to them and the great inconveni- 
ence caused to the exhibitors. It will be realised 
by all who have competed in such classes that a 
firm table is essential for the proper arrangement 
of decorative exhibits. Complaints were heard 
on all sides. Judging from a cursory survey the 
tent was erected on a slope; it is convenient in so 
far as it is near to the other tents. To obviate the 
inconvenience of the sloping ground a boarded 
floor is laid, but with an insufficient foundation, 
so that when the floor is walked upon it bends and 
sways considerably. Take the case of a central 
vase on a table, which is oscillated here and there 
by continued tramping. A central or side flower 
is fixed in position, the next moment it is lean- 
ing in an opposite direction. A large hole is 
made in the bunch by the swaying of the flowers, 
more bloom6 are put in to fill the gap, and a 
heavy, crowded centrepiece results. Visitors who 
do not realise the conditions criticise the tables 
adversely and unfairly. It is for the executive to 
amend this fault. Might I suggest the most ob- 
vious thing to do, if no other site is available, is 
to level the slope so that a level and firm turf 
base is assured ? The Executive cannot plead lack 
of funds as an excuse for not making this altera- 
tion. Expcrientia dortt. 



SOCIETIES. 

HORTICULTURAL CLUB. 

EXCURSION TO HATFIELD HOUSE AND 
BALLS PARK. 

July 15. — The annual outing of the Horti- 
cultural Club on July 15 was a most enjoyable 
event. The members and their friends met at 
the Hotel Windsor, Victoria Street (the head- 
quarters of the club), at 9.30 in the morning, 
and proceeded by motor to Hatfield House (see 
fig. 34). Here they were met by the head 
gardener, Mr. H. Prime, who escorted them 
over the famous domain of the Marquess 
of Salisbury, where the West Garden, enclosed 
by delightful alleys of Lime trees, and contain- 
ing a profusion of hardy flowers, received due 
meed of admiration. This garden contains 
gnarled Mulberry trees, said to have been 
planted by King James I., and adjoins Queen 
Elizabeth's palace, which has for many years 
been used as stabling, but is now being trans- 
formed into a banqueting hall. After lunch at 
the Red Lion Hotel a tour was made of the in- 
terior of Hatfield House, which is full of 
historical associations. On the first floor the 
members paused to admire from the windows 
the view of the plea6antly-wooded park, which 
contains many fine old trees, amongst them being 
the Oak under which the Princess Elizabeth was 
sitting when she received news of her accession 
to the throne of England. From the windows 
the patterns of the flower-beds of the eastern 
and southern sites of the house could be traced. 
and the wealth of bloom appreciated. 

Leaving Hatfield the party motored across to 
the county town of Hertford, and up the hill 
to Balls Park, where they were cordially re- 
ceived by Sir George and Lady Faudel-Phillips 
and their family. After tea, which was taken 
in the large drawing-room, the house was in- 
spected, and the party then proceeded to the 
garden, an extremely fine one, supervised by Mr. 
15. S. Faudel-Phillips, with the assistance of .t 
first-rate gardener (Mr. F. Fitch). Mr. Faudel- 
Phillips accompanied the visitors, and pointed 
nut the chief features of interest. Balls Park 
was described and illustrated in the Gardeners' 
Chronicle for March 21 last, when the 
origin of the name, which was taken 
from that of Simon de Ball — the owner 
during the time of King Edward I. — was 
noted. The visitors were enchanted with the 
herbaceous borders which were in the height of 
their beauty, and with the colour schemes of 
bold masses of blossom — a triumph of care and 
taste. In Nan's Garden (so named after a loved 
aunt) the Roses around the exquisite old Vene- 
tian wellhead were in all their summer glory, 
and testified. to the skill of the gardener as well 
as to the taste of the owner. The sunk garden 
in the wood (see fig. 35) is more beautiful 
than ever. From this garden runs the long 
shrubbery border, where a congenial home 
has been found for beautiful and valuable 
shrubs. In the flower garden it is the 
Polyantha Roses which provide the i bief 
floral display, and these mingle with the 
feathery plumes of Humea elegans and the 
tall standards of Wichuraiana hybi-ids. Nor 
does Balls Park rely solely on its floral features, 
for many of the trees are of more than passing 
interest. Mention may be made of an excep- 
tionally fine Catalpa bignonioides, a. Purple 
Beech, and a cut-leaved Oak, which embellish 
the smooth, green lawn near the house. After 
the tour of the beautiful garden refreshments 
were partaken of in the Hall, and on behalf of 
the club Mr. H. B. May expressed to Mr. B. S. 
Faudel-Phillips (and through him to Sir George 
and Lady Faudel-Phillips) the thanks of the 
visitors for the generous hospitality extended to 
them, and the pleasure it had given them to 
see the very beautiful gardens, of which they 
would all retain exceedinglv pleasant memories. 
In reply. Mr. Faudel-Phillips said that his 



July 25, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



77 



father and mother both regretted that they 
were not able to accompany them round the 
gardens, but it was a great pleasure to them to 
entertain the Horticultural Club. He added 
that one of the pleasures of gardening was the 
opportunity it afforded of meeting friends who 
shared the same interests and of admiring to- 
gether the plants and flowers loved by them all. 



ROYAL HORTICULTURAL. 

"MASTERS" MEMORIAL LECTURE. 

July 14. — The second of this year's Masters 
Lectures was delivered by Prof. J. B. Farmer, 
F.R.S., at Vincent Hall on the above-mentioned 
date. The lecturer took as his theme 
"The Relation of Plants to their Bio- 
logical Environment." The lecture opened 
with an account of the way in which plants 
grow in peculiar conditions, where the supply 
of available nutrition ia limited by external con- 
ditions. The relations of desert and of the high 
Alpine planus were adduced as examples, and tht- 
ways in which their Toot-systems are adapted 
to the environment, and the manner in which 
this affects the distribution of the plants them- 
selves, was discussed. The lecturer went on to 
consider the more intimate relations as they 
exist between social plants. The modes in 
which bacteria and fungi are mutually de- 
pendent on each other were cited as examples, 
and in particular the remarkable interaction of 
the nitrite and nitrate organisms was described. 
and it was shown how the shielding of the latter 
from the (to it) poisonous effect of ammonia 
compounds was secured by consortment with the 
nitrite organism, which, in its turn, provides 
the nitrate-producing species with the means of 
existence. 

The symbiosis of fungus and root to form 
mycorhiza was discussed, and the parasitic 
nature of the fungus, coupled with the ultimately 
prophylactic reaction of the root-tissues, was 
emphasised. The case of Qastrodia elata, a 
Japanese Orchid, was described, and actual 
spec'mens received from Prof. Rusano through 
Mr. Taheda were shown (see fig. 32). This 
Orchid, a terrestrial one, grows in the 
neighbourhood of Oak copses, and produces 
tuberous underground rhizomes. These dn 
not flower unless the tubers become infected 
by the creeping rhizomorphic strands of 
an agaric, Armillaria mellea, a fungus common 
in this country, where it often damages trees, 
and is responsible for much injury in Pine woods. 
When the strands envelop the tubers the fungous 
threads penetrate the tissues, and form a growth 
inside them. Thus stimulated, the tuber gives 
rise to other tuberous growths which form 
flowers. 

The questions of attack, predisposition, and 
immunity were discussed. The actual attack is 
the result of chemiotactic attraction, given either 
by the host or the parasite for the other part- 
ner. The process itself was illustrated by the 
behaviour of germinating pollen grains of Scilla 
growing on agar-agar plates. It was shown that 
a portion of the stigma of the flower acts as a 
ftrong source of attraction, causing the pollen 
tubes to deviate towards it from whatever other 
direction they might have been originally grow- 
ing (see fig." 33). This results from the dif- 
fusion of chemical substances — partly sugars — 
from the stigma. 

Predisposition was shown to be due to a con- 
siderable variety of causes, and only individual 
study could decide on its nature for a given in- 
stance. This and the securing of immunity is a 
subject of profound importance to horticulturists ; 
they present problems that can only be solved 
by the co-operation of the botanist and chemist 
with the horticulturist. That the faculty of im- 
munity is complex in its actual nature, "and dif- 
feis in various instances, was shown. It may 
be mechanical or chemical, and it may result 
from the Teaction to the poisonous influence of 
the parasite. The facts of mycorhiza again pre- 
sent indications of the way in which the matter 
may be approached, and the probability of the 
existence of a chemical basis for immunity was 
shown from the results of a study, as yet incom- 
plete, of the common inability of fungi to attack 
the nectaries despite the food-value of the exere 
tinn that nectaries discharge. 



NATIONAL SWEET PEA. 

July 16.— The fourteenth annual show of the 
above society took place at Vincent Square on 
the 16th inst. Although the quality of the 
blooms was not quite so high as was the case 
last year, it was far better than might have been 
expected in this unfavourable season. Some of 
the large trade displays of former years were 
missed, but the competitive classes provided a 




Fig. 32. — gastrodia elata, a Japanese terres- 
trial ORCHID INFECTED BY RHTZOMORPH3 
(ROOT-LIKE STRANDS) OF THE FUNGUS AHMIL- 
LARIA MELLEA — See text. 

brilliant display. As last year, the finest flowers 
were shown by a lady exhibitor. Then it was 
Mrs. F. E. Hall, Redbourn, Hertfordshire, who 
won this distinction. This year the honour 
t'^ll to Mrs. Macnamara, Comity Clare. 
White varieties were comparatively rare, prob- 
ably on account of the recent rains. There 
seems to be a lack of novelties this year, for 




H 






w*m 









..ta 

Fig. 33. — pollen grains of scilla sp. producing 
pollen-tubes : the latter attracted chemio- 
tactically toward the stigma of the 
plant — see text. 

only three new varieties Teceived Awards of 
Merit, and of these Royal Purple is practically 
a 1913 variety. 

Eighteen bunches, d istinct .—In this and the 



three following classes trade growers were ex 
eluded. Sir Randolf Baker, Bart., Blandford 
(gr. Mr. A. E. Usher), won the 1st prize. 
His flowers were of good size and fresh colour ; 
the stalks were long and stout, and the only 
fault which could be found was the large space 
between the top two and the lower flowers on 
many spikes. The principal varieties were May 
Campbell, Edith Taylor, Mrs. Cuthbertson, 
Dobbie's Cream, Marks Tey, Hercules and Prin- 
cess Victoria. Lord North, Wroxton Abbey, 
Banbury (gr. Mr. E. R. Janes), won the 2nd 
prize with very fine bunches of Thomas Steven- 
son, Barbara, Hercules and Lady E. Eyre; 3rd, 
Mr. Wallhusen, Pinhay, Lyme Regis. 

Twelve bunches, distinct. — Mrs. H. Mac- 
namara, Ennistymon House, Ennistymon, 
County Clare (gr. Mr. H. Hunter), far 
outdistanced the other competitors, and 
showed the finest collection in the show. 
Her bunches of Audrey Crier, T. Steven- 
son, Elsie Herbert, Hercules, and Mrs. Hard- 
castle Sykes were magnificent. 2nd, E. G-. 
Mocatta, Esq., Woburn Place, Addleston (gr. 
Mr. T. Stevenson), whose collection was note- 
worthy for fresh and beautifully coloured bunches 
of King Edward Spencer, New Marquis, Her- 
cules and Elsie Herbert ; 3rd, Miss Scrivens, 
MiUfield, BexhiU-on-Sea. 

Six bunches, distinct. — The varieties in this 
class were to be selected from those placed in 
commerce during the last two seasons. Mr. T. 
Jones, Ruabon, won the 1st prize with a beauti- 
ful set, which included King White, the best 
white Sweet Peas in the show ; his bunches of 
Agrieola and Illuminator were also very good ; 
2nd, Mr. E. Cowdy, Loughall, County Armagh, 
whose best blooms were of May Unwin and 
Margaret Atlec. 

Three bunches^ distinct, Pink or Cream 
Varieties. — The bunches of Hercules, Lilian 
and Gladys Bell shown by Mr. Lewis S. Peters, 
Tregarden House, St. Austell, who won the 
1st prize, were especially good ; 2nd, Mr. A. 
Wormald, Gainsborough, who showed Elfrida 
Pearson. 

Open Classes. 

Classification Class. — This class, which re- 
quired 18 varieties of separate colours, was in- 
tended to illustrate the society's colour distinc- 
tions, and to indicate the finest varieties in each 
colour. Sir George Trevelyan, Wallington 
Hall, __ Cannbo, Northumberland (gr. Mr. 
E. Keith), was the most successful ex 
hitor, but the exhibits in the class were 
not very attractive; there was too great a 
preponderance of mauvee and purples. It 
possessed, however, a certain educational value. 
The blooms of Barbara, Dobbie's Cream, Edrom 
Beauty, and Margaret Atlee were attractive ; 
2nd, F. Roper, Esq., Forde Abbey (gr. Mr. A. 
Shakelton). 

Twelve bunches, distinct.— Exhibitors in the 
previous class were debarred. Mrs. Macnamara 
won with a magnificent collection, which 
included King White, Sunproof Crimson, 
Barbara, May Campbell, and Rosabelle : 
2nd, Miss Scrivens. Sir Randolf Baker 
was the only exhibitor of 12 bunches 
in threes of cream-pink, lavender, orange and 
scarlet. _ His collection was strongest in the 
cream-pink section. He also won the 1st prize 
for 18 bunches of varieties taken from a selected 
list. 

Three bunches of Seedling Sweet Peas. — 
The exhibits in this class were not very en- 
couraging. The only first-rate variety was Royal 
Purple in the exhibit of Mr. R. Wright, 
Formby, Liverpool. Margaret, in the same ex- 
hibit, was of a good orange colour, but the 
petals were too thin in texture. 

There was a large competition in the class for 
12 bunches of waved Sweet Peas. Mr. E. 
Cowdy won the 1st prize with Margaret Linzie, 
King Alfred, and Mary Unwin, and other similar 
varieties; 2nd, Lewis S. Peters, Esq., who 
showed good blooms of Anglian Orange. 

The class for 3 bunches of the Helen Pierce 
type was not well contested. Mrs. Farnham, 
The Heights, W'itlcy, Surrey (gr. Mr. J. Ben- 
nington), showed the best bunches. E. G. 
Mocatta. Esq:, was the only exhibitor in the 



78 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 25, 1914. 



Burpee Cup Class, which requires a display of 
waved Sweet Peas in a space of 8 feet by 3 feet. 
This exhibit contained a large number of splen- 
did blooms, but was rather crowded. 

District Classes (Trade excluded). 
In the London class Mr. G. M. Morewood, 
South Ealing, won the 1st prize with a collection 
especially rich in crimsons. Mr. J. A. Grigor, 
Lea Park, Forres, N.B., won the 1st prize in the 
Scottish ilass with an exceedingly good exhibit. 
The Irish class, where Mrs. Macnamara won 
the 1st prize, was very strongly contested. The 
Welsh class also contained some good exhibits ; 
Mr. T. Jones was the most successful exhibitor. 
In the Northern Counties class Sir George 
Trevelyan took the first place with a collection 
which contained excellent blooms of Barbara 
and White Queen. Sir Randolf Baker won the 
1st prize in the Western Counties class, which 
was keenly contested. The Eastern Counties 
class was not so productive. Mrs. A. Hitch 
COCK, Brook House, Tiptree, won the 1st prize. 
Tin' Midland Counties class was not well filled. 
Lord' North was awarded the 1st prize. There 



in its lemon-coloured tint and paler rose margin. 
Shown by Messrs. Dobbie and Co. 

Royal Purple. — This very graceful variety, the 
colour of which is well described by its name, 
was the chief novelty in the class for seedling 
varieties last year. Shown by Messrs. Dobbie 
and Co. 

Fiery Cross. — This brilliant flower is reserved 
for a Silver Medal in 1915. The colour is a 
glowing cerise, nearly approaching scariet, with" 
a touch of purple at the base of the petals. 
Shown by Mr. A. Malcolm. 

Non-Competitive Exhibits. 

Gold Medals were awarded to Messrs. Dobbie 
and Co., Mr. S. Bide, Messrs. Hobbies, Ltd., 
MessTS. R. Sydenham, Ltd., Mr. R. Bolton, 
Messrs. Alex. Dickson and Son ; Silver-gilt 
Medals to Mr. James Box and Messrs. Jarman 
and Co. / and Silver Medals to Messrs. C. C. 
Morse and Co., California, Mr. H. J. Damerum, 
and Messrs. E. W. King and Co. 

ANNUAL DINNER. 

In the evening of the same day about sixty 
of the members were present at the Hotel 
Windsor at the annual dinner. The President, 



received in return no fewer than 240 lbs., being 
more than he could sell in five years. Mr. Frank 
Cuthbertson responded on behalf of the ladies, 
and, as a visitor from San Francisco, drew atten- 
tion to the Pan-Pacific Exposition u> be opened 
in February next. He hoped to sej many Sweet 
Pea growers present at the 6how, which would 
be the largest exhibition of its kind ever held. 

OUTING TO HINCKLEY. 

Twenty members visited Hinckley on the 
17th inst. for the purpose of viewing the trials 
at the Burbage Experimental Station. These 
Midland trials were instituted owing to the in- 
sistent demands of some of the more northern 
members, but it is evident that by discarding 
the southern trials the Society has gained 
nothing and lost much. 

Two hundred and nine varieties and seedlings 
were under trial, and, to the astonishment of 
many, some of the popular standard varieties 
were badly mixed. John Injman, for instance, 
contained not a single plant of the true variety, 
and even in the row of Dorothy Eckford there 
was a blue rogue. 

Many of the seedlings under number were also 



1 




Photograph by H. A T . King. 
Fig. 34. — hatfield house, Hertfordshire, the seat of the marquess of Salisbury, g.c.v.o 

(See " Horticultural Club," p. 76.) 



was a decided improvement in the Southern 
Counties class, in which Miss Scrivens won the 
1st prize. 

In the division for single-handed gardeners 
Mr. E. W. Humphrey, gardener to C. 
Hopton, Esq., Greenford, worn the 1st 
prize with an excellent set of 12 bunches. 
Mr. T. Jones won the Hawlmark Cup, 
which is only open to amateurs who either 
grow their own flowers or do not employ 
assistance for more than three days per week. 
The many dinner table decorations, which were 
arranged on round tables 3 feet in diameter, 
provided a charming display. Mrs. A. G. 
Gentle. Little Gaddesden, who arranged Clara 
Curtis Sweet Peas with graceful sprays of bronze 
foliage and spikes of Eragrostis elegans, won the 
1st prize ; Mr. A. Robinson, Carshalton, won 
the 2nd prize with Thomas Stevenson Sweet 
Peas, Gypsophila paniculata, and spikes of 
Lagurns ovatus. 

AWARDS OF MERIT. 

Jean Ireland. — A beautiful Sweet Pea 
which differs from Mrs. C. W. Breadmore 



Mr. Hugh Dickson, occupied the chair, and the 
guests included Mr. W. Atlee Burpee, Mr. El- 
dridge Brown, and Mr. Frank Cuthbertson, 
from America. 

In proposing the toast of " Continued Success 
to the National Sweet Pea Society," the chair- 
man stated that 145 new members and 22 affili- 
ated societies had been enrolled during the year. 
Although the show was not so good as usual, 
it was better than many had anticipated in such 
an unfavourable season. 

Mr. William Cuthbertson proposed the toast 
of "The Visitors and Ladies," and Mr. Burpee 
replied on behalf of the visitors. He stated that 
he was amazed at the wonderful show of flowers, 
especially after seeing the effectG of drought all 
over the country ; the quality of the blooms 
staged was equal to the high standard thot 
Britishers had set before the world. He referred 
to the death of Mr. Robert Sydenham, and he 
begged leave to toast his memory. Mr. Burpee 
stated, that he was the first co send Sweet Peas 
to California for 6eed purposes, some twenty or 
more years ago. He forwarded to Mr. Morse 
five pounds of the Imperial Blue variety, and 



more or less mixed. The three novelties that, 
have received Awards of Merit were very good ; 
there is no questioning the brilliancy and non- 
burning quality of Fiery Cross. Royal Purple 
is a distinct novelty, and Joan Ireland a good 
Picotee variety, although the colour was be- 
ginning to run. One or two other seedlings 
appeared to be deserving of notice, but it must 
be taken into consideration that the awards 
were made a week before, and the Floral Com- 
mittee perforce judged the varieties aG they 
appeared then, not as they were, a week later, 
after the continued drought and heat. 

After the visitors had inspected the trials 
Major Hurst showed his visitors some varia- 
tions that had cropped up in the culinary Pea, 
Laxtonian. Three years before this variety at- 
tracted his attention by its lack of trueness, and 
since then he has been developing single plant 
cultures. Many hundreds of these were under 
test. Several types, including the so-called 
Vetch type, which is almost sterile, were pointed 
out, but the most remarkable was a plant heal- 
ing purple flowers. Its appearance proved that 
Peas can be crossed by some outside agency. 



July 25, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



79 



Major Hurst had tracked down the male parent 
of this plant, but another season must elapse 
before he can decide whether the plant carries 
any Laxtonian blood. 



1 NATIONAL CARNATION AND PICOTEE 
(SOUTHERN SECTION). 

July 17. — -The annual show of the above 
society, which was held in Vincent Square on 
this date, did not attract a large attendance. In 
this early season the date was a little too late 
for the finest blooms to be shown 

First Division. 
Flowers Shown on Cards. 

Twelve Carnation blooms, Bizarres and 
Flakes, distinct. — Mr. H. R. Taylor, Cheam, 
won the 1st prize with a very even set 
of blooms. His best Bizarres were George 
Morland, Armourer, Opal and Amersham ; whilst 
Gordon Lewis, John Wormaldson and a pink 
seedling were the best Flakes ; 2nd, Mr. J. 
Douglas, Great Bookham. 

Twelve Carnation blooms, Selfs. — The com- 
petition was closer in this class, where Mr. < '. 
Blick, Hayes, Kent, won the 1st prize by reason 
of better form arid clearer colours ; such varie 
ties as Daffodil, Rosy Morn. Mrs. George Mar 
shall, Ashantee, Fujiyama and Bookham White 
being delightful specimens ; 2nd, Mr. J. 
Douglas. 

Twelve Carnation blooms, Fancies. — There 
was but little to choose between the 1st and 2nd 
prize collections in this class. Mr. J. Douglas, 
who was placed 1st, had exceedingly fine blooms 
of Lord Steyne, Linkman, Edenside, and Pas- 
quin, whilst Mr. C. Blick excelled with Donald 
McDonald, Linkman, Cyclops and Medusa. 

Twelve Picotee blooms, wliite around. — Mr. 
H. Taylor won the 1st prize. His narrow- 
edge blooms were Catherine, Favourite, and a 
purple seedling. Amongst the broad-edge flowers 
Mrs. Twist was especially good, as also was a 
brick-red seedling amongst those with medium 
margins ; 2nd, Mr. J. Douglas. 

Twelve Picotee blooms, yellow ground. — Mr. 
J. Douglas showed a very good collection in this 
class, and was awarded the 1st prize. Onward 
(narrow edge), Agnes (medium) and Marguerite 
Lemon (heavy) wers especially good; 2nd, Mr. 
H. R. Taylor, who had well-formed blooms of 
Gloria (medium) and Santa Claus (heavy). 

Flowers as Grown. 

These classes were much more attractive than 
the foregoing to the general visitor ; the vases of 
blooms accompanied by plentiful foliage and 
flower-buds made a goodly show. Mr. J. 
Douglas won the 1st prizes in the classes for 
Selfs, Fancies (other than white ground), white- 
ground Fancies and yellow-ground Picotees. 
In these classes 3 blooms each of 4 varieties wers 
shown ; and Mr. H. Lakeman, Thornton Heath, 
won the 2nd prizes, except for white-ground 
Fancies, where Mr. C. Blick received the award. 

In the class for 9 varieties of Selfs, Fancies 
and yellow-ground Picotees, Mr. J. Douglas 
won the 1st prize with good vases of such sorts 
as Miss Willmott, Elizabeth Shiffner and Czar ; 
2nd. Mr. C. Blick, who had splendid examples 
of Fujiyama and Rosy Morn. 

Second Division. 

Flowers on cards. — Mr. J. Falrlie, Acton, was 
the only exhibitor of Bizarres and Flakes, and 
received the 1st prize. Mr. W. H. Parton, 
Moseley, won the 1st prizes for Selfs and Fan- 
cies, and Mr. G. D. Ford, Acock's Green, was 
similarly successful in two Picotee classes. 

Flowers as grown. — The competition in these 
classes, which require 3 blooms of 1 variety, was 
the best in the show. Mr. W. H. Parton won 
the 1st prizes for pink or rose Selfs (showing 
Rosy Morn), wliite Selfs (Bookham White), 
and white-ground Fancies (The Nizam). Miss 
Shiffner, Lewes, was the most successful ex- 
hibitor with dark-red or maroon Selfs (Mrs. G. 
Marshall), and buff or terra-cotta Selfs (Eliza- 
beth Shiffner). Mr. R. Morton won 1st prizes 
for yellow Selfs (Daffodil), yellow-ground 
Picotees (F. W. Goodfellow), and yellow or buff 
ground Fancies (Linkman). Mr. G. D. Ford 



won the 1st prizes for red or scarlet Selfs (Fuji- 
yama) and any other variety Self (Duchess of 
Wellington). Mr. W. H. Parton, Moseley, 
showing a good selection, was awarded the 1st 
prize for 6 distinct varieties, 2 vases of etch, 
and he also won the Martin Smith Memorial 
Challenge Cup with a splendid collection of 
such varieties as Edenside, Rosy Morn and 
Becky Sharp. 

Open Classes. 

In the following 10 classes, 9 blooms of one 
variety with Carnation foliage, were shown in 
separate vases. The 1st prizes were won by 
Mr. W. H. Parton for pink or rose Selfs (Rosy 
Morn) and yellow-ground Picotees (Exquisite) ; 
Mr. J. Douglas, for white Selfs (Bookham 
White), dark-red Selfs (Mrs. G. Marshall), 
scarlet Selfs (Fujiyama), any other variety 
(Purple Emperor) ; Mr. H. Lakeman, for yellow- 
ground Picotees (Father O'Flynn) and ETanoies 
other than yellow or buff ground (The Bride) ; 
and Miss Shiffner, for buff Selfs (Elizabeth 
Shiffner). 

The best vase of seedling Carnations was 
shown by Mr. V. Charrington, Hever. 



BIRMINGHAM HORTICULTURAL. 

July 16, 17, 18.— The summer show of this 
bocety was held in Handsworth Park on the 
above dates. Hitherto the show has been a two 
day fixture, but on this occasion it continued 
tor three days. The large groups of plants in 
the open class were very fine. Roses, too, were 
good, and better border Carnations have never 
been seen at Handsworth. Unfortunately, it was 
not stated in the schedule if Carnation flowers 
were to be shown as grown with buds and 
foliage, or whether dressed or undressed flowers 
on boards were admissible, consequently both 
methods of staging were adopted. This omis- 
sion gave rise to discontent among some of the 
exhibitors. Tree Carnations were not exten- 
sively shown, but the display which gained a 
Gold Medal, as well as the Silver Cup offered 
for the best non-competitive exhibit <n the show 
was much appreciated. 

With a few exceptions, Sweet Peas were of 
indifferent quality, owing to the effects of the 
recent trying weather. Although not numeri- 
cally strong, fruit was fairly good, especially 
the exhibits from Hugh Mitchell, Esq., of 




lienor 

Photograph by H. N. King. 

Fig. 35. — the sunken garden at balls park. 

(See " Horticultural Club "—p. 76.) 



Premier Blooms. 
Carnations on Cards. 
Bizarre : Armourer, by Mr. H. R. Taylor. 
Plate : Gordon Lewis, by Mr. H. R. Taylor. 
Fancy: Linkman, by Mr. C. Blick. 
Selfs: Maud Allan, "by Mr. W. H. Parton. 

Picotees on Cards. 

Yellow, heavy edge: Her Majesty, by Mr. C. 
Blick. 

Yellow, tight edge : Eclipse, by Mr. G. D. 
Ford. 

White, heavy edge: Radiant, by Mr. J. 
Douglas. 

White, light edge: Catherine, by Mr. H. R. 
Taylor. 

Carnations as Grown. 

White-ground Fancy: Lass O'Gowrie, by Mr. 
C Blick. 

Fancy: Becky Sharp, by Mr. W. H. Parton, 
Self : Bookham White, by Mr. J. Douglas. 

Picotees as Grown. 

Yellow, heavy edge: F. W. Goodfellow, by 
Mr. Morton. 

Yellow, light edge: Onward, by Mr. W. H. 
Parton. 



Droitwich, who was very successful in this de- 
partment. 

The Lord Mayor of Birmingham presided at 
the opening ceremony, which was performed by 
Lady Calthorpe. 

Plants (Open). 

The principal class was for a group of plants 
arranged in a space of 300 square feet. Last 
year's exhibitors were the only competitors 
on th's occasion, and each adopted the 
same style of arrangement. The now familial- 
rustic arch, decorated with flowering and foliage 
plants, crowned with a specimen Palm, marked 
the centre of the group, which faced two ways. 
The 1st prize was well won by Messrs. James 
Cypher and Sons, Cheltenham, whose artisti- 
cally-arranged group contained a fine variety of 
richly-coloured Codiaeums, Pandanus Veitchii, 
Begonia Rex varieties, Alocasias, Caladiums, 
Nandina domestica, Ferns and Selag'nellas. Of 
flowering plants, Phalaenopsis, with large sprays 
of bold flowers, handsome spikes of Oncidiums 
and Odontogiossums, together with Vanda 
coerulea and Cypripediums, were the principal 
Orchids employed. Pleasing colour was pro- 
vided by the introduction of Clerodendron 
fallax, Kalanchoe flammea and Ixoras, which 



80 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 25, 1914. 



were used with excellent effect. Tall, graceful 
specimens of Humea elegans placed near the 
centre arcb gave a lightness and grace that was 
greatly admired. The group was edged with 
the dainty-leaved Caladium argyrites, the rich 
orange berried Nertera depressa and Selagin- 
ella ; 2nd, Sir George H. Kenrick, Whetstone. 
Edgbaston (gr. Mr. J. V. Macdonald), with a 
nicely-arranged group composed largely of well- 
grown and beautifully-coloured Codiaeums and 
other foliage plants. Although fewer flowering 
plants were displayed in Sir George's group than 
in that of Messrs. Cypher's, some splendid 
specimens of Epidendrum viteilinum, together 
with Oncidiums and Odontoglossums, were well 
shown ; 3rd, Mr. W. R. Manning, Dudley. 

Of the three exhibits in a class for 12 stove 
or greenhouse plants, of which no fewer than 6 
were to be in flower, the 1st prize was also won 
by Messrs. James Cypher and Sons, who had 
huge, well-flowered specimens of Clerodendron 
Balfouri, Ixora Williamsii, Statice intermedia 
and Bougainvillea Sanderiana. The best of the 
foliage plants were Codiaeum Flambeau and 
Kentia australis ; 2nd, J. A. Kenrick, Esq., 
Berrow Court, Edgbaston (gr. Mr. A. Cryer), 



Roses. 

The leading class for Roses was for a collec- 
tion of varieties arranged on a table space of 20 
feet by 5 feet. Messrs. Gunn and Sons, Olton, 
Birmingham, were the only contestants, and 
they were awarded the 1st prize for a magnifi- 
cent display, in which tall arches and pillars 
clothed with flowers stood over mounds, baskets 
and vases containing blooms of high merit. The 
most striking varieties were Irish Elegance, 
Juliet. Frau Karl Druschki, Duchess of Welling- 
ton, Lady Hillingdon, Gottfried Keller and 
Ramblers. 

Mr. John Mattock, Oxford, won the 1st prize 
for a dozen bunches of garden Roses. He showed 
beautifully fresh flowers of Madame Segond 
Webber, General Macarthur, Lady Godiva, 
Gustave Regis. Hiawatha and a 6uperb bunch 
of Mts. Herbert Stevens ; 2nd, Mr. W r . T. Mat- 
tock, Oxford, who had Betty, Pharisaer, Blush 
Rambler and Lady Gay in splendid condition ; 
3rd. Messrs. Gunn and Sons. 

There were eight exhibits of Roses in bowls, 
but none of outstanding merit. 

Forty-eight blooms, distinct. — Mr. John Mat- 
roCK took the lead in this class with superb 




1. N. King. 



Fig. 36. — roses and ltltes at balls pabk. 
(See report of Horticultural Club excursion— p. 76.) 



whose best flowering specimen was Clerodendron 
Balfouri ; 3rd, Mr. W. R. Manning. 

The clas6 for 6 Caladiums only attracted one 
exhibitor, viz., J. A. Kenrick, Esq., who was 
awarded 1st prize. 

In a class for Rock and Water-gardens, com- 
petition was disappointing. The space allowed 
was 30 feet by 30 feet, against a background of 
trees and shrubs in the open air. The 3rd prize 
was awarded to The Grove Lane Nurseries, 
Handsworth, who had an assortment of dwarf 
shrubs and a variety of flowering plants. 

The best exhibit of Fuchsias came from C. A- 
Palmer, Esq., Handsworth (gr. Mr. A. H. 
Fordl, who was deservedly awarded the 1st 
prize ; 2nd, J. A. Kenrick, Esq. 
Cut Flowers (Open). 

Only one exhibit was made in a special 
new class for hardy flowers, arranged to 
represent a growing flower border, in a space of 
20 feet by 10 feet. Vases were allowed, but 
they were not to be more than 18 inches above 
the ground line. No duplicate or mixed bunches 
were admissible except as an edging, which was 
restricted to flowers of one colour. The 3rd 
prize was awarded to Messrs. Holder and Tilt, 
Erdington, who showed Oriental Poppies, Del- 
phiniums, Oenotheras, Erigeron speciosus and 
Obrvwinthemum maximum. 



specimens of Earl of Gosforth, Her Majesty, 
Ben iCant, Edward Mawley, Avoca, Comtesse de 
Turenne, Mts. W. E. Miller, Lyon, Comtesse 
de Raimbaud, Mrs. A. E. Coxhead, Hugh Dick- 
son, Suzanne Marie Rodocanachi, Claudius and 
W. E. Lippiatt; 2nd, Messrs. Perkins and Sons, 
who showed lovely flowers of Mildred Grant, 
Mrs. Cornwallis-West, Lieutenant Chaure, Cap- 
tain Havward and M. M. Soupert ; 3rd. Mr. 
W. T. Mattock. 

Twenty-four blooms, distinct. — The last- 
named exhibitor was placed first with delight- 
fully fresh and substantial blooms of Gloire de 
i Ihedane Guinoisseau (premier bloom), Alfred 
Colomb. Marie Baumann, George Dickson, Lyon, 
Fisher Holmes, Mrs. A. E. Coxhead, Gustave 
Piganeau, Frau Karl Druschki, William Shean, 
Claudius and Caroline Testout : 2nd, Messrs. 
Perkins and Sons; 3rd, Mr. John Mattock. 

Eighteen blooms, distinct. — The best of 5 ex- 
hibits in this class came from Mr. W. T. Mat- 
tock, who had exquisite specimens of Mrs. A. E. 
Coxhead, Frau Karl Druschki, J. B. Clarke, 
Gloire de Chedane Guinoisseau, Horace Vernet. 
Dr. 0. Brown. Mrs. J. H. Walsh and Ulrich 
Brunner : 2nd, Messrs. Perkins and Sons. 

Twilvi blooms of Tea varieties, distinct. — 
Only 4 exhibits were placed before the judges. 
svho ."aided the 1st prize to Messrs. Perkins 



and Sons, who showed handsome flowers of Molly 
Sharman Crawford, Dean Hole, Mrs. Foley 
Hobbs, Harry Kirk and Mrs. Herbert Stevens. 
In Messrs. Gunn and Son's 2nd prize stand. 
Hugo Roller, Madame Jules Gravereaux and 
W. R. Smith were noteworthy; 3rd, Mr. W. T. 
Mattock. 

t ahxations (Open). 

Tree Carnations were not numerous, but 
border varieties were strongly represented. The- 
Clury Nurseries, Langley, Bucks, were the 
only exhibitors of Tree Carnations, occupying a 
space of 6 feet by 4 feet. They showed large 
bunches of Enchantress, British Triumph, Mrs. 
C. W. Ward, Sunstar, White Perfection and 
Mrs. T. W. Law-son ; 2nd prize awarded. 

There were 6 grand entries in the class for 
12 self-coloured Carnations, 1st, Mr. F. W. 
Goodfellow, Walsall, whose large, much- 
dressed flowers, arranged on white paper 
collars, were of surprisingly good quality. 
Messrs. A. R. Brown. Ltd., King's Nor- 
ton, were awarded the 2nd prize for 
blooms shown as grown, with Carnation buds 
and foliage, which made a very pretty show. 
The best varieties included specimens of John 
Knox, H. J. Thornton, Mrs. Robert Berkeley, 
Cardinal and Mrs. George Marshall; 3rd, Mr. 
W. H. Parton, Moseley (gr. Mr. G. R. Rudd). 

In a class for 12 yellow-ground fancy Carna- 
tions, Mr. F. W. Goodfellow was again placed 
first with very large, heavily-built blooms. 
The premier border Carnation, Linkman, 
was included in this very fine stand of 
dressed flowers; 2nd, Messrs. A. R. Brown, 
Ltd., whose flowers were shown naturally, 
and were much admired. The varieties 
Hercules, Bombardier, Hera, Watchman, Link- 
man, Sam Weller and Donald McDonald were 
ot exceptional merit. 

In the next class, which was for 12 Fancy 
(ai nations other than yellow or buff ground 
varieties, Messrs. A. R. Brown, Ltd. excelled 
with superb flowers of Lass o' Cowrie, Captain, 
The Nizam, Millie, Flirt., Rhoda, Mrs. Andrew 
Brotherston, Gipsy Love, Salome, The Bride, 
Melrose Beauty and Octavia ; 2nd, Mr. R. 
Bruce Watte, Harborne. 

The last-named exhibitor beat Messrs. A. R. 
Brown, Ltd., in the next class, which was for 
12 Flake and Bizarre Carnations, with ex- 
quisitely-formed, well-coloured flowers. Tin 
most noteworthy varieties were George Mel- 
ville, J. S. Hedderley, Peter Pan, Master Fred. 
Sportsman and Gordon Lewis. Messrs. Brown's 1 
best flowers were Claude Lorraine, Cleopatra. 
Guardsman and Flamingo. 

Three competitors showed in the next class, 
which was for 12 white-ground Picotees. 
Messrs. A. R. Brown, Ltd., who won 
the 1st prize, exhibited beautifully clean, 
even-sized, stout-petalled flowers of John 
Smith, Favourite, Dorothy, Edmund Short- 
house, Muriel Stevens, Mrs. Cooper, Mrs. (I. 
Chaundy, Lavinia and W. H. Twist; 2nd, Mr. 
R. Bruce Watte,- 3rd, Messrs. W. Pemberton 
and Son. 

In the corresponding class for twelve yellow- 
ground Picotees, Mr. F. W. Goodfellow took 
the lead with dressed flowers displayed on paper 
collars. 2nd. Mr. W. H. Parton, whose flowers 
were well set up in vases, relieved with Carna- 
tion buds and foliage. 

Miscellaneous Cut Flowers (Open). 

The best of two exhibits in a class for a 
dozen bunches of Violas came from Mr. H. 
Allen, Handsworth, whose handsome flowers 
were well arranged. 

For a collection of Sweet Peas occupying a 
space of 20 feet by 4 feet Messrs. Herd- 
Brothers, Penrith, and Messrs. E. W. King 
& Co., Coggeshall, Essex, were placed 1st and 
2nd respectively. In a similar but smaller 
class, Sir Robert Graham. Bart., Carlisle (gr. 
Mr. G. F. Hallett). won the 1st prize with excel- 
lent flowers. 

Messrs. T. B. Grove and Sons, Sutton Cold- 
field, gained the 1st prize for twenty-four 
bunches of hardy border flowers, in not fewer 
than eighteen varieties. The specimens ex- 
hibited were particularly good, and displayed to 
the best advantage. 



July 25, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



81 



The first prize in a class for one bride's 
bouquet and two bridesmaid's bouquets was 
won by Messrs. Perkins and Sons. The bride's 
bouquet consisted almost entirely of Orchids, 
and pink Carnations were used in the other two 
bouquets. 

Messrs. W. Pemeerton and Son, Bloxwich, 
and Mr. J. Bastock, Moseley, won the 1st and 
2nd prizes respectively in a class for the most 
tasteful arrangement of Pansies and Violas. 

Tables Decorated with Flowers and Fruit. 

There were thirteen exhibits in a class for 
tables decorated with flowers (Orchids excluded). 
1st, Sir Robert Graham, Bart., Carlisle (gr. 
Mr. G. F. Hallett), who had yellow and deep 
heliotrope-coloured Carnations. Relief was 
afforded by the introduction of Selaginella and 
Asparagus. 2nd, Mrs. E. Winchester, Rubery, 
who used large, bright pink Carnations. 

In another class for dinner-tables decorated 
with fruit and flowers, and laid for six per- 
sons, H. Mitchell, Esq., Droitwich (gr. Mr. C. 
(■rooks), was the only exhibitor. He showed 
Peaches, Nectarines, Cherries, Melons and 
Grapes. The decorations consisted of pale pink 
I 'a inations. 

A new class for table decorations reserved 
for ladies was well contested. The first prize, 
a solid silver tea service, value 15 guineas, pre- 
sented by Mrs. William A. Cadbury, was won 
by Mrs. Macdonald, whose light and graceful 
arrangement of Oncidiums, Epidemlrum vitelli- 
num, Phalaenopsis and pale-coloured Cattleyas. 
relieved with sprays of well-coloured Selaginella 
and trails of Ceropegia Woodii, was greatly ad- 
mired. 

Plants (Open to Gentlemen's Gardeners AND 
Amateurs.) 

Competition was weak in most of tin - 
classes. The most successful exhibitor was 
•T. A. Kenrick, Esq., who won the 1st prize for 
a group of plants occupying 15 feet by 8 feet, 
with a single frontage. The group, which was 
beautifully arranged, included" Orchids, Kalan- 
choes. Amaryllis, Crassulas, Trachaeleum coeru- 
leiini. Caladiums, Abutilons, Clerodendron 
fallax, Humea elegans, reddish-leaved Codi- 
aeums, and Palms. The same exhibitor was 
awarded 1st prizes for (1) six stove or green- 
house plants, (2) six exotic Ferns, (3) three 
Zonal Pelargoniums, (4) three Ivy-leaved Polar 
goniums, (5) collection of Ferns. 'and (6) twelve 
flowering plants. 

J. A. Kenrick, Esq., Harborne (gr. Mr. R. 
I slier), won the 1st prizes in classes for (1) six 
single Begonias, (2) six double Begonias, and 
(3) six table plants. C. A. Palmer, Esq., 
Handsworth (Mr. A. H. Ford), took the lead 
in classes for (1) small group of plants, (2) three 
Liliums, (3) six pots of Verbenas, and |4) twelve 
Streptocarpus. The Verbenas and Streptocar- 
pus were uncommonly good. 

Fruit (Open). 

In a class for a collection of fruit displayed 
<m separate tables, 6 feet by 4 feet, there were 
three exhibits. 1st, Hugh Mitchell, Esq., 
Droitwich (gr. Mr. C. Crooks), who showed 
Black Hamburgh. Madresfield Court, and Mus- 
cat of Alexandria Grapes, excellently coloured 
James Grieve and Beauty of Bath Apples. 
Givon's Late Prolific and Waterloo Strawberries. 
Humboldt Nectarine, Dymond and Bellegarde 
Peaches, July Greengage. Royal Duke Cherries 
and a pair of Melons. Carnations were used as 
decorations. 2nd, Hugh Andrews, Esq.. 
Winchcombe (gr. Mr. J. R. Tooley), whose best 
dishes were Grapes. Peaches, arid Figs. 3rd. 
Mi'. N. Buxton. Nottingham. 

Hugh Mitchell, Esq. (gr. Mr. C. Crooks . 
also won 1st prizes for (1) two bunches of black 
Granes, (2) two bunches of white Grapes, (3l 
scarlet-fleshed Melon and (4) one dish of Straw- 
berries. Mr. N. Buxton showed the best 
white-fleshed Melon, and Sir Francis Lloyd. 
Oswestry (gr. Mr. W. T. Staward). won 1st 
prizes for (1) Red Currants and (2) Goose- 
berries. The best dish of Black Currants was 
exhibited by F. E. Muntz. Esq.. Hocklev Heath 
(gr. Mr. H. S. Foster). 

Vegetables. 
In a class for nine kinds of vegetables there 
were five exhibits. 1st. Hugh Andrews, Esq.. 



Winchcombe (gr. Mr. J. R. Tooley); 2nd, F. E. 
Muntz, Esq. ^gr. Mr. H. S. Foster). 

Special prizes were offered by Messrs. Webb 
and Sons for six kinds of vegetables. 1st, F. E. 
Muntz, Esq. (gr. Mr. H. S. Foster), who also 
secured the leading prize offered by Messr . 
Dickson and Robinson for six kinds' of vege- 
tables. 

A handsome silver challenge cup, presented 
by the proprietors of the Birmingham Daily 
Mail, was offered for the best display of pro- 
duce, including flowering plants, cut flowers, 
fruit and vegetables, in a space of 8 feet by 
5 feet. The conditions attached to the cup 
were that the exhibitor must not employ help 
more than one day per week on an average 
throughout the year. The winner was Mr. A. T. 
Rainbow, Northfield, who showed a comprehen- 
sive collection. 

Honorary Exhibits. 

Gold Medals were awarded to Messrs. E. \\ 
King and Co., Coggeshall, Essex, for a large 
collection of Sweet Peas; Messrs. Fred Smith 
\nd Co., Woodbridge ; for a splendid collection 
of hardy flowers, displayed on low si 
Large bunches of Gaillardias, Liliums, Heu- 
cheras, Phloxes, HeJeniunis, xritomas and 
Gladiolus were prominent features; Messr6. 
Webb and Sons, Stourbridge, for a beautifully 
arranged collection of choice fruit, vegetabl* - 
and flowers; the Guildford Hardy Plant 
Nursery, Guildford, for a nicely constructed 
and well-planted rock garden; Messrs. Hewitt 
and Co., Solihull, for hardy Bowers in great 
variety; Messrs. H. B. May and Sons, I ip 
Edmonton, I'm' a collection of choice 
Messrs. Dobbte \ni> Co., Edinburgh, for a large 
display of Roses ; the Cliiiy Nubsebies, Lang- 
ley, for a. splendid group of lice Carnations. 

A Silver Medal was also awarded to this group 
as being the best non-competitive exhibit in 
the show. 

Silver-Gilt Medals were awarded to Messrs. 
A. R. Brown, Ltd., King's .Norton, for Roses 
in pots and cut blooms ; Messrs. J. Cheal and 
^ons. Crawley, for a pretty rock garden; 
Messrs. W. H. Simpson and Sons. Birmingham, 
lor new Antirrhinums and miscellaneous border 
flowers; Mr. H. X. Ems, for Cacti and Ferns. 

Silver Medals were awarded to Mr. DOUGLAS 
Leigh, Hampton-in-Arden, for Doses; Messrs. 
Isaac House and Son. Westbury-on-Trym, 
a very bright group of hardy cut flowers and 
uncommon hardy plants in pans; Mr. John Bar- 
nett, King's Norton, for Roses ; Messrs. Pipers, 
London, for hardy cut flowers and Alpine 
plants ; Messrs. Gunn and Sons, Olton, for a 
pleasing arrangement of fragrant Phloxes ; 
Messrs. Holder and Tilt, Erdington, for 
Sweet Peas; Messrs. H. J. Milner and Sons, 
Handsworth, for beautifully fresh Violas. 

Bronze Medals were awarded to The Grove 
Lane Nurseries, Handsworth, for Violas ; and 
to the Bournvii i.e Village Trust, Birmingham, 
for Roses. 

MANCHESTER AND NORTH OF ENGLAND 
ORCHID. 

June 18. — Committee present : Z. A. Ward, 
Esq. (in the chair). Messrs. R. Ashworth, J. J. 
Bolton, J. C. Cowan, J. Cypher, J. Evans, J. 
Howes, A J. Keeling, J. Lupton, D. McLeod, 
\V. J. Morgan, W. Shackleton, H. Thorp, G. 
Weatherby and H. Arthur (secretary). 

Col. J. Rutherford, M.P., Blackburn (gr 
Mr. Lupton), was awarded a large Silver-gilt 
Medal for an excellent group, composed of Mil- 
tonias of the vexillaria section and Cattleyas. 

R. Ashworth, Esq., Newchurch (gr. Mr. 
Gilden). staged a mixed group, for which a 
Silver-gilt Medal was awarded. 

Wm. Thompson, Esq., Walton Grange (gr. 
Mr. Howes), was also' awarded a Silver-gilt 
Medal for a group of choice Odontoglossums. 

Messrs. Hassall and Co., Southgate, London, 
was awarded a large Silver Medal for a mixed 
group. 

Other exhibitors were Messrs. A. J. Keeling 
and Sons, Bradford ; Mr. W. Shackleton, 
Highfield, Bradford; H. J. Bromilow, Esq., 
Rann- Lea (gr. Mr. Morgan ; and A. J. Oak- 
shott. Esq.. Bidston (gr. Mr. Findlow). 



AWARDS. 

First-class Certificates. 

Laeho-Cattieya Cicely (L. Latona x C 
Mossiae) and Udontioda Brewii " Rann Lea" 
var., a large flower of good shape, with distinct 
lip, both irom H. J. Bkomilow, E6q. 

Odontoylossum tximiuin var. "Excelsior," a 
round flower of purple colour, with light edg- 
ing; 0. Dorothy Arkle, a large flower with bril- 
liant markings, both from Wm. Thompson, Esq. 

0. Jane Leyijutt, a large flower of good shape 
and substance, from A. J. Oakshott, Esq. 

Miltonia Charlesworthii " Beardwood" var., 
from Col. J. Rutherford, M.P. 

Awards of Merit. 

Laelio-Cattleya Fascinator var. "Samson," 
L.-O. Martinettii ear. " Ruby," Odontoylossum 
X Waterloo, Cypripedium Greyii (C. niveum x 
C. Godefroyae), " Ashland s" var., all from R. 
Ashworth, Esq. 

Odontoylossum x Peacock and 0. Christopher 
it, both from Wm. Thompson, Esq. 

0. crispuin Catherine Oakshott, from A. J. 
Oakshott, Esq. 

Cattleya Mossiae splendens, from Col. J. 
Rutherford, M.P. 

Laelio-Cattleya Canhamiana Rex " Hassall's " 
rar., from Messrs. Hassall and Co. 



SALTAIRE ROSE. 

July 14, 15. — The dry weather that has been 
so characteristic of the season had its effect upon 
the blooms staged at this show, for many were 
lacking in substance, but the colour in some 
varieties was intense. Messrs. Alex. Dickson 
and Sons won all the 1st prizes in the first 
eight classes, and also carried off the Society's 
one hundred guinea Northern Championship 
Rose Bow] an<l Gold Medal, the President's 
Silver Rose Bowl, and the Society's Silver Medal 

Sweet Peas were a great feature, both in the 
competitive classes and traders' exhibits. Large 
stems of cut flowers and foliage plants were also 
exhibited. 

Roses. 

For 60 blooms, distinct, the 1st prize was won 
by Messrs. Alex. Dickson and Sons, New- 
townards, for a remarkably fine lot of flowers, a 
selection of the best varieties including Bessie. 
Brown, White Maman Cochet, Lyon Rose, Lady 
Maureen Stewart (new), Dean Hole, Duchess of 
Sutherland, Mrs. Fred Searle (new), George C. 
Waud, Hugh Dickson, Conway Jones (new), 
Mrs. Arthur Coxhead, H. V. Machin, Sir E 
Carson (new), George A. Hammond (new) and 
George Biekson ; 2nd, Messrs. Harkness and 
Co., Hitchin ; 3rd, Mr. John Pigg, Royston. 

Messrs. Alex. Dickson and Sons were the 
only exhibitors in the class for 7 baskets of cut 
Roses, distinct varieties, and were awarded the 
1st prize. 

For 16 varieties, distinct, 3 trusses of each 
variety, the 1st prize was won by Messrs. Alex. 
Dickson and Sons, who showed several new 
varieties, such as Edward Bohane, Conway 
Jones, H. V. Machin and Margaret Walker ; 
2nd, Messrs. Harkness and Co., Hitchin; 3rd, 
Mr. John Pigg, Royston. 

Messrs. Alex. Dickson and Sons were also 
placed 1st in the classes for (a) 5 baskets of 
Roses, in 5 varieties; (b) 24 blooms, distinct; 
2nd, Messrs. Harkness and Co., Hitchin ; (c) 
12 new Roses, distinct, 2nd, Harkness and Co.; 
(d) one basket of a light-coloured variety, 2nd, 
Arthur H. Rigg, Ba'ldon ; (e) a basket of a 
dark variety. 

Mr. Conway Jones, Gloucester, was the most 
successful exhibitor in the amateur classes, win- 
ning five 1st prizes. 

Sweet Peas. 

The best exhibit of 18 bunches, distinct varie- 
ties, was shown by Mr. J. H. Nichols, Men- 
ston ; 2nd, Mr. J. Smellie, Glasgow, who ex- 
celled in the class for 12 bunches, distinct, and 
6 bunches, distinct. 

The best 6 bunches of new varieties were 
shown by Mr. T. Burnett, Shipley, with Helen 
Chetwynd, Mrs. Mcllwrick, Steeton, King 
White, Mrs. Jessop and Mrs. J. EmmeU. ; 2nd, 
Mr J. Smellib. 



82 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 25, 1914. 



Pansies and Violas. 

In the class for 24 varieties of Fancy Pansies, 
Mr. S. Bairstow, Thornton, was placed 1st, ana 
Mr. J. Smellie 2nd. 

Mr S Baibstow won in the class tor iz dis- 
tinct varieties of Fancy Pansies; 2nd, Mr. J. 
Harker, Ambler Thorn. 

Violas in 24 distinct varieties were best shown 
by Mr H W. Whiteley, Allerton ; 2nd, Mt. 
Ramsden ; whilst Mr. F. E. Sutcliffe, Allerton, 
excelled in the class for 6 sprays of Violas, in 
which Messrs. Seagrave and Co., Sheffield, 
were 2nd. 

Decorative Classes. 

The best basket of Roses was shown by Mr 
W. Webster, Huddersfield ; the best vase of 
Sweet Peas by Mr. G. H. Garnett. 

The best table decorated with Roses and foli- 
age only was arranged by Mr. J. Bayley ; 2nd, 
Mrs. Thompson Barber, Bradford. 

Non-Competitive Exhibits. 

Gold Medals were awarded to Messrs. Man- 
s=ll and Hatcher, Rawdon, Leeds, for Orchids ; 
Messrs. John Peed and Son, Norwood, for 
Caladiums ; Mr. Robert Bolton, Carnforth, for 
Sweet Peas ; Messrs. Artindale and Son, Shef- 
field, for Violas; Messrs. W. and J. Brown, 
Peterborough, for Roses; Messrs. Young and 
Co., Cheltenham, for Carnations. 

Silver-gilt Medals to Messrs. Dobbie and Co., 
Edinburgh, for Roses ; Messrs. E. J. Batchelor 
and Sons. Harrogate, for Roses, Hydrangeas, 
Lilies, and other flowers; Mr. W. Miller, 
Wisbech, for hardy flowers : Messrs. Castle 
and Co.. for hardy Ferns: Messrs. Gibson and 
Co., Bedale, for hardy flowers; Mr. A. H. 
Rigg, Baildon. for Roses ; and Mr. W. R. 
Tranmer, Hull, for Violas. 

Silver Medals to Messrs. Mawson Bros., 
Windermere, for hardy flowers; Messrs. Sea- 
grave and Co., Sheffield, for Violas; Messrs. 
Sam Dean and Son, Bradford, for Violas and 
Carnations; and Mr. T. H. Gaunt, Farsley, 
Leeds, for rockwork. 

Bronze Medal to Mr. John Brook, Bradford, 
for hardy flowers. 



amateurs was awarded to Mr. C. L. Walker. 
Mr. Conway Jones' Silver Challenge Cup, open 
to Gloucestershire amateurs for 12 varieties, was 
won by Mr. W. Jarratt Thorpe, of Heath- 
cote, who also won the National Rose Society's 
Silver Medal for the best bloom in the class 
with the variety Hugh Dickson. Mr. G. R. 
Bonnor, of Barnwood, Gloucester, won Messrs. 
Jefferies and Son's Silver Challenge Cup in the 
Gloucestershire amateur class for 9 Tea or 
Noisette varieties. Mr. J. G. Orpin, Gloucester, 
was awarded the National Rose Society's Silver 
Medal for his bloom of Madame Jules Grave- 
reaux, and Mr. T. A. Bishop, Gloucester, a simi- 
lar honour for Charles Lepase. 

The entries in the open classes for Sweet Peas 
were better than usual. In the open amateur 
class Sir Randolf Baker, Bart., M.P., Bland- 
ford, Dorset, won the challenge cup given by 
Mrs. W. Jarratt Thorpe for 24 varieties, and 
he was also awarded the National Sweet Pea 
Society's Silver Medal for the best bunch of 
Sweet Peas in the show with a vase of R. F. 
Felton. The Edwin Lea Challenge Cup offered 
for the best display by city and county 
amateurs was won by" Mr. C. P. Allen, M.P., 
Stroud (gr. Mr. Edwin Horwood). The Win- 
field Challenge Cup for amateurs was awarded 
to Mr. W. Jarratt Thorpe. 



GLOUCESTERSHIRE ROSE AND 
SWEET PEA. 

July 14. — The twenty-sixth annual exhibition of 
the Gloucestershire Rose and Sweet Pea Society 
was held on the Spa Cricket Ground, Gloucester, 
on Tuesday, the 14th inst. There was a remark- 
ably good show, the quality being far beyond 
general expectations. The exhibition had been 
postponed ten days in consequence of the early 
June frosts, and the postponement proved a very 
fortunate circumstance so far as the beauty of 
the exhibition was concerned. There were 106 
entries in the Rose classes and 105 in those for 
Sweet Peas. 

A new and outstanding feature of the show was 
the nurserymen's displays of Roses on spaces 
12 feet long and 6 feet in height, in which there 
were five entries. The premier award was won 
by Mr. Elisha J. Hicks, Twyford, Berkshire, 
the feature of whose display was the number of 
new seedling Roses. In addition to gaining the 
1st prize Mr. Hicks was awarded Silver Medals 
by the Society for two new seedlings, Princess 
Mary (single, vivid crimson) and Mrs. George 
Norwood (scented, deep rose-pink). Messrs. 
John Jefferies ani Son, Cirencester, won the 
2nd prize. 

In the nurserymen's classes Messrs. John Mat- 
tock, Oxford, were premier prizewinners. They 
showed to perfection such new H.T. varieties 
as Coronation (silver pink), King George (deep 
crimson), Claudius (rosv pink), and British Queen 
(pearly white). The "King's Acre Nurseries, 
Ltd., Hereford; Mr. Henry Drew, Longworth, 
Berks ; Messrs. James Townsend and Sons, 
Worcester ; and Messrs. Fraser and Son, Mal- 
vern, also won prizes in the nurserymen's classes. 

The President's (Lady Holford) Silver Chal- 
lenge Cup in the open amateur class for 36 
varieties was won by Mr. Conway Jones, Heath- 
cote, Gloucester, who also won four 1st prizes 
in the open amateur competition. The Silver 
Challenge Cup presented by the Mayor and Cnr- 
poration for 9 varieties shown by Gloucester City 



SCOTTISH HORTICULTURAL. 

July 7. — The monthly meeting of this Asso- 
ciation was held at 5, St. Andrew Square, Edin- 
burgh, on the 7th inst. Mr. King, the president, 
was in the chair, and there was an attendance 
of sixty-five members. 

The evening was devoted to the reading of 
short papers by juniors on subjects of their own 
selection, for which prizes were offered by the 
president. The 1st prize, a Gold Medal, was 
awarded by the judges, Dr. Smith and Messrs. 
Whytock and M'Hattie, to Edwin G. Extence, 
Stoke Bishop, Bristol, for a paper on Perpetual- 
flowering Carnations ; the 2nd to Chas. T. Mac- 
intosh, Quarter House Gardens, Stirlingshire, 
for a paper on the Herbaceous Border; the 3rd 
to Wm. F. Cumming, Earnock House Gardens, 
Hamilton, for a paper on " The Cultivation of 
Roses," and the 4th to Joseph Ames, Earnock 
House Gardens, Hamilton, for a paper on the 
Writing of Plant Names. Walter Fleming, 
Mount Melville Gardens, St. Andrews, was 
Highly Commended for a paper on Methods 
of Propagation, and D. Anderson, Edin- 
burgh, and Wm. Gladstone, Ayton Castle 
Gardens, Berwickshire, were Commended for 
papers on The Upkeep of Garden Woodwork 
and the Cultivation of Chrysanthemums for Large 
Blooms respectively. 

The exhibits were : — Lilium pardalinuim and 
L. Washingtonianum, exhibited by Messrs. 
Dicksons and Co., Edinburgh ; collection of Del- 
phiniums, exhibited by Mr. John Downie, 
Edinburgh (a Certificate of Merit was awarded 
to a blue seedling named Miss Downie) ; Phila- 
delphus Virginale and P. Bouquet Blanc, ex- 
hibited by Mr. J. Porter, Davidsons Mains ; 
Chrysanthemum Craigmillar from the open, ex- 
hibited by Mr. D. Armstrong, Kirknewton 
House Gardens, Midlothian ; and Strawberries, 
exhibited by Mr. G. R. Proudfoot, Galashiels. 



CARDIFF HORTICULTURAL. 

July 22 and 23. — The twenty-sixth annual 
show, held in connection with this society, took 
place on the foregoing dates at the Sophia 
Gardens, Cardiff, kindly lent for the occasion 
by the president, the Marquis of Bute. Owing 
to the heavy rains experienced in the district for 
the past week or ten days, the entries in the cut 
flower classes were not so numerous as on former 
occasions. With this exception, however, this 
year's show was well up to the average, and the 
quality of the exhibits, on the whole, was satis- 
factory. 

Open Classes. 

For a group of miscellaneous plants in and out 
of bloom, arranged for effect in a space of 150 
squaw feet, Lady Hux, Llandaff (gr. Mr. Macln- 
tyre), took first place. The centre consisted of a 



pillar of flowering plants, crowned by a larg« 
Kentia, while the corners were formed by single 
specimens of Humea. Well-coloured Codiaeums, 
Lilium lanceolatum, and various greenhouse 
flowering plants were prominent features of this 
group. Messrs. Cypher, of Cheltenham, were 
placed 2nd with a very choice collection of plants, 
consisting of brightly coloured Crotons, Palms, 
Laelias, Cattleyas, Cypripediums, Miltonias, and 
a number of Ixoras. This is the first time for 
many years that this firm has not secured the 
leading place for groups. H. Cornelius, Esq., 
Weston-super-Mare (gr. Mr. C. Cook) was third 
in this class. 

For a collection of Roses set out in a space 
measuring 9ft. by 4ft. 6in., the height not to 
exceed 6ft., arranged with Rose foliage only. 
Messrs. S. Treseder and Son, Pwll Coch, Car- 
diff, were 1st with an admirable collection of dis- 
tinct varieties. Among some of the best that we 
noticed were Madame Abel Chatenay, Mrs. 
Stephen Treseder, the Lyon Rose, and Nita 
Weldon. Among copper varieties the best 
were the Marquise de Sinety, Mrs. Aaron 
Ward, Lady Hillingdon, Arthur Goodwin, Harry 
Kirk and Mrs. Peter Blair. Messrs. Jefferies 
and Son, Cirencester, were 2nd in this class, and 
showed many of the same Roses as named in the 
1st prize collection. The 3rd place was taken by 
Messrs. W. Treseder, Ltd., Cardiff. For a col- 
lection of twelve distinct varieties of Roses, 
three blooms of each, Mr. John Mattock, of 
Oxford, carried off the 1st prize. Some of the 
best blooms shown were George Dickson, Eai'l 
of Gosford. Her Majesty, Lyon Rose, Mrs. 
George Sawyer, and Dr. 0. Brown. Mr. H. 
Drew, of Longworth, proved a good 2nd, two 
outstanding varieties in his exhibit being King 
George V. and Mrs. Cornwallis West. Messrs. 
Stephen Treseder and Son were awarded the 
1st prize for a collection of 24 blooms of distinct 
varieties. George Dickson, Earl of Duffryn, and 
Bessie Brown were among some of the best 
coloured blooms exhibited. Messrs. Jefferies 
and Son, Cirencester, were 2nd. For eigh- 
teen blooms of Roses, Tea or Noisettes, 
Mr. John Mattock won the 1st prize. 
M*arechal Niel, Nita Weldon, Madame Hoste, 
and Miss A. de Rothschild were prominent 
in this collection. Messrs. Jefferies and Son 
were also 2nd in this class. With a stand of 
twelve blooms of Tea or Noisette Roses, Mr. John 
Mattock was successful in carrying off the 1st 
prize, the variety shown being George Dickson. 
Messrs. S. Treseder and Son were a very good 
second with a fine box of the Lyon Rose. Messrs. 
Jefferies and Son showed a good box of Bessie 
Brown, for which they secured 3rd place. Mr. 
Mattock was again successful in taking the 1st 
prize for any one variety of Tea or Noisette 
Rose, the variety shown being Mrs. Foley Hobbs. 
A very line stand of border Carnations and Pico- 
tees, tastefully arranged with their own foliage, 
was staged bv Mr. C. Wall, of Bath. Some of 
the best varieties exhibited were Hercules, Path- 
finder. Cecilia, Mr. Griffith Jones, and Roney 
Buchanan. Unfortunately, Mr. Wall's exhibit 
was the only one in this class. He was also the 
only competitor for a collection of Tree, Ameri- 
can or " Malmaison " Carnations, arranged in a 
space 6ft. by 4ft. Some of the outstanding 
varieties in this collection were : White Wonder, 
Mandarin, Geisha, and Lady Audley Nield. 

The flowers of hardy herbaceous plants were 
a feature of the show. For a collection of 
hardy flowers, of distinct varieties, arranged in 
a space 20 feet by 6 feet, all grown in the open, 
Messrs. Rich and Co., of Bath, took the 1st 
prize. Two of the most telling plants shown in 
this group were Gaillardias The King and Lady 
Rolleston. Thalictrum dipterocarpum was shown 
in great perfection in this exhibit. Messrs. W. 
and C Bull, of Frome, were placed 2nd, the 
most noticeable flowers in their group being 
Gladiolus Hally. W. Treseder, Ltd., Cardiff, 
although 3rd, showed an excellent collection. 

Sweet Peas were exceedingly disappointing, as 
nothing of any great merit was shown, a com- 
mon experience all over the country. For a col- 
lection of 18 vases of Sweet Peas, of distinct 
varieties, Capt. Geoffrey Lubbock, of Warmin- 
ster (gr. Mr. J. W. Law) secured the 1st prize. 
There was only one other exhibitor in this class. 
The best varieties noted were Dobbie's Cream, 



July 25, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



83 



Barbara, Nubian, Lavender G. Herbert, Mar- 
garet Atlee. The other entry was so poor that 
no 2nd prize was awarded. 

Fruit and vegetables were remarkably fine, 
and the competitions on the whole quite satisfac- 
tory. For two bunches of White Muscat Grapes 
E. H. Ebsworth, Esq., Cowbridge, was placed 
1st with Muscat of Alexandria. 2nd, Capt. W. B. 
Mauling, of Lydney (gr. Mr. W. Cooper), whose 
bunches were better coloured than those that 
gained the 1st prize, but the berries and 
the bunches themselves were not so large. For 
any other White Grapes W. Ebsworth, Esq., 
was again successful in winning the 1st prize, 
Buckland's Sweetwater being the variety shown. 
Sir W. Howell Da vies, M.P., Bristol (gr. Mr. 
.J. Curtis) was awarded the 2nd prize. The 
latter competitor was awarded the 1st prize 
for Black Hamburgh Grapes. The bunches 
shown were well coloured and of a good size. 
Capt. W. B. Marling showed the same variety, 
and was placed 2nd. For a collection of vegetables, 
9 distinct kinds, arranged in a space 5 feet by 
4 feet, the Marquis of Northampton, Castle 
Ashby (gr. Mr. A. Searle), was awarded the 1st 
prize. The collection consisted of clean, well- 
grown Onions, Celery, Beans, Carrots, Peas, 
Potatos and Beets. Mrs. Gordon Cumming, 
Maisemore (gr. Mr. G. Prentice), took 2nd place 
with vegetables but little inferior to those in the 
best collection. 

Amateurs' Classes. 

Numbers of amateurs competed in the open 
classes as well as in those reserved for them- 
selves. The principal Rose prizes in this section 
were taken by Mrs. Jenner, Wenvoe Castle (gr. 
Mr. Wheeler), while in the vegetable classes she 
was successful in carrying off no fewer than four 
first prizes. The Onions exhibited by this lady 
were among the finest in the show. Alan Gibbs, 
Esq., of Dinas Powis (gr. Mr. W. E. Lambert), 
carried off the 1st prize for a collection of 6 
vases of Sweet Peas of distinct varieties. R. 
Felton, Scarlet Emperor and Birdbrook were 
some of the best varieties staged. Capt. Geof- 
frey Lubbock was placed 2nd in this competition. 
J. Llewellyn Morgan, Esq., Llandaff (gr. Mr, 
S. Wall), was placed 1st for a group of miscel- 
laneous plants arranged in a space of 50 square 
feet. This was a tastefully set up group, in the 
form of a semicircle. Schizanthus, Eulalias, 
Francoas and Verbenas were used with excellent 
effect. 

In the class for 12 bunches of herbaceous 
flowers, distinct, kinds, Mr. R. T. Went, Whit- 
church, put up an excellent group, Gladiolus 
America being the most striking plant in it. 
The 2nd prize was won by an amateur, who does 
his own gardening, Mr. Mellins, of Penylaji. 

Trade Exhibits. 

A most interesting feature of the Cardiff 
Show was the large number of exhibits 
staged by nurserymen. The following firms 
were awarded Gold Medals : —King's Acre 
Nursery Co., Hereford, for collection of 
fruit trees in pot6; Messrs. A. A. Walters, 
Bath, herbaceous plants ; Messrs. Jarman 
and Co., Chard, Roses; Messrs. H. and W. 
Evans, Llanishen, herbaceous plants ; Mr. Row- 
land Hill, Mendips, near Bristol, rock plants; 
Messrs. Webb and Sons, Stourbridge, an exhibit 
of fruit and flowers; Messrs. Dicksons, Chester, 
herbaceous plants; James Carter and Co., 
Raynes Park vegetables and Arum Mrs. Roose- 
\ elt. 

A Silver Medal was awarded to Messrs. 
Wheeler and Son. Gloucester, for a collection 
of herbaceous plants; and a Bronze Medal to 
Messrs. Bowells for a small rock-garden. 

The Earl of Plymouth and the Marquis of 
Bute contributed a forestry exhibit, which 
proved of great interest. 

UNITED HORTICULTURAL BENEFIT 
AND PROVIDENT. 

•July 13.— The monthly meeting of this 
society was held in the R.H.S. Hall on Monday, 
the 13th inst , Mr. Arthur Bedford in the chair. 
Ten new members were elected ; five members 
withdrew double the amount of interest, amount- 



ing to £15 3s. lOd. ; two members over the age 
of 70 years withdrew from their deposit £43 
13s. 3d. and £2 respectively. The sick pay on 
the ordinary side amounted to £50 15s., and the 
chronic sick quarterly payments to £20 3s. The 
State Section sick pay amounted to £26 4s. 4d., 
and maternity claims £13 10s. The secretary and 
treasurer reported on the Conference they had 
attended on deposit contributors, stating that 
gardeners should join an approved society to 
avoid being allocated to any society that might 
be formed. Important discussion took place on 
the alteration of rules, but it was felt that the 
time was inopportune, and the matter would be 
held over until after the first valuation, 1915. 



GARDENING APPOINTMENTS. 

[Correspondent* are requested to write the names 
of persons and places as legibly as 
possible- No charge is mode for these announce- 
ments, but if a small contribution is sent, to be 
placed in our collecting Box for the Gardeners' 
Orphan Fund, it will bt thankfully received, and 
an acknowledgment made in these columns.] 



INORTH OF ENGLAND HORTICULTURAL. 

July 18. — In glorious weather and in an ideal 
situation the summer show of the North of Eng- 
land Horticultural Society took place on the 18th 
inst. at Roundhay, Leeds, in conjunction with 
the Roundhay and District Horticultural Society, 
which is affiliated to the larger society. The ex- 
hibits were of an exceptionally high standard. 

Messrs. Dobbie and Co., Edinburgh, exhibited 
Sweet Peas, for which a Gold Medal was awarded. 
The varieties Thomas Stevenson, Queen of Nor- 
way, Hercules, King White, Mrs. C W. Bread- 
more, and Melba were all exceptionally good. 

Messrs. W. and J. Brown, Peterborough, ex- 
hibited Roses of high merit. Pyramids were con- 
structed of Lyon, Mrs. Wakefield, Christy Miller, 
Marquise de Sinety, Rayon d'Or, Joseph Hill, 
Juliet, and Lady Pirrie. (Gold Medal.) 

Messrs. John Peed and Son, London, showed 
a large exhibit of Caladiums. The colouring was 
good in every case, and the best varieties were 
Miss Rose, Princess Olga, Argentine (very fine), 
Fastuosum and Oriflamme. (Gold Medal.) 

Mr. Walter Allsop, Leeds, showed Roses in 
baskets, bouquets, stands, and vases. (Large gold 
Medal.) 

Mr. Wm. Lawrenson, Yarm-on-Tees, had a 
small but choice exhibit of Carnations. Snow- 
drift still retains the high promise it gave 
when first exhibited at the N.E.H. In this group 
were also Congress, Mrs. W. B. Clode, Mrs. 
Burnet, Rose Dore, Cecilia and Mrs. A. F. Dut- 
ton. (Large Silver Medal.) 

Messrs. Ker and Sons, Liverpool, showed 
greenhouse and stove plants, for which they were 
awarded a Silver Medal. 

Messrs. G. Gibson and Co., Bedale, exhibited 
hardy flowers. Choice named varieties of Del- 
phiniums were noted, also large masses of 
Oriental Poppies, Gaillardias, Spiraeas, and 
Verbascums. (Silver-gilt Medal.) 

Messrs. Sam Dean and Son, Bradford, showed 
Violas. (Silver Medal.) 

Messrs. F. C. Edwards and Son, Leeds, had 
three small groups of greenhouse plants, made 
up of Carnations, Hydrangea paniculata, and 
Ferns. (Silver Medal.) 

Messrs. James Firth and Son, East Keswick, 
showed a new scarlet bedding Pelargonium named 
Rising Sun. (Large Bronze Medal.) 

Mr. G. W. Miller, Wisbech, for a display of 
herbaceous flowers was awarded a Silver-gilt 
Medal. 

Messrs. Artindale and Son, Sheffield, exhi- 
bited a collection of Violas. (Silver-gilt Medal.) 

The Rev. C. Gallacher, Hunslet, near Leeds, 
showed a large bank of Gloxinias, both as pot 
plants and blooms. (Large Silver Medal.) 

In the Roundhay and District Horticultural 
Society's classes Mr. Henry Drew, Faringdon, 
Berkshire, won the 1st prize for 24 Roses, dis- 
tinct; 2nd, Messrs. Harkness and Co., Hitchin, 
who were placed 1st for 12 blooms of Teas and 
Hybrid Teas, in which class Mr. Drew was 2nd. 
Mr. Drew showed the best 12 blooms in four 
varieties and the best 12 vases, distinct, three 
blooms in each vase. Other prominent exhibi- 
tors of Roses were Messrs. W. and J. Brown, 
Peterborough, and Messrs. G. and W. Buech, 
Peterborough. In the Sweet Pea classes Mr. 
C. E. Taylor, Carnforth, was the most success- 
ful exhibitor. An interesting class was that for 
a display of summer bedding arranged in a space 
7 feet by 5 feet, in which Mr. Allsop, Leed6, 
was adjudged the winner. 



Mr Jas- McGarra. for the past 19 months Foreman 
at Naerooor Gardens, tly Stirling, as Gardener to F. 
Riddle Blunt, Esq., Olieeseburn Grange, Newcastle- 
on-Tyne 

Mr. James Crane, for the past three years Gar- 
dener at Clare House, West Mailing, Kent, as Gar- 
dener to A. Barratt Esq., Tottendge Park, Hertford- 
shire. 

Mr A. Backshall. for the past 64 years Gardener 
to L. McKenna, Esq., Honeys, Twyford, Berkshire, 
as Gardener to Hon. Mis Pleydell Bouverie, Ooles- 
hill House, Highworth, Wiltshire*. [Thanks for Is. 
for R.G.O.F. box.— IiDS.) 

Mr. Arthur Shipway, for nine years Gardener to 
RlCARDO Palmer, Esq., as Gardener and Estate Man- 
ager to E. D. Kenna, Esq., The Rocks, Eridge, near 
Tunbridge Wells. 

Mr. P. Evans, for two years Gardener at Temple- 
mere, Weybridge, as Gardener to Colonel D. F. 
Lewis, C.B., Park Hall, Evesham. 

Mr H G. Shaw, for 4^ years Gardener to the late 
William Smith, Esq., Newsham House, Broughton, 
Preston, Lancashire, and for the past 10 months 
Gardener to A. Bradbury, Esq., Berthlwyd, Conway, 
North Wales, as Gardener to the same gentleman at 
Bryn-Lupus, Llanrhos, Llandudno. (Thanks for 2s. 
for R.G.O.F. box.— EDS.l 

Mr- J. H. Oliver, for the past 2 years General Fore- 
man to the Bournville Village Trust, as Gardener 
to Henry Lloyd Wilson, Esq., Selly Wood, Selly 
Oak, Birmingham. 



ENQUIRY. 

Fuchsia ExcORTiCATA.-Has any reader in 
his collection a plant of Fuchsia excorticata ? 
I am anxious to obtain seeds of it in exchange 
for others. M. Buysman, Jardin Botanique, 
Lawang, Java. 




Clmfm 

to 
LoTr&yfoondenfo 




Banana : G. W. B. Allow the suckers to re- 
main for a little longer before detaching 
them. Much depends upon how they are 
placed as to when they are best detached, but 
to remove them all now would do more harm 
than good ; moreover, at this stage it would 
be a difficult matter to remove all the suckers 
without injuring the surface roots. The work 
may be done when the bunch of fruits is fully 
developed. If the suckers are some distance 
from the main stem one or two of the largest 
may be removed carefully now, and one or 
two more in a few weeks' time. Give the 
plants a rich surface dressing and water the 
roots copiously. The parent plant should be 
encouraged to form roots near to the surface. 

Club-Root of Cauliflower : /•'. D. and Co. 
Your Cauliflowers are affected with club-root, 
caused by a slime-fungus known as Plasmo- 
diophora ' brassicae. Plants are most sus- 
ceptible to the disease during the first three 
weeks after germination, so that if the seed- 
bed contains the least trace of the infecting 
organism, the seedlings are likely to be at- 
tacked. The best way of eradicating the 
disease will be to treat the soil with quick- 
lime ; thirty-five bushels of lime per acre is 
sufficient to arrest it. 

Gardener's Legacy : If. Although a head gar- 
dener is a " domestic servant," so far as the 
question of notice of dismissal is concerned, 
different rules apply when considering the 
question of legacies to domestic servants. Most 
of the decided cases turn upon the precise 
nature of the wording of the employer's will, 
and you had better consult a solicitor. 

Insects Infesting Scrophularia : Correspond- 
•'/it. The slug-like creatures are the larvae 
and the small spheroidal objects, the cocoons 
of a curious and interesting weevil, Cionus 
scrophulariae. Tnis beetle is not uncommon, 
but it is somewhat local in its distribution. 
So far as -we know, it confines its attack to 
Scrophularia. 



84 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[July 25, 1914. 



Japanese Lilies: D. B. A., Tcddington. The 
Japanese Lilies are mainly propagated from 
the small bulbils that develop on the stems 
and cluster around the bulbs. The scales are 
used to a very small extent only and the 
seeds not at all, except occasionally in the 
case of L. speciosum. The bulbs are best 
lifted annually to allow them full room when 
replanting for development. But in this 
country, L. longiflorum is, of course, useless 
in the second season, and the other species 
must be left undisturbed. No special precau- 
tions are taken to protect the p'ants from 
sun and frost. Good flowering bulbs are de- 
veloped in three years. About 13 inches in 
circumference is the size of a first-quality 
bulb, but a small, heavy bulb with only one 
crown will give a much better spike than a 
larger, looser bulb which has -two or three 
crowns. The bulbs are not p'.aced in cold 
storage during their journey from Japan : 
they are packed tightly in clay, and as they 
travel in mid-winter ihey arrive in fine con- 
dition, as a rule, although storing them too 
near to ships' boilers sometimes en uses over- 
heating and growth in the case. We know of 
no book dealing with this aspect of Lily cul- 
tivation. 

Lavender for Profit : G. C. Lavender could 
very well be grown in the conditions men- 
tioned in your letter, and the bushes would be 
effective all the year round, but we would 
not encourage you to expect to make much 
profit from the bushes. Practically all the 
Lavender for perfumery is grown by a few 
persons who are able to cut the flowers 
in large quantities, and the distillers rarely 
care to purchase in smaller quantities from 
unknown sources. The value of Lavender to 
the manufacturer of perfumes depends en- 
tirely on the unit of essential oil which it 
contains, and this varies considerably; gene- 
rally the poorer the soil the greater the unit 
of oil, so that as the orchard trees would re- 
ceive manure the Lavender you propose to 
plant between the rows would not he very rich 
in essential oil, although the flower-spikes 
would be of good size. In the circumstances 
we think your best plan would be to endeavour 
to sell the Lavender as cut flowers locally, or 
if the quantity is sufficient send them to one 
of the large markets. In most towns there is 
a ready sale for bunches of this fragrant herb. 

Naves of Plants : /. W. Rose Mrs. F. W. 
Flight. — /. C. Sequoia sempervirens (Red- 
wood). — Fill. The specimen with wide leaves 
with a silvery under-surface is Pyrus rotundi- 
folia. The other is the Cut-leaved Beech. 
Fagus sylvatica var. heterophylla. — S. F. W. 
Bulbophyllum macranthum, similar in 
growth to B. patens but the form of 
the labellum is distinct. Both are ever- 
green species requiring warm-house treat- 
ment. — (1. K. Aerides multiflorum, of which 
A. affine, A. roseum, A. I.obbii and others of 
gardens are forms. — /. S. 1, Pteris longi- 
folia; 2. Adiantum tenerum ; 3, Pteris tre- 
mula ; 4, Lastrea varia. 

Nectarine Fruits : //. If. There ; a no fun- 
gus present on the Nectarines received. The 
appearance of scab and rust on the fruits is 
due to some other circumstance. 

Onion Maggot : M. S. The best time to take 
precautions against the Onion Fly is April and 
May, when the fly hatches out. It lays its 
eggs in the neck of the Onion seedling, and 
the niajgots hatch out in 5-7 davs. The young 
seedlings should be sprayed with paraffin emul- 
sion, made as fol'ows : — Mix 3 pints of 
paraffin and | lb. of soft soap into a gallon of 
boiling water. Stir thoroughly, and dilute 
with six to eight gallons of water. If the 
plants are very young, use the weaker solution; 
and in any rase the spray should lie used two 
or three times. Where seed is sown in drills 
the eue-lnving mav be prevented tiv earthing 
up the young seedlings to above the neck of 
the bulb. All attacked "lants should be re- 
moved with the surrounding soil and burnt; 
and Onions should not be srown on the same 
soil for at least one season. Plants sown 
broadcast can be sprinkled with soot. Seeds 
should be sown earlv, or planted in boxes, 
and the seedlings afterwards planted out, so 



that the plants may have made good progress 
before the fly hatches out. 

Rose Leaves Injured : D. (!. B. The leaves 
show unmistakable signs of having been in- 
jured by the larvae of a species of sawfly, but 
no examples of the pest were present in the 
consignment submitted for examination. The 
probabilities are that all the larvae have pu- 
pated, and if so you will see nothing more of 
them this season. — I 1 . W. B. The leaves 
of your Rose bushes have been injured by the 
slug-worm. Thoroughly spray the trees with 
Hellebore wash. — Highbury. There is 
no fungus present upon the leaves which you 
have submitted for examination, but they are 
infested with the larvae of one of the saw- 
flies peculiar to the cultivated Rose. Large 
numbers of the pest may be collected by jar 
ring or tapping the branches over an inverted 
umbrella. Spraying with Paris Green at the 
Tate of 2 ounces to 20 gallons of water may 
prove beneficial ; try it on one or two of the 
infested plants and watch the result. 

Roses Planted Out Under Glass : Inquisitor. 
The varieties you name are free bloomers, and 
we see no reason why they should not 
flower during September, October, and 
November. Afford the plants a rest from the 
present time until the middle of August. Re- 
move all flower-buds, and keep the roots on 
the dry side. By the dates named cut back 
the growths to a plump eye, and spread out 
the shoots as much as you can. Fork up the 
surface soil, water it freely, and keep it al- 
ways fairly moist. In dry weather the plants 
should be syringed both morning and even- 
ing. By the end of September the to]' 
lights should be replaced, but admit plenty 
of ventilation both night and day throughout 
October unless frosts occur. By that date it 
may be advisable to utilise the hot-water sys- 
tem at night, but do not allow the temperature 
to rise above 50° at night, and 50° to 56° by 
day. A spraying with a weak fungicide now 
and then to ward off' mildew will be a wisi 
precaution. Roses of the Tea and Hybrid Tea 
groups, especially those with not too full 
flowers, may be induced to bloom under this 
treatment up to Christmas. 

Rust on Cherries : G. W. B. The best cure 
for the rust, which is caused by a fungus, 
is sulphur applied late in the day, and to be 
effective it must be applied before the pest 
spreads much. 

Stocks Dying : E. P. The roots of the stocks 
have been killed by the fungus Botrytis sp. 
The soil is infected with it, and should be 
treated with quicklime. A little kainit should 
be sprinkled on the soil a week before sowing 
seeds, and watered in with a fine-rose can. 

Sugar Pea : A. G. The Sugar Pea requires 
precisely the same culture as ordinary garden 
Peas. The seed should be sown early in the 
season ; probably the best results are obtained 
by sowing the seed thinly in boxes about the 
middle of March and planting the seedlings in 
well-prepared ground after the plants are 
hardened thoroughly. The pods should be 
gathered and cooked whole, or sliced like 
French Beans, whilst quite young and tender. 

Sweet Peas : H. M. The following varieties are 
suitable either for exhibition or for ordinary 
decorative purposes in the home or garden : — 
R. F. Felton, Rosabelle, Hercules, Thomas 
Stevenson, New Marquis, Margaret Atlee, 
Elfrida Pearson, Princess Mary, Illuminator, 
.Marks Tey, King Alfred, and Mrs. C. W. 
Breadmore. It is much more difficult to name 
6 Roses that are equally suitable for exhibi- 
tion and ordinary garden decoration, as the 
best exhibition varieties are in many instances 
not so floriferous as the best garden varieties. 
However, the following six should prove 
serviceable : — Frau Karl Druschki, Hugh 
Dickson, Caroline Testout, Madame Melanie 
Soupert, Ophelia, and Lady Hillingdon. Six 
good Narcissi for forcing are Golden Spur, 
Emperor, Victoria, Barrii conspicua, Mrs. 
Langtry, and Sir Watkin. These force well, 
and are amongst the best, taking into consider- 
ation the price. Two excellent Tulips are 
Prince of Austria and Yellow Prince. If you 
prefer pink to yellow, then substitute Rose 



< Iris de Lin, but take care to include the first- 
named, for it has sterling qualities. 

Sweet Peas Unhealthy : C. H. Hough. We 
can find no disease to account for the plants 
not developing properly ; wrong cultural con- 
ditions are probably the cause of the trouble. 
A lump of pure peat was adhering to the roots, 
and there were no signs of root nodules. Pro- 
bably the soil to start with had insufficient lime, 
and to judge from the size of the plants 
they have been growing in rather dry con- 
ditions. Deep cultivation might help. — C. 
Kimberley. One of the plants with large 
leaves enclosed is attacked by Bacillus Lathyri, 
the organism regarded by some as the cause 
of " Sweet Pea streak " (see Gardeners 
i hronicle, April 5, 1913, p. 215). The plants 
look as u they had been rather over- 
manured. The vascular system is discoloured, 
more especially so at the collar — this may- 
account for the cockling of the leaves. A fun 
gus Thielavia basicola was present in the 
roots, but the injury due to this fungus only 
extended to the depth of several cells below 
the epidermis. The second plant has a slight 
attack of Bacillus Lathyri, but not sufficient 
to account for the general yellowing of the 
plant. The vascular system is also affected. 
Tomato Growing for Profit : Pcldon. We pre- 
sume you mean Tomato growing under glass. 
Ten pounds (£10) per acre is a big rent to 
pay for land,' even in the district you men- . 
'tion. We do not expect that you intend to 
•erect glasshouses on rented land 1 Much 
better to purchase one or more acres of land 
near a mam road (on account of the cost in- 
curred in carting to the nursery coal, manure, 
etc ), and within easy reach of a railway 
station and large towns. With from 8 to 1U 
glasshouses from 100 to 150 feet m length and 
15 feet wide, with a good practical man to 
take the lead, your helping him and making 
mental notes of every cultural detail and items 
,,f expense incurred in the business, you 
should make a good living. 

Trees and Shrubs for Natal : /. Cockbunr 
It is likely that the various plants mentioned 
will thrive in Natal at an elevation of 2,000 
feet above sea level, provided the soil is good 
and moderately moist, and that water can be 
provided during periods of drought. Should 
the soil contain much lime the Rhododendrons 
md Abies would, however, be unlikely to 
thrive, whilst certain kinds of Cupressus 
would'also prove a failure. The other plants 
do not object to lime. It is probable that 
these and numerous other decorative trees and 
shrubs have been already tried, and if such is 
the case the Curator of the Botanical Garden, 
Pietermaritzburg, would be able to furnish you 
with a list of the most desirable subjects to 
plant. 

Vines : Sefton Place. A careful examination of 
your specimens failed to discover any fungus 
disease. The failure is due to some error in 
the cultural conditions. 

Vines Failing : J. M. We have made a 
thorough examination of the specimens sent 
but can find no trace of either fungus or eel- 
worm. The injury must be due to some de- 
fect at the roots, which could only be deter- 
mined on the spot.— T. W. B. The vines are 
suffering from a lack of iron in the soil. You 
should sprinkle a few crystals of sulphate of 
iron over the border at intervals. 

Wked Killer: South of France. Add lib. of 
powdered arsenic to three gallons of cold 
water, boil and keep stirring. Add seven gal- 
lons of cold water and 21bs. of crushed soda, 
and stir while boiling. Apply the weed-killer 
with a rose watering-pot in dry weather at 
the rate of 1 gallon to 14 square yards. 

Communications Eeceived.— Charles J. White 
(thanks for Is. for E.G.O.F. box)— C. Hodgson— Avos— 
A. M. Ludlow— E. Field— S. W.— H. P. Southover— 
Subscriber— Bulletin— E. M.— E. S.— T. W.— Fell— 
T. W. C— A. S.— Mrs. F.— C. S— Peldon— W. C. A.— 
Amateur — W. R. — Wideawake — High — Interested — 
W. A. T. (Hove)— W. E. P.— E. P.— B. (Wilts)— H. V.— 
R. A. M.— N. P.— F. A. E.— E. P. P.— A. E. H.— J. S.— 
H. W. Ward— W. C. A.— P. Blair— R. V. J.— H. G. S.— 
F. Clarke— A. Ireland— S. Castle— W. Kelly— W. H. W. 
— D. B.— Hart— A. Heinrich— E. H.— S. A.— Chlons— 
M. Buysman. 



August 1, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



85 




THE 



(& avbmcxs <E Ijrnnirk 

Vo. 1,440.— SATURDAY, AUGUST 1, 191£ 



CONTENTS. 



\ppii Peacemaker 
Austrian expedition to 

China, an 
Bankfiian EtoBe, a large 
Begonias, winter-flower- 



93 



Canker in Apple caused 
by brown rot . . 

Colman, Sir Jeremiah, 
public gift by 

Cyaniding of green- 
houses .. 

Dragon Fly, the 

Druery, Mr. C. T. 

Entomologist, appoint- 
meat of, by R.H.S. .. 

Fruit crops, reports on 
the conditions of the 87, 94 



85 



95 



or. 



Fruit packing, awards for 

termination of seeds in 
the fruit 

Hops, fruit and Potatos 
in the United States 

Uolidays for poor 
children 

London Gardens Guild 

Uarkham, Mr. H. 

M arket fruit-garden , the 

Mooti, influence of the, 
c n growth 

Narcissus fly, the lesser 

Nursery, visit to a 

Obituary- 
Bradbury, Joseph 



98 



Orchid notes and glean- 
ings 

Protection against plant 

pests 

Societies — 

Birmingham and Mid- 
land Union ol Hurt. 

B ritish Gardeners' 
Association.. 

Cardiff Hort 

Cemetery Superin- 
tendents' Assoc. .. 

Formby Hort. 

Leamington and 

County Hort. 

National Gladiolus .. 

Royal Hort. . 

Southampton 
Hort 

Watford Hort. 

Wool ton Hort. 
Texas, proposed botanic 

garden for 
Week's work, the — 

Flower garden, the . . 

Fruits under glass 

Hardy fruit garden, 
the 

Kitchen garden, the . . 

Orchid houseB, the .. 

Plants under glass . . 
Whiteiey Park, cere- 
mony at 



Royal 



86 

'il 



102 

101 



102 

lift 



lOa 

101 



mi 
inl 
101 



96 

97 

97 
07 
96 
96 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 

Canker in Apples caused by brown rot 

Dragon Fly, the 

Oncidium Leopoldianum 
Oucidium ooryriephorum 
Apple Peacemaker. (Coloured Plate.) 



85, 86 

. o- 

99 

.. 100 



THE *' BROWN ROT" CANKER OF 
THE APPLE. 

IN May, 1910, I drew attention in this journal 
to the fact that the fungus Sclerotinia fruc- 
tigena (Monilia fructigena), which causes 
the disease known as " brown rot " affecting the 
flowers and fruit of Plums, Cherries, Apples, 
Pears, Medlars and Peaches, is sometimes the 
cause of a definite "canker" in the branches of 
the Apple. Investigation showed that this 
"canker" injury may arise in one of two 
ways. Sometimes the young Apples of the 
tree are attacked by the brown rot fungus, 
with the result that the flesh of the Apple 
becomes permeated by the spawn (myce- 
lium), while pustules of spores (conidia) are 
produced on the outside. Many of these 
diseased and half-rotten Apples fall to the 
ground, but it is not uncommon to find some 
of them remaining on the tree, firmly attached 
to the spur or branch, throughout the winter 
right on to the following spring. The Apples 
which remain on the tree in this way are in a 
dried-up, mummified condition ; the spawn of 
the fungus, however, remains alive, and, 
under suitable weather conditions, renews 
its growth in the following year, and pro- 
duces pustules of conidia. In some cases 
the diseased Apples, rotting under the at- 
tack of the fungus, press against the part of 
the branch near the spur on which they are 
borne, and remain fixed for months in this 
position, the decaying flesh of the Apple at first 
softening and then hardening, and, as it were, 
glueing the Apple firmly to the branch. Under 



such conditions the spawn of the fungus grows 
from the diseased Apple into the branch, and 
produces there a local canker-like injury. In 
the following spring, or even during the winter 
if it is a mild season, pustules of conidia are 
developed over the cankered area, breaking out 
through cracks in the bark from the under- 
lying mycelium. Sometimes the branch becomes 
completely girdled at the canker, when, of 
course, the upper part dies ; this, however, rarely 
occurs in the case of large branches, but is fre- 
quent with the smaller twigs. 

The second way in which the brown rot 
canker may arise on a branch is by the 
mycelium of the fungus directly travelling 
into the wood from the fruit-spur, which has 
become infected from its flowers or fruit. The 
spur is killed, the mycelium travels from its 
base into the branch and forms there a canker, 



I 








Fig. 37. — portion of a branch of "jambs 
grieve" api>le, showing large " brown 
rot " canker, with pustules of spores in 
the cracks of the canker. also dead 
fruit-spurs through which the fungus 
entered the branch. 

from which the dead spur projects as a snag. 
In such cases the dead remains of the spur 
almost invariably bear numerous pustules of 
spores. 

During the past autumn and spring outbreaks 
of brown rot on Apples have occurred to an 
unusual extent. In very many cases the attack 
has resulted in the formation of cankers in 
the branches. As previously noted, the attack 
on the wood proceeds sometimes vid the fruit, 
and sometimes, and perhaps more frequently, 
from the blossoms. Typical cases of the first 
method of attack were seen last autumn in 
several plantations near Maidstone. The 
variety was James Grieve. A considerable 
number of the Apples (which are soft-fleshed 
in this variety) were attacked just before 



ripening, and the mycelium of the fungus 
invaded the cortical tissue of the spurs 
bearing such Apples, and eventually entered 
the branch, soon produoing in the part sur- 
rounding the spur a cankered area, where the 
bark cracked. In the cracks of the bark all 
over the canker, pustules of spores were pro- 
duced in abundance during the winter and 
spring. In some cases, where a number of con- 
tiguous spurs was attacked, the canker result- 
ing was as much as 1 foot in length. Such a 
canker is shown in fig. 37, in which several 
dead spurs, where the fungus obtained an 
entrance, can be seen projecting. 

More frequently, however, in the cases which 
have recently come under observation, the 
disease has commenced by the fungus attacking 
the tree when in flower. A number — often a 
very large number — of flower-spurs are at- 
tacked, and then the fungus in the course of a 
few weeks enters the branch through the dead 
or dying spur. This kind of attack has taken 
place on a large scale in plantations of Cox's 
Orange Pippin and Lord Derby. The photo- 
graphs (figs. 38 and 39) are of a branch of a 
tree ef Cox's Orange Pippin on which dozens 
of flower-spuTs were attacked and killed ; round 
the base of these spurs cankers arose, in the 
cracks of which pustules of Monilia spores were 
freely produced in June. As these photo- 
graphs (taken from opposite sides of the branch) 
show, the canker has completely girdled the 
branch. 

I am informed by Professor H. H. Whetzel, 
Professor of Plant Pathology in Cornell Uni- 
versity, U.S.A. — to whom I recently showed 
some affected trees — that except for the occur- 
rence of pustules of spores in the cracks, these 
injuries produced in the Apple branch by the 
brown rot fungus, when it enters by the flower- 
spur as described above, are exactly similar to 
that caused by "fire blight" (Bacillus amylo- 
vorus), an extremely destructive disease from 
which this country is at present fortunately 
free. 

The varieties on which I have observed the 
brown rot canker are as follows : — Cox's Orange 
Pippin, Lord Derby and James Grieve (all 
severely attacked) ; Worcester Pearmain, Eck- 
linville Seedling, Beauty of Bath, Ribston Pip- 
pin and Warner's King (less severely attacked). 

With regard to remedies, where trees have 
been noticed to be affected in the previous 
season, all dead wood and cankers should be 
cut out and the trees well sprayed with Bor- 
deaux mixture (4 lb. quicklime, 4 lb. copper 
sulphate, 50 gallons water) immediately before 
the flower-buds open. Where the disease has 
been bad a second spraying should be given 
directly the bloom is set, using either Bordeaux 
mixture or the lime-sulphur wash, according to 
the variety of Apple (the latter spray for Cox's 
Orange Pippin). Where flower-spurs are ob- 
served to be attacked in the spring I would 
strongly advise growers to cut them off imme- 
diately and burn them, as this measure, car- 
ried out in time, removes the disease before the 
fungus has time to grow into the branch. Be- 
sides the actual damage to the branches caused 
by the formation of cankers, the cankered area9 
and the dead spurs projecting from them must 
be regarded as highly dangerous to the health 
not only of Apple trees, but of surrounding 
fruit trees, such as Plums and Cherries, since 
pustules of spores are produced on them prac- 
tically all the year round. E. S. Salmon, 
Mycologist to the South-Eastern Agricultural 
College, Wye, Kent. 



86 



TEE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[August 1, 1914. 



ORCHID NOTES AND GLEANINGS. 

ODONTONIA CLEVERLEYANA. 
Messrs. Mansell and Hatcher showed this 
fine Odontoma at Holland House on June 30, 
when it secured a First-Class Certificate, not an 
Award of Merit, as stated in the line beneath 
the illustration printed in these pages on July 11. 

SEED-RAISING HOUSE AT BRACKEN- 
HURST. 

In the fine block of Orchid-houses lately erected 
for Mr. J. Gurney Fowler at Brackenhurst, Tun- 
bridge Wells, especial care and attention is de- 
voted to the accommodation of seedlings. The 
houses set apart for this purpose were erected 
under the personal supervision of Mr. T. Arm- 
strong, of the firm of Messrs. Armstrong and 
Brown, and the skilful construction facilitates 




is extremely advantageous. The spring sowings 
at Brackenhurst are now sturdy little plants in 
store pots, while seeds sown scarcely a month 
ago have resulted in stout, fleshy, globular 
seedlings, soon to be placed in, store pans. The 
method of preparing pots for sowing is to make up 
tufts of peat and Sphagnum-moss, cover them 
with fine linen, thoroughly soak them in rain 
water, and place them in the pots a day 
or two before sowing the seed. It has been 
found best not to make these wads long before- 
hand ; if they are kept, they are apt to 
become infected with fungi, which thus have 
time to assume formidable proportions before 
the young seedlings are grown. The freshly- 
sown pots are placed on the top of inverted pots 
of the same size, and these in turn are placed 
in pans of water. As the pans stand on the hot- 
water tank, the water helps to maintain a moist 
atmosphere, besides acting as a deterrent to in- 
sect pests. The close staging over the pipes is 
covered with shingle and kept wet. The open 
woodwork on which the plants stand is painted 
with oxide of iron over white lead. This makes 
a clean, wholesome surface, and the appearance 
is also very neat, as the colour almost matches 
that of the pots. There can be little doubt but 
that the Brackenhurst method of raising seed- 
lings will prove generally successful, and that the 
plants thus produced will flower more rapidly 
than those raised by less scientific methods. Since 
the chief secret of successful "Orchid-raising is 
to avoid checks to development, any method 
which eliminates the risk of checks at a critical 
stage of growth must be good. 



THE MARKET FRUIT GARDEN. 



Fig. 38. — portion of a branch of " cox s orange 

PIPPIN," SHOWING THE "BROWN ROT " CAN- 
KER. THE DEAD SPUR WAS ATTACKED WHEN IN 
FLOWER. PUSTULES OF SPORES CAN BE SEEN. 

greatly the difficult work of raising hybrid seed- 
lings. The greater part of the range is 
occupied with choice, warm-house Cypripe- 
diums, about a third of the space being 
partitioned off at the further end for seeds and 
very young plants. In this compartment a high 
temperature is maintained, and in order to 
provide sufficient moisture without the attendant 
disadvantage of excessive condensation, the fol- 
lowing plan has been followed. Six rows of 
4-inch hot-water piping extend up each side ; and 
the end cross-staging is provided with a hot- 
water tank, over which the seed-raising case is 
constructed. This case is fitted with glass 
sash-lights, which are never closed ; and 
the contrivance enables the seedlings, when re- 
moved from the case, to enjoy almost the same 
conditions as before. As the change from the 
seed-case to the first pot is a frequent cause of 
mortality in hybrids, the arrangement described 



SOUTH AFRICA. 



INFLUENCE OF THE MOON ON GROWTH. 
It may be of interest to your readers to know 
that it is a fairly common belief amongst the 
older Boers that the moon has really an effect 
on the growth of plants. It was first 
brought to my notice through an old Dutch 
friend declining to prune some vines, about 
which he was giving me some information. 
He said that it would spoil them to prune them 
when the moon was on the decrease, and seemed 
quite surprised that I did not hold the same 
opinion. He went on further to state that seed 
should not be sown, plants transplanted, trees 
pruned, nor other gardening operations taken in 
hand when the moon is on the wane. This must 
be a belief brought over by the original Dutch 
colonists, as Mr. Buysman has found the same 
tradition to exist in Java. At first I was inclined 
to put it down to the Dutchman's love for pro- 
crastination. " To-morrow is another day " is 
the axiom of too many. 

CYANIDING OF GREENHOUSES. 

Many of your correspondents appear to have 
had failures in the use of cyaniding. May it 
not be due to fumigating in the daylight ? 
Cyanide is constantly used in South Africa for 
fumigating Citrus trees, but the cyaniding is 
almost always done at night. Some time 
back I was shown a tree the fop of which was 
quite dead. It was explained that there had 
not been time to remove the tent, which was 
placed over it for purposes of fumigation, before 
the sun had risen, with the result that the rays 
had struck the top of the tent, and that portion 
of the tree across which the light had fallen had 
withered. C. N. Knox Davies, Johannesburg. 



An Invigorating Fruit Tree Wash. 

On page 390 reference was made to numerous 
insecticide trials, mainly against the Apple 
sucker. It was stated that a mixture of soft 
soap and ammonia was one of the most satisfac- 
tory of the washes tried, as the addition of am- 
monia not only strengthened the killing power 
of the soap, but also seemed to invigorate the 
foliage. Since that statement was made it has 
been very strikingly confirmed. A Worcester 
Pearmain tree, selected as about equal in all re- 
spects to a tree above and another below it in 
its row, was sprayed with 1 fluid ounce of 
domestic cloudy ammonia and 1 ounce of soft 
soap to a gallon of water. This slightly scorched 
the petals of open blossom, and the conclu- 



Proposed Botanic Garden for Texas. 

With a view to conserving the native flora, it 
is proposed to establish a botanic garden and 
arboretum at Austin in Texas. The movement 
is being supported by various horticultural and 
agricultural societies in the United States, and 
several associations have appointed committees 
for the purpose of furthering the proposal. 




Fig. 39. — the same branch as fig. 38, seen 
from the other side. it can be seen that 
the canker is now girdling the branch. 
the bark is cracking and srores are ap- 
pearing in the cracks. 



sion was that the proportion of ammonia was too 
great. But the appearance of the sprayed tree 
now is strikingly superior to that of the two 
trees adjoining it. The foliage is larger and of 
deeper colour, clearly proving that the ammonia 
has had an invigorating effect, while the fruiting 
was not impaired by the scorching of the edges of 
the petals of the blossom. A reduction to § 
fluid ounce of ammonia to a gallon of water, with 
1 ounce of soft soap, proved quite harmless to 
foliage and open blossom in repeated trials. It 
is a pity that there was no ordinary commercial 
ammonia at hand for the test. This may be a 
little stronger than the domestic cloudy am- 
monia. Next season, however, 7 lbs. of the best 
soft soap and 3 pints of ordinary fluid ammonia 
to 100 gallons of water will be tried for aphis 
and Apple sucker. Southern Grower. 



August 1, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



87 



REPORT ON THE CONDITION OF THE OUT-DOOR FRUIT CROPS. 

[FROM OUR OWN CORRESPONDENTS.] 

The words "Average," "Over," or "Under," as the case may be, indicate the amount of the crop; 

and " Good," " Very Good," or " Bad," denote the quamty. 

Fuller comments will be gives in the following nuhbeks. see also Leading Article on page 04. 













PEACHES 












COUNTY. 


APPLES. 


PEARS. 


PLUMS. 


CHERRIES. 


AND NEC- 
TARINES. 


APRICOTS. 


SMALL 

FRUITS. 


STRAW- 
BERRIES. 


NUTS. 


NAME AND ADDRESS. 


SCOTLAND 






















0, Scotland, N. 






















CAITHNESS 


Average ; 


Average ; 

g 1 




Average ; 






Over ; 


Average ; 




\V. F. Mackenzie, The Gardens 




very good 




good 






very good 


good 




Thurso Castle, Thursn. 




Under ; bad 


Average ; 


Average : 


Under; bad 


Under ; bad 


Average ; 


Under ; good 


Under ; good 




lobn Macpheraon, Mayne Gar- 








good 


L'MI'I 






gi .. .. I 










ISLE OF SKYE 


Average ; 
good 






1 nder ; good 






Over . 
very' good 


Average ; 
very go.nl 




Charles Angus, Armadale Castle 




good 


very good 


very good 






NAIRNSHIRE 




Average ; 


Average ; 
good 


i nder ; good 


Average ; 

go.nl 




Over ; 

very good 


Average ; 
good 




David Chapman. The Gardens 






very good 




ORKNEY 


Average ; 
good 






Over ; good 


Average ; 
good 




Over , good 


Over ; g 1 




W. Liddell. Balfour Castle 
Gardens, Kirkwall. 












1, Scotland, E. 






















ABERDEENSHIRE.... 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; good 


Average ; 






Over ; 


Average ; 




James Grant, Rothienormau 




g i 


■.-n.nl 




g I 






very good 


g 1 




Gardens. 




Average 


Average 


Over 


I nder 






Average 


i oder 




Simon Campbell, Fyvie Castk 

Gardens. 
\\ in. Henderson, Meldrunv 




Over 


Average 


Over 


Over 






Over 


Under 
























House Gardens. 




Under ; good 


Average ; 


Over ; 


Over ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; 


Under ; bad 




John McKinnon, Haddo House 






g i 


very good 


very good 


good 


good 


verj good 






Gardens. 


BANFFSHIRE 














Average ; 
gniif] 


Under 




George Edwards, Ballindalloeli 
i a.-tle Gardens. 




















Average 


Average 


Under 


Over 


Over 


Average 


Average 


Under 




George II. Ogg, Netheldale House 


BERWICKSHIRE 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; 


Over ; 


Average ; 


Over ; 


Over ; 


Over ; 




Peter Smith, Duns Castle Gar- 




very good 


■- i 


very good 


very g 1 


good 


very g 1 


very' g 1 


very good 




dens, Duns. 




Average 


Average 


Over 


Over ; 
very good 






Over ; 

very good 


Over ; 

very good 




Robert Stuart, Thirlestane 
Castle Gardens, Lauder. 




Over ; 


Over; 


Over ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 




Thomas Nelson, Milne Grader* 




very good 


very good 


very good 


good 


good 


g, ,i ,i | 


very g 1 


bad 




Gardens. Coldstream. 




Average ; 


Over : 


Over ; 


i nder ; good 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 




R . H enderson, Ayton Castle 




g 1 


very gu.nl 


very good 






g I 


g. M 'i 1 


very good 




Gardens. 


CLACKMANNAN 


Average 


Average 


Over 


Average 


i nder 


Average 


Over 


Average 


Under 


Alexander Kirk, Consulting 


SHIRE 




















Gardener. Alloa. 




Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 






Over 


Average 




James Small, Norwood Gardens. 

Alloa. 
Chas. Simpson, Wemyss 

Castle Gardens. 


FIFESHIRE 




Average 




Average ; 

g i 




Average ; 

gi >i " I 


Average ; 

g 1 




















i nder ; good 


Over ; 


Under 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over : 


Average ; 




I>. McLean, Raith Gardens, 






very good 




good 


good 


Vi'l'\ good 


very good 


i i 




Kirkcaldy. 




Average 


l nder 


i nder 


Average 




Under 


Ovei 


Over 




William Henderson, Balbirnie 
Gardens, Markineh. 


FORFARSHIRE 


Average 




Ove 


Average ; 
very good 






Average ; 
verv g iod 


Average : 
very good 


















dens, Monifleth. 




Under 


Over ; good 


I nder ; good 


Over ; good 


■ 


Under 


Average ; 
good 


Average . 
good 




Robert Bell, Kinnaird Castle 
Gardens. Brechin. 




Under 


Average ; 
good 


Average ; 


Under 






i nder 


Average ; 

gi H » 1 




Andrew MeAudie, Rutliven 

House Gardens, Meigle. 


HADDINGTON- 


Over ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average 


Average ; 


Over ; 


Over; 


Under 




U. p. Brotherston, Tyning- 


SHIRE. 


very good 


very good 


good 




go.nl 


very good 


very good 






banie Gardens, Prestonkirk. 


(East Lothian.) 






















KINCARDINESHIRE 


Average 


Over 


Average 


i >ver ; g< od 






Over ; good 


Avera 

g 1 




William Knight, Fasgue Gar- 
dens, Laurencekirk. 


KINROSS-SHIRE 


Average 














Average 




Robert Fraser, Kinross House 


















l lardens, Kinross. 


MIDLOTHIAN 


OVer ; 


















Benjamin B. Ness, Oxenfoord 




very good 


very good 


very good 


very good 




very good 


very good 


very good 




i astle Gardens, Ford. 




Average 


Average 


Under 


Under 




Over ; gi m id 


Over 


Average 




D. Kidd. Carberry Tower Gar- 
dens, Musselburgh. 




Average 


Over 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Over 


Over 


Average 




Win. G. Pirie. Dalhousie Castle 
Gardens, Bonnyrigg. 




Average ; 


Over ; good 


Under ; good 


Averai 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Under g 1 




James Whytock, Dalkeith Gar- 




g l 






verv g i 


■ 


good 


g 1 






dens, Dalkeith. 


MORAYSHIRE 




Over ; good 


Over ; '-'""1 


Over ; good 




Over ■ 


Average 






Chas. Webster, Gordon Castle 






very good 








Gardens, Fochabers, 


PEEBLESSHIRE 


Over ; 
very good 


Over 


Over ; g 1 

Over : 


Over 

Over ; 






i h ei . 
very g 1 

Over ; 


Over ; 

very good 

Over : 




Win. McDonald, Cardrona, 




Innerleithen. 
Alex. J. McDonald, Darnhall 




gl >l II 1 




very g 1 


very g 1 






very good 


very -. >od 




Gardens, Eddleston. 


PERTHSHIRE 


Under ; good 


Under ; good 










Over 






Thomas Lunt, Keir Gardens. 




verj 1 


iod 






very g 1 






Dunblane. 




Average 


Under 


Ave] 


Average 






Average 


Average 




.b.bn Robb, Milnab Terraei 


ROXBURGHSHIRE 


i nder 




Average 


Over ; 


Average 


Under 


Over ; good 


Average 




\\ . Chaplin, Springwood Park 


SELKIRKSHIRE 




very good 


Over ; 


very good 






Over ; 


Over ; 




Gardens, Kelso. 
John C. Lunt, Bowhill Gardens. 




very good. 




very good 


very g 1 






very good 


very good 




Selkirk. 


6, Scotland, W. 






















ARGYLLSHIRE 


Under ; good 


Under ; good 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Under 




Average ; 
very 1 


Averagi 

g 1 




ii s. Melville, Poltalloch 




Gardens, Lochgilphead. 




Average ; 


Average 


Average 


Average 






Over 


Over 


Aveiage 


Henry Scott, Torloisk Gardens, 

William Priest, Eglinton Gar- 


AYRSHIRE 


gi ii ii 1 

Aveiage ; 

good 


Under 


Over 
Over ; good 


Average 
Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Average ; 


Average ; 

guild 

Over ; good 


Over ; 

good 

Average ; 


Average ; 




ili i,-, Kilwinning. 
D. Buchanan, Bargany Gardens, 




Average 


good 
Over 


Over 


Under 




g 1 


Over 


g I 

Over 


good 


Dailly. . t , 
John iMcInnes, Kirkmichael 
House Gaidens, by Mayhole. 


Bl 1 KsIlIRE 


Under 


Under 


Under 


Average ; 

good 
Average 
Average 

Over 






Average 


Average ; 

g i 




M. J. Heron, Mount Stuart Gar- 




dens, Rothesay. 


DUMBARTONSHIRE ... 


Average 
Average 

Over 


Under 

Under 

Average 


Average 

Average ; 
good 
Over 


Over 




f her 

Over ; 
very good 

Over 


Average 
Over ; good 

Over 




D. H alii day, Ascog. 

D. Stewart, Knockderry Castle 

Gardens, Cove. 
David Kerr, Ross Priory. 

Gartocharn. 


DUMFRIESSHIRE 


Average ; 
good 




Under ; good 


Under ; good 




Under ; good 


Average . 

g 1 


Over ; good 




John Urquhart, Hoddom 
Castle Gardens, Ecclefechan. 



88 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[August 1, 1914. 



CONDITION OF THE FRUIT CROPS— (continued). 



COUNTY. 



6. Scotland.W. 

DUMFRIESSHIRE 
(continued) 

KIRKCUDBRIGHT- 
SHIRE 



LANARKSHIRE 



STIRLINGSHIRE... 
WIGTOWNSHIRE 



ENGLAND 

2. England, N.E. 
DURHAM 



NORTHUMBERLAND. 

YORKSHIRE 



3. England, E. 
CAMBRIDGESHIRE 



ESSEN 



HUNTINGDONSHIRE 
LINCOLNSHIRE 



NORFOl k 



RUTLANDSHIB I 
SUFFOLK 



4. Midland Counties. 
BEDFORDSHIRE 



APPLES. 



Over ; 
verj good 

Average 



Average ; 

good 
Average ; 

good 



Average ; 
good 

I nder 

Average : 
good 
i nder 

i ndei 

Under : bad 

Under ; good 

Average 

Under ; bad 

Under 

i ndei 



Average ; 

very good 

I nder ; good 

Average : 

■■ I 

Under 

Average ; 

vi i j good 

Under : good 

Under ; 
very good 

i 

Average 

i nder ; good 

Average ; 

_ i 

\ vi rage ; 
good 
i nder 

Over I 

i ndei 

Averaf ■ 
good 
Over 

Averai i 
Under 

■ age : 

■ d 
A\« raj 

i ndei 

Under ■ 
very - I 

Over ; 

very good 

Average ; 

I 

Average 

Average ; 

good 

Under ; good 

Under 



Under ; good 

I >' n ; good 



PEARS. 



Average ; 
good 



Average 
good 



Average ; 

good 
Over : good 



Under ; good 

Under 

Average ; 

good 
Average 

Under 

Under ; g I 

Under g 1 

Under : bad 

Average ; 

good. 

Under ; good 

Under 



t UERRTES. 



Average ; 

very good 

Under ; bad 

Average ; 
go< » i 
Under 

Average , 
good 

Average ; 

good 
■ tver ; very 

good 

Under ; good 
Ai erage 
Under 

Average : 

■j I 

Average; 

g i 

Average ; 

- I 

Under 

Over; good 

\ . ■ I ;; ■ . 
g 1 

Averagi ; 

good 
Average 

< fver 

Average 

• tver 

i ivei : good 

Average 

Under 

i (ver : good 

l ive) ; 
very good 
Over; good 

Average 

Over ; good 

Average ; 

good 
Average ; 
very good 

Average ; 
very good 

Over ; good 



Average ; 
good 

Over ; good 
Under 



Average ; 

good 
Over : g 1 



l nder 
Average ; 

gj H H i 

i nder ; good 
Over : good 

Under 
i nder ; good 
Under ; good 

\\vn ■ 

■ rage 
i nder 
i nder 

i nder ; good 

Under ;good 

Average 

gi h ii l 

Average 

Over : good 

l nder ; good 

Under ; bad 

Over 

l nder 
Under ; go id 
Weri 

i nder 

i nder 

Over 
i ndei ; g 1 

' nder 
Average 

i nder 

i nder 

■2 1 

Over 

■ 
■. i 

V.vi rag) 

good 

Average ; 

good 

OUT 

Average 

Over ; 

good 

Average; 

bad 

Under ; good 
Over ; good 



PEACHES 

ani> NEC- 
I ARINES. 



A verage ; 

o i 



Over : good 



Average ; 
good 



Over : 
very good 
Average ; 

■J,...)] 



Average ; 

good 

Over ; good 

Average ; 
good 

Average : 
good 
Under 

Average ; 

good 
\\ erage ; 

good 

Average 

Average 

Average ; 
good 

Wi . i 



i nder ; % I 

Average ; 

verj good 

i ride] ; good 



Under 

v&vi ■■ I 

Wi rage ; 

g I 

■ 

verj g I 

i nder 

Over; 
\ i rj good 
Ovei 

ii* ii ii I 

.... ,od 

Wi rage 

Over; very 

■ ■■■on 
\ verage ; 

'i 

Vi i raj e 

t >ver 
Under 



t i ver ; 

■ i rj " I 

■ 

( I ver 

\\. rage ; 

good 

Average : 

vi rj good 

Werage ; 

good 



Average 
good 



Over ; 

Very U'iim] 



Over ; good 



Under ; good 

Average ; 

good 
A \ e rage ; 

good 



Ovi i good 
Over 



\i-i;n (its. 



Average : 

under 



Under 



Over ; 

very good 

Under 

Average : 

8 t 

Average ; 
good 
< >ver 

Over ; good 

Werage ; 
good 
Over 



SMALL 

FRUITS. 



Over ; ■ tver : 

\ erj '-'«^iii t verj good 
Over ; good 



Average ; 
had 



Average ; 
good 



Over ; very Under 

•ii iod 
Over ; good i (vi j ' 



Over verj 

•- I 

■ 

Over 



Average 

Over ; 
very good 

Wi i 1 1 

ood 



i nder , good 



Average ; 
good 



Over ; 
v( ry good 

Over; 

very g I 

Over ; good 

over 

Over ; 
very good 

! ndei' 

good 
Average 

Over 



Average ; 

i od 

\ 1 1 I..- e 

Average 

I nder ; bad 

Average 

good 

Average ; 

ood 

Under 

Average 

Over ; 
very good 
Over : good 



I lldel ; -null 



Over; 

very good 



Over : very 

good 

Werage ; 

L I 

Over 



Over : very 
good 

i her ; 

very good 

Over ; very 

good 

Over 

Over 

Under : good 

< >ver : g I 

Under 

Average 

Average 



Over : 
very gOOd 

Average 

Over 

Over ; good 

Under 

Werage ; 
good 
Under 

Average 

Over ; 

verj - I 



Under ; good 
Over ; good 



Average ; 

g( h id 

Over ; 
very good 

Over good 



Over ; 

very good 

Over : good 



Average ; 

good 
Average ; 

good 
Over ; good 

Average ; 

good 
Average 

Over ; 

i i i 
i Ivor ; ^ I 

Over 

Over . 

very gOOd 

Werage ; 

gi iod 
Average 



Over ; 

very good 

Average ; 

very good 

Werage ; 

verj good 

Werage 

Wera 

over ; 
very gOOd 

Average . 
very good 
A vera 

very % I 

Werage 

Under 

Average ; 

rood 

Average ; 

very gOOd 

Average ; 

very good 

Werage 

Averagi ; 

g I 

Under ■ d 

< >ver ; 

vera ■■ I 

Average 

Werage 

Werage 

Over 

Average ; 
very good 

Over 

Average 

Average ; 
good 

< rver ; 

\ en gi iod 
Over ; 

very g I 

Average 

Average 

Average ; 

very good 

Weragi 



Average ; 
good 

Average ; 

- d 



STRAW- 
BERRIES. 



Over ; 
very good 

Under; bad 



Average ; 
good 



Over ; 
very good 
Average ; 

good 



Average; 

good 

Under ; had 

Over ; good 

Under ; very 

had 

Average ; 

good 

Average ; 

good 

Under; good 

Average ; 

good 
i nder ; bad 

Undi c ; bad 

Under 



Average ; 

good 
Over ; very 

■MM .(I 

river ; vera 

good 

Werage 

Over; very 

good 

Average ; 

good 
Average ; 
\ i rj good 
Average ; 

g I 

Werage 

Average 

Under ; good 

Average 

.;, ,, ,,l 

I [nder ; 

very r 1 

i ndei 

i ndei ■-■ I 

i rnder ; bad 

I inler 

\\i rage 

Average 

Under 
Under; bad 

Werage 
i nder 

Over ; g 1 

i nder ; good 

Under ; good 

Under 

Average 

Average 

- I 

Average : 
very good 

Average ; 
very good 

Under ; g 1 



Over ; good 



Under ; good 



NAME AND ADDRESS. 



Taraes McDonald, Dryfeholm 
Gardens, Lockerbie. 



David Wilson, 
Paluure. 



Cairnsmore, 



Under 



Under 



Under 



Average ; 
g< tod 



Werage ; 
good 



Under 

Average ; 
very good 
Average ; 

good 

Average ; 

good 

Wi rage 



Under 
Average 



Werage 

Under 

Over ; 

good 

Average 



Werage 



Under 

Under 



Average ; 

good 

Over 
Average 

Under ; good 



Under 



John Shiells, Carstairs Gardt m 

Carstairs Junction. 



John Middleton, Call* nda 
House Gardens, Falkirk. 

Tohn Bryden, Dunragit Gar- 
dens, Dunragit. 



John Smith, Hylton House, 

North Road, Durham. 
W. Smith, Lambton ( asth 

Gardens. 
C. W. Mayhew, 10, Olyrapia 

Gardens, Morpeth. 
W. Jackson, Dal ton Hall, 

Beverley. 
A, S. Gait, Ruthei l< i 

Roundhay, Leeds. 
Jas. E. Hathaway, Baldersbj 

Park Gardens. Thirsk, 
Alfred Gaut, The I Diversity, 

Leeds. 
A. E. Sutton, Caetle H»>« ard 

Gardens, Welburn. 
J. G. Wilson* (level Park 

Gardens, W akeiiehl. 

F. C. Puddle, Scampston llall 

Gardens, Rillington. 
G Fulford, North Riding Vb.i - 

him, York. 



i;. Alderman, Bahraham Gar- 
dens, Cambridge, 

Thomas Si Der, Meldi el Ii 

Court Gardens, Royston. 

Arthur Sewell, The Palace Gar- 
dens, Ely. 

Stephen Castle, Walpoli St. 

Andrews. WlBDeclj. 

W. Woods, Chippenham Park 

Gardens, Soham. 
Herbert Hi ad. Hat li ■ 

Gardens, Sandy. 
\ 1 1 inn Bullock, I opped Ha 

Gardi ns, Epping. 
C. \n akely, Countj Gj rd< 

Chelmsford. 
H. Lister, Easton Lod 

Dunmow, 
11. \\ . Ward, Lime B 

Rayleigh. 
John U-thurton, Debdei I 

Gardi ns, Saffron \\ alden, 
\. V. Ci ombe, Ramsey Abbej 

Gardens, Rams* > . 
p. ,T. Foster. Grimsthorpe I 

i tardens, Bourne. 
H, V*inden, Harlaxton Manor 

Gardens, Grantham. 
Fredk. Barton, Sainton Hall 

Gardi ns, Lincoln. 
Harry Louth, Boothbj Hal 

den I frantham, 
.1. Wynn, Sedgi ford Hall Gar- 
dens, near King's Lynn. 
11. Goude, Shirehall Edu. i 1 pi 

Norwich 
William oir. Ili-jh House, Church 

Road, i lownham Market. 
W. Shingler, Melton Con I 

Park Gardens. 
Win. Smith, Lyndon Hall Gar- 
dens, < lakham. 
E. G. Creek, Shire li 

St. Edmunds. 
w. Messenger, Woolve] I 

Park Gardens, Ipsw ich, 

si iling, Lft ermei i Pa] ; . 

i lardens, Bm \ St. Edmunds 
ii. i oster, [ck worth. Bury St 

Edmunds. 

B. Goodacre, Moulton Paddocks 
Gardens, Newmarket. 

James Eilson, Flixton Hall 
Gardens, Bungay. 

k. Evans, Gt. Barton, Burj 
St. Edmunds. 

Alfred Andrews, IM-jIi ll< msc 
Gardens, Wickham Market. 

A. K. Turner, Orwell Park Gar- 
dens, Ipswich. 

Janus A. Best, Easton Pa I 
Gardens, Wickham Market. 

w. H. Neild. Woburn Experi- 
mental Fruit Farm, Ridg* 
mont, Aspley Guise. 

C. J. Ellett, uhieksandB Priory 
Gardens, Shefford, 



\ a oust 1, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



89 



CONDITION OF THE FRUIT CROPS— (continntd). 



iXMTHTY. 



4 Midland C.-unties. 
BEDFORDSHIRE 

(oontinued) 



BUCKINGHAMSHIRE. 



APPLES. 






'HiMniBC 



*RK«y.sim;r. 



rEB rFORDSHIRE 



E81 BRSRIRE. 



MURK 



Under 
Under 
Under 

Under; g I 

Under 



Average ; 

good 

Under; good 

I nrler ; u 1 

Under 

Average ; 

good 
Average ; 

good 
Average ; 

g 1 

Tinier ; good 

Average ; 

g I 

I in It.- r ; foud 



Over : 
very good 
Average 

Over; very- 
good 
Under 

Under ; bad 

Under ; good 

i ader ; bad 



i ader 
I nder; bad 
i nder ; bad 

Avi i.' ..' ■ 

e i 

! in!, l 

Under 

Under; good 

Under; good 

Average ; 

good 

Under ; good 

Under ; good 

Under ; good 

Average 

Under ; good 

Tinier ; gOOd 

Under ; good 

Under ; good 
I Oder ; good 



PEARS. 



I SGH VMAHIRE. I ndei ; bad 
Under ; good 
Under 



[WHIRE 



Over ; very 
good 

Over 

Average 

Under ; good 

Under; verj 

good 



Average 

Average 

Under 

Average ; 
very good 
Averagi 

Under ; good 

Average : 

go'i »d 

Under ; g 1 

Ovei 

Average : 

good 
Average : 

good 
Average ; 

good 
Average ; 

good 
Avei',:i 

good 
Over : gnod 



Over ; 

verj g i 

Average 

Over ; 

very g I 

Over 

good 
Ovei : g I 

Over; 

in rj go 'i 



Avei ■ 

iv< ra [{ 

■_ i 

i nder; bad 

goon 

i ■■ i 



Ow i 

i 
1 1 

Average ; 

good 
Over; 

■ 
Average ; 

g< '• N I 

•_'< mil 

\\. ragi 



Averagi 

g i 

Over ; vers 

A 1 

Under ; good 



PLUMS. 



Average 

Under 

Under 

Under ; good 

Average 



Avera 

good 
I'nder; bad 

I nder; good 

Average 

Under: good 

Under ; 
very good 

Over ; 
verj good 

Over; 
very' good 
Average ; 

g I 

Over : good 



V\, ragi 
good 
Under 

S l 

Undei i 

Weragi ; 

good 
V\. ra 
very good 

Under 



t nder 

- I 

I nder : bad 
good 

Over 



Over 

I 

g I 

I'nder 
i.V( ragi 
Over ; good 
nver ; 
Over 



t nder ; good 

Over ; very 

good 
Average : 

g 1 



CUE IM; I US. 



Averagi ; 

g i 

Ovei 

< Iver : 

verj ^ I 

Average 



Over : g 1 

Average 

g i 

i nder ; bad 

Over 

Average : 

g I 

Over ; good 

Over : 

verj g i 

Average : 
verj good 

< iver : 
verj - i 

Ovei ; 
verj good 



■ 

g I 

\-\ eragi 

Average 

Over : g I 

Lvi fa g i ■ 



Average 

Over; g I 

Average : 

g l 

Over ; p 1 



PEACHES 
T ARISES. 



Undei 

Averagi ; 
good 
Over 

Over : 

x- rj '_■ I 

Average 



Averagi 

g I 



i ader; bad 
Over 



aim; t< ots. 



SMALL 
FRUITS. 



Under 
Averagi . 
Averagi 

Over ; 

\ erj good 
Average 



I uder ; bad 

i nder ; bad 

Under : bad 

\\. rage 



Average ; 

g l 



i nder ; 

verj g i 



Over : good 



Average ; 

- I 

\ | i , kg 

gi ad 
Ovei good 



i adei 



Over ; 
verj g 
Ovei ! 

l nder; bad 



Avei 

Ovei 

vers •- i 

Ovei 

verj g 1 

■ 

Under : bad 
k. veragi 



I 

I 



1 



Average ; Average 

g 1 good 

Over ; verj Over ; good 

g I 



Average 

Under ; g 1 

Undi [■ 



Over : verj 

good 

Avei agi 

Under 

Under : good 

g 1 



I nder 

1 



Average : 
good 

( >ver 

A verage 

Averagt 

■. 1 

Over; good 



Over; 
verj 

1 1\ er ; good 

\\. i age . 

i.vi ■ 

Average ; 
good 

g I 



I. veragi . 

good 

Over ; verj 

g 1 



I .1 

Average ; 

c ood 



good 

Ili eragi 



Ovei ; good 
Over 

Over 

I 
good 



\ 1 1 rage 



\\! ragi 



Average : 

good 
Over ; good 

Over : 
\ erj good 

Over 

Under ; good 

Averagi ; 
very good 



Over : very 

good 
Over ; very 

good 
Average ; 

good 



Under; bad 



i ndei 

verj - i 



(her ; very 
good 
! 



g 1 



! 



good 
Average 



Average : 

- ood 
Average : 

■ 



Under 



l MM, I 

\ \ i rage 
Undei 
Over : good 



Average ; 

good 

Average ; 

good 

Average 

Over; 

irery good 
Average 



Average ; 

good 

Average ; 

very good 

i ader; bad 

Average 

Over ; good 

Ovei : good 

Over 

Over; 
verj good 
\ verage 

Averagi . 

g i 



Over; 

verj good 

Wei age 

Over 

Average ; 
good 
Ovi i 

vi rj £ I 

Over; 
i*erj good 

Over; 

■ 



\m rage ; 
good 
i nder 

Ovei : 

■ 

gOOO* 



i nder 

Avt rage : 
verj good 

1 

good 
L veragi 

Over : 

very g I 

l 

i 



Average 

Over : very 

g i 

Average ; 
good 



I 

■ 
\\ i rage ; 

Vi n good 



I 

g I 



Ovi r; very 

good 

\\ i rage 

Over ; good 

Over ;> od 

Avei ;■. i 
verj 



STRAW- 
BERRIES. 



Average ; 
good 
Under 

Under 

Under; bad 
i i'nder 



Average ; 

good 

Under ; good 

Under ; bad 

Lverag* 
I ndei : bat) 
Over ; g i 

Over ; 

\. r> good 

Vveragi ; 

good 
i ader ; bad 

Under ; bad 



I ader . g 1 

\\ * ' . 

I adi i 
i ndei ; bad 
i adei _ I 

rood 



e od 
Under; bad 

! 



Average 
Average ; 
good 

i ■ 
Ave! agi 

Average : 

g 1 

I \i ragi 

■■. I 

\vi ragi 
very g i 



i uder : bad 

Undet ; ■- 1 

Average ; 

B I 



Average ; 
verj good 

2 1 



i ndei 



Average ; 

g ood 
Ai eragt 

Average ; 

i adi i 

good 



NUTS. 



Average 
Under 
Under 
Average 
Average 



Average ; 

A I 



Under; good 

A verage 

Average ; 
g< ion 

Average ; 

good 
Average 



Over 

I 



Under 

Average : 

Under 



NAME AM* ADDRESS 



Under 

Over 
Average 

Average 
i adei 
i adei 

Average ; 

gi ., id 
Under ; bad 

Ovei 



Under 

■ 
good 



Average ; 
good 

( i\ er ; . m id 



i adei 



Over ; very 
good 

■ 






Henry William Nutt, Amptbill 

Road, Flit wick. 
Wm. F. Palmer, Froxfleld Gai 

dens, Woburn. 
Laxton Bros., Nurserymen. Bed 

ford. 
Thomas W. Stanton, Hinwicb 

Hall Gardens, Wellingborough. 
J. C, Amptbill. 



James Wood, Etedsoj Park 

i iartleiis. I'.imi in End. 
James MacGregor, Ment m< i e 

Gardens, Leighton Buzzard. 

W, lledley Warren, \ t n 
Clinton Gardens, Tring. 

Philip Mann, Education Sub 
Office, Aylesbury. 

Geoffrey Cooper, Bletehlev Park 
Gardens. 

William Brooks,MissendenHouse 
Gardens, Amersliani. 

W. Waters, Bulstrode Gardens, 
Gerrards Cross. 

G. F.Johnson, Waddeedon Gar- 
dens. Aylesbury. 

rhas. Page, Dropmore G; M . 
Maidenhead, 

A. E. Caudle, Bhenley Park Gar- 
dens, Bletchley. 



\in. d \. Jones, Uarburj llaii 

i hardens, Nbrthwich. 
■ '■■'■ Forsyth, Ha warden Castle 

Gardens, Chest er. 
Limi Squibbs, Bidston Court 

Gardens, Birkenhead. 
Charles Flack, Cholmondelej 

Castle Gardens, Malpas. 
T. A. Summerfleld, Alderley Park 

Gardens, Chelford 
Philip Bolt, Manor Hon-. Gai 

dens, Uiddlewich. ' 
V i*\ Barnes, Eaton Hall Gai 
Len i ihester. 



Bailey Wadds, Uttoxeter New 
Road, Derby. 

John Maxfield, Darlej ibbey 
Gardens, Derby. 

i' Jennings, < lhatsworth Gar- 
dens, Chesterfield. 

.ia>, Tiilly. Osmaston Manor Gar 
dens, Derby. 

E. Wilson, Hardwicli Hall Gar 
dens, Chesterfield. 



Thomas Nutting, Childwicb 

bury Gardens. St Albans. 
Tin>-. Rivers & Ron, Sawbridge- 

nrorth. 
II. Prime, Hatfield House Gar 

dens, Hatfield. 
Edwin Beckett, Aldenham House 

Gardens. El 
J. G. Walker, Oak Hill Park 

Gardens, East Baraet. 
E. K Hazelton, North Mvmms 

Gardens, Hatfield. 
(barks A. Heath, Gt-Hallingburj 

Place O' in-.. I'.i-hopsStortford. 
W. J. Snell, VA'impole Gardens, 

Eoj ston. 



D. Roberts, Prestwold Gardens, 

Loughborough, 
W. H. Divers, Belvoii i tsl Li 

Gardens, Grantham. 
F. Ibbotson, Rolleston Hal I Gar 

dens, Leicester. 



Robt. Johnston, Wakefield Lodge 
Gardens, Stony Stratford. 
. F. Crump, Althorp Park Gat- 
dens, Northampton. 



James B. Allan. Osberton Gar 
J. K. Pearson & sons. Lowdham 

A. W. Oulloch, Newstead Abbey 

lindens, Nottingham. 



John A. Hall, Shiplake I 
Gardens, Henley-on-Thames. 

Arthur J. Long. Wyfold Courl 
Gardens, Reading. 

'. Cradduek, Mrddleton Park 
Gardens, Bicester. 
!. E. Munday, Nuneharn 

lens, Oxford. 
1'. W. Whiting. Sh 
'■■■ ai atley. 



90 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[August 1, 1914. 









CONDITION OF 


THE FRUIT CROPS- 


-(continued 








COUNTY. 


APPLES. 


PEARS. 


PLUMS. 


CHERRIES. 


peaches 

AND NEC- 
TARINES. 


APRICOTS. 


SMALL 
FRUITS. 


STRAW- 
BERRIES. 


NUTS. 


NAME AND ADDRESS. 


4, Midland Counties. 




1 




















Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Over ; very 

good 


Average ; 
good 


Under 


Over ; good 


Average 


Over Alex. Haggart, Moor Park 
Gardens, Ludlow. 






Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Under ; 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Under ; bad 


G. T. Malthouse, Harper- 




good 


good 


good 


good 




good 


good 






Adams Agricultural College, 
Newport. 
George Risebrow, Hatton 




Under 


Under 


Average 


Average 


Under 


Average 


Average 


Under 


Under < 






















(J range Gardens, Shifnal. 


STAFFORDSHIRE 


Under 


Tinder 


Under 


Average ; 


Under 


Under ; bad 


Average 


Under 


Under Edwin Oilman, Ingestre (Jar- 










good 












dens, Stafford. 




Under; bad 


Under ; bad 


Under; bad 


Under 


Under 


Under 


Average ; 
good 


Under 





L Cheney, Shenstone Court 
Gardens. Lichfield. 




Average ; 


Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Average ; 




Average ; 


Over ; very 


Average ; 


Over T. Bannerman, Blithfleld Gar- 




good 






good 




good 


good 


good 




dens, Rugeley. 




Under ; good 


Average ; 
very good 


Under ; good 


Average ; 
good 


Average ; 
good 




Average ; 

g 1 


Under ; bad 


Under 


K. Collier, Rolleston Hall Gar- 
dens, Burton-on-Trent. 




Under 


Average 


Under 


Under 


Average 


Average 


Under 


Under 


Under 


W. Halliday, Patshull Gardens, 
Wolverhamptom. 


WARWICKSHIRE 


Under ; bad 


Under ; bad 


Under ; bad 


Under; bad 


Under ; bad 


Under ; bad 


Under 


Under ; bad 


Under 


Jhas. Harding, Ragley Hall 
Gardens, Alcester. 




Under ; very 


Average ; 


Under; very 


Over ; good 


Average ; 


Over ; very 


Average ; 


Under; bad 


Under; good 


H. Dunkin, Mount Pleasant 




good 


very good 


good 




good 


good 


very good 






Gardens, Warwick. 




Under 


Average 


Over 


Average 


Over 


Over 


Average 


Under 




Tun. Masterson, Weston 
House Gardens, Shipston- 
on-Stour. 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Under ; bad 


Average ; 


Over ; very 


Over ; very 


Average ; 


Under ; good 


Under ; bad 


H. F. Smale, Warwick Castle 




very good 


good 




very good 


good^ 


good 


good 






Garden's, Warwick. 


5, Southern Counties. 






















BERKSHIRE 


Over 


Over 


Average 


Over 


Over 


Average 


Over ■ 


Over 


Average 


A. MaeKellar, Royal Gardens, 




Frogmore, Windsor. 




Under 


Average ; 
good 


Under 


Average 


Average ; 
good 


Average 


Average 


Under 


Under 


J. Howard, Benham Park 
Gardens, Newbury. 




Under 


Average 


Under 








Average ; 

g< H ii 1 


Under 


Under 


F. Freed, East Hendred House 
Gardens, Steventon. 




Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Under; good 


Under 


A. 15. Wadds, Englefleld Gar- 
dens, Reading. 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average 


Over ; very 


Over 


Over ; good 


Over ; good 




F. J Thome, Sunningdale Park 




very good 


good 


good 




good 










(J aidens, Sunningdale 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; very 


Over ; good 


Average ; 


Over ; good 


Over; very 


Over ; very 


Average 


F. Kiwis, Carswell Manor Gar- 




g 1 


good 


good 




good 




good 


good 




dens, Faringdon 




Under; bad 


Under; good 


1 nder 


Average ; 
good 




Average ; 
good 


Average ; 
good 


Under ; good 




E. Harriss, Lockinge Park Gar- 
dens, Wantage. 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 




Average 


Under ; bad 


Average 


Hy. Young, Park Place Gardens, 




good 


.-■nnd 


good 


good 


good 










Henley-on-Thames. 




Average ; 


Over ; good 


Average 


i fnder 


Over ; very 




Over ; very 


Average ; 


Average 


J. Atkinson, Oakley Court Gar- 




good 








good 




g 1 


g( 1. II | 




dens, Windsor. 




Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Average ; 
good 


Average 


Under ; bad 


Under 


Over 


Over 


Under 


William Tapping, Shinfield 
Manor Gardens, nr. Reading. 




i nder 


Average 


Under 


Under 


Under 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Thomas Wilson, Castle Gardens, 
Wallingford. 




Average ; 


Under; good 


Over ; very 


Under; good 


Average 


Under; bad 


Over ; good 


Average 


Average 


C. E. Lever, Hungerford Park 




g 1 




good 














Gardens, Hungerford. 




Over ; good 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average 


Average 


Average ; 


Over ; good 


Average ; 


Average ; 

good 


William Turnham, Greenhvnds 






good 


good 






MMIIll 




good 


Gardens, Henley-on-Thames. 




Average ; 


Over ; good 


1 nrlrl' 


Average 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Under 




W. R. Cos, Barton Court Gar- 




good 








good 


good 


good 






dens, Kintbury, Hungerford. 




I nder; good 


Over ; very 


Over; very 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Under ; good 


Over ; very 


Average ; 


Under 


L. T. Petty, Arlington Manor 






good 


good 


g 1 


good 




good 


good 




Gardens, Newbury. 


DORSETSHIRE 


Over ; very 


Over 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Under 


Over ; very 


Average 


Over 


T. Turton, Castle Gardens, 




good 












good 






Sherborne. 




Over ; good 


Average ; 

<• 1 


Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Average 


Average 


Over ; good 


Average ; 
good 


Over ; very 
good 


ThoB. Denny, Down House 
Gardens, Blandford. 




Average ; 

good 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Under ; go< id 


Average ; 


Under ; good 


Over ; very 


Average ; 




,T. .Taques, Bryanston Gardens, 




- 1 


e i 




good 




good 


good 




Blandford. 




Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Over 


Over 


Over 


Under 


Average ; 

v 1 


Average : 

g( H ii 1 


Average 


A. Shakelton. Forde Abbey, 
Gardens, Chard. 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Average ; 


Over ; very 


Over ; very 


Average ; 


F. Olver, Minterne, Cerne 




g 1 


good 


g t 






liimil 


good 


good 


good 


Abbas. 




Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Over ; very 
good 


Over; good 


Over ; very 

good 


Average 


Over ; very 
good 


Under ; good 


Over 


E. C. Parslow, County Offices, 
Dorchester. 




Over ; very 


Average ; 


Over ; very 


Under 


Under 


Under 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


EL Kempshall, Abbotsbury Gar- 




<_ 1 KM | 


very good 


L'nniJ 








bad 


bad 


good 


dens, Abbotsbury. 


HAMPSHIRE 


Over ; good 


Average ; 

g 1 


Over; good 


Over ; very 
good 


Average ; 
very good 


Average ; 

-mill 


Over ; very 

g 1 


Average ; 
good 


Over ; very 
gi it >< I 


Lewis Smith, Cadland Park (Jar- 




dens, Fawley, Southampton. 




Average ; 


Avtrage ; 


Over; good 


Average ; 




Under 


Average ; 


Under ; good 


Average 


A. G. Nichols, Strathneldsaye 




good 


good 




gDiid 






good 






Gardens, Mortimer, R.S.O. 




Over ; ^ood 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; very 


Over ; good 


Average 


A. J. Legge, Dogmersfleld Park 






very good 


bad 


gH || M 1 


good 


good 


y. 1 






Gardens, Winehfleld. 




Over ; very 


Over ; very 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 




Over; very 


Over ; good 


Average ; 


Henry Martin, Hartley Lodge 




good 


good 


good 


good 


good 




good 




good 


Gardens, Cadnam, South- 
ampton. 




Under ; bad 


Over ; good 


Over; good 


Over ; good 


Average ; 


Average ; 
good 


Average ; 


Under ; bad 




A. W. Blake, Highclere Castle 












good 


good 






Gardens, Newbury. 




Over 


Average 


Over 


Over 


Over 


Under 


Average 


Under 


Average 


Henry Tullett, Ashe Park Gar- 
dens, Overton. 
L. Carsley, Stratton Park Gar- 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Average 


Average 






Over ; very 


Average ; 


Under 




good 


good 










good 


good 




dens, Micheldever. 




Over ; very 


Average ; 


Over ; good 


Average ; 


Over ; good 




Over ; very 


Over ; good 


Average 


E. Molyneux, Swanmore Park 




g 1 


L^I.Kl 




- i 






n 1 






Bishop's Walt-ham. 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; good 


Under ; bad 


Average ; 




Average 


Under; good 


Under ; very 


James Elder, Hursley Park Gar- 




good 


g 1 






-«,i „i 








good 


dens, Winchester, Hants. 


KENT 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; very 


Average ; 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Under 


Geo. Woodward, Barham Court, 




gi h >i 1 


-unci 


g 1 


good 


good 




g 1 


gi ii i« I 




Maidstone. 




Average 


Over 


1 nder 


Over 






Average 


Under 


Over 


George Bunyard, Royal Nur- 
series, Maidstone. 




Average ; 


Average : 


Average ; 


Average 


Over ; very 




Average ; 


Under 


Under 


William Lewis, East Sutton 




good 


good 


good 




good 




over 






Park, Maidstone. 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; good 






Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Geo. Fennell, Bowden, Ton- 




good 


M-, „|<] 


good 








good 


good 


good 


bridge. 




Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 






Average 


Average 


Average 


Geo. Lockyer, Mereworth 'Jar- 
dens, Maidstone. 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over 


Average 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average 


.1. T. Shann, Bettshanger Park 




good 


M-und 


good 


good 






very good 


good 




Gardens, Eastry. 



August 1, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



91 







CONDITION OF THE FRUIT CROPS 


— {continited). 






COUNTY. 


APPLES. 


PEAKS, 


PLUMS. 


CHERRIES. 


PEACHES 
AND NEC- 
TARINES. 


APRICOTS. 


SMALL 
FRUITS. 


STRAW- 
BERRIES. 


NUTS. 


NAME AND ADDRESS. 


5. Southern Counties. 






















KENT (continued) 


Under 


Average 


Under 








Over ; good 


Over 




Charles E. Shea, The Elms, 
Foots Cray. 




Average 


Average 


Average 


Over; good 


Over; 
very good 


Under ; bad 


Over ; very 
good 


Average 


Average ; 
good 


II Cannell and Sons, Eyns- 
ford. 




Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Average ; 


< tver ; very 


Average : 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


\ t erage 


.1. G. Weston, Eastwell Park 








good 


good 


good 


good 


good 


good 




Gardens, Ashford. 


MIDDLESEX 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Over ; good 


Over 


Average 


Average 


Average 


II. Mark bam, Wrotham Park 














Gardens, Barnet. 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Under 


Average 


Average 




Average 


Average ; 


Average ; 


W. Poiipart, Marsh Farm, 




good 


good 












good 


over 


Tfl ickenham, 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; good 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


John Weathers, Park View, 




good 


good 




good 


good 


good 


:- r 1 


good 


good 


Isleworth. 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Under 


Average 






Average 


Average 




.lames Hawkes, Osterley Park 




gi 1' " 1 


good 
















l laxdehs, isle worth. 




Average 


Under 


Under 


Average 


Average 




Average 


Average 


Over 


W. Bates, Cross Deep Gardens, 
Twickenham. 




Over ; good 


a verage ; 
good 


Average ; 
very good 


Over; good 


Over ; good 


Average ; 

gooil 


Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Over 


William Fulford, The Nurseries, 
ILin worth 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; very 


Average ; 




A \ erage ; 


Under 




James Hudson, Guanersbury 




good 


good 


good 


good 


good 




good 






House ''aniens, Aeton, 


■•I'RRBT 


Over ; good 


i nder ; good 


i nder ; bad 




Under 




Under ; bad 


Under ; bad 


Under 


S. T. Wright, R.ILS. Gardens, 






















Wisley, Itipley. 




Over 


Over 


i Iver 


Over 


Over 


Average 


Average 


Under 


Over 


Geo. Kent, Norbmry Park Gar- 
dens, Dorking. 




Average ; 


Average; 


Aveiage ; 








Over ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Geo. Halsey, Ridding Court 




g 1 


g 1 


gi H H 1 








g 1 


good 


good 


Gardens, Cateiiham Valley. 




Over 


Average 


Average 


Average 






Average 


Under 


Average 


•lames Watt, Mynthurst * Gar- 
dens, Reigate, 




Aveiage 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


Average 


.lames Lork, Oatlands Lodge 
Gardens, Wey bridge. 




Average ; 


Over ; very 


Under 


Over ; very 


Average ; 


Average 


Average ; 


Over ; very 




Tbos. Smith. Coombe Court 




g(.l>d 


gfood 




good 


g 1 


B 1 


good 


good 




Gardens, Kingston Hill. 


*rSSE.\ 


Average ; 

g 1 


Average ; 

g, „ H I 


Over ; good 


* (ver ; very 


Average ; 
gi iod 


Average ; 

g 1 


Over ; very 

g< .< H | 


Over; good 




111. is. Tyson, Wykehurst Park 
Gardens, Qayward's Heath. 




, ., , i 






Under; good 


Over : very 


Over ; good 


Over; verj 


Average ; 




Over ; very 


Under; bad 


Average ; 


J. Muddell, Sedgwick Park 






good 




g 1 


go< d 




good 




good 


Gardens, Ilnrsham. 




Average 


Over ; bad 


Over 


Average 


Average ; 
good 


Average 


i Her ; very 

g 1 


Average ; 

B I 


Average 


A. WjJ-on, Bridge Castle Gar- 
dens, Tunbiidge Wells 




Average 


Over 


Over 


Over 









Average 


Average 


William E. Bear, Magham 
Down, Hailsham. 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Over ; very 


Under ; bad 


Average ; 


Under; good 




W. H. Smith, West Dean Park 




good 


goo l 






good 




good 






Gardens. Chichester. 




Under ; 


Average ; 


Over ; very 


Average ; 


Average ; 




Average 


Average ; 


Over ; very 


w. J. Langridge, ote Hall 




very good 


very g 1 


gl H H 1 


g l 


g 1 




very g 1 


g 1 


good 


Gardens, Burgess Hill. 




Under; good 


Over ; good 


Under ; 

g« ..id 


Average ; 

very good 






Average ; 
good 


Under ; bad 


Under 


W. G oaring, Agricultuial Col- 
lege, Uckfleld. 




Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Average ; 

good 


Over ; good 


Average ; 
gi h >d 


Over ; 

v. i> good 


Over ; good 


Under 


Average ; 
good 


J. W. Buckingham, Milland 
Place Gardens, Liphook. 


WJLTSTITRl 


Average ; 

good 


Average ; 
good 


Under 
good 


Average ; 

good 






Average ; 

good 


Average ; 

good 




George Brown, Bowood Gardens, 




Calne. 




Over ; 


Over ; 


Average : 


Average ; 


Over ; 


Average ; 


Over ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Thomas Challis, Wilton House 




very good 


very g 1 


good 


good 


very good 


good 


very good 


very good 


good 


Gardens, near Salisbury. 




Average 


Average 


Average 


\ \ erage 


Average 




Average 


Average ; bad 


Under 


Thomas Sharp, Weatbnry. 




Under ; good 


Over : 

very g 1 


i oder 


Over ; good 


Over ; gooa" 


Average ; 
good 


Average ; 

gi .< »i 1 


Average 


Average ; 
good 


T. W. Birklnahaw, Cdmpton 

Ba*seti Gardens, Calne. 




Average ; 


Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Average ; 


Average 




Over ; good 


(nder ; good 


Average 


Henry Gaudy, Longleat Gardens, 




- 1 






good 












Warminster. 


7. England, N.W. 






















tTJIBERLAND.. 


Average : 
very good 


Average ; 
good 


Over ; g 1 








'her ; 

very g 1 


Average ; 
good 




W. B. Little, 40 Petteril Street, 




Carlisle. 




Average ; 


Over ; good 


A\ erage ; 


Over : 


Under ; good 




Over ; 


Under ; bad 




C. Milne, Greystoke Castle 




good 




good 


VI !> U I 






very good 






Gardens, Penrith. 




Under; bad 


Average ; 

s f 


Over ; good 


Average ; 
good 




Under ; good 


Average ; 
good 


Average ; 

good 




F. Clarke, Lowther Castle Gar- 
dens, Penrith. 


LANCASHIRE .. 


Average ; 
good 


Average ; 
very good 


Under ; good 








Average ; 
very good 


Over ; 
very good 




A. J. SOwman, County Offices, 




Prestoh. 


WESTMORELAND 


Under; good 


Under ; guod 


Average ; 


Over; good 






Over ; 


Average ; 




W. A. Miller, Underley Hall 








g 1 






very good 


good 




Gardens, Kirkby Lonsdale. 




Under 


Average 


Over 




Under 


Average 


Average 


Under 


J. Moorhouse, Dalton Hall 
Gardens, Burton. 




Average 


Average 


Over 






Over 


Over 


...... 


W. Caton, Helme Lodge Gardens, 






















Kendal. 


8. England, S.W 






















CORNWALL 


Average ; 
good 


Average ; 
very good 


Over 


Average 


Under : erood 




Average ; 
very good 


Average ; 
very good 




W. Andrews, Tregothnan Gar- 






dens, Truro. 




Over; good 


Average ; 
good 


Average; had 


Over ; good Under ; bad 




Over ; 
very good 


Over ; 
very good 




Frank J. Clark, Tehidy Park 
Gardens, Camborne. 




Over ; good 


Average 


Under 


Average ; Average 
good 


Under 


Over ; 
very good 


Over; 
very good 


Average 


T. Spilspury. Clowance and 
Pencarrow Gardens. 


DEVONSHIRE . 


Over ; good 


Over ; good 




Under Under 




Over ; good 


Over ; good 




Geo. Baker, Menibland. Newton 




Ferrers, near Plymouth. 




Over ; good 


Average ; 


Average ; 


over: good Average; 




Over; 


Over; 


Average ; 


E. E. Bristow, Castle Hill Oar- 






goofl 


g 1 


good 




very good 


very good 


good 


dens, smith Molton. 




Over ; good 


Average 


Average 


Average ; , Over ; good 

g( if H 1 


'nder; good 


Over ; good 


Average 




rhomas H. Bolt-m, Powderbam 
Castle Gardens, Exeter. 




Over ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over ; good ( Over ; 


1' nder 


Average ; 


Under ; 


Over ; good 


Robert Veitch & Son, Royal 




very good 


g< h »:l 


good 


very good 




good 


very good 




Nurseries, Exeter. 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over; good Under ; 


Under ; good 


Average : 


Average ; 




V. I.i.ek, Eastcliffe Gardens, 




good 


very good 


good 


very good 




guod 


very good 




Teigiiiiumth. 




Over ; 


Average ; 


Over ; good 


i nder ; bad 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over; 


Over; 


Average ; 


S. H. High, Bicton Gardens, 




very good 


good 






good 


good 


very good 


very good 


good 


East Budleigh. 


<3XOUCEaTHR6HLRE...| Under 


Over 


Over 


Average 


Over: good 


Over ; good 


Average 


Under 


Under 


Willi am Keen, Bowden Hall 
Gardens, near Gloucester. 


Average ; 


Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Over 


Average ; 


Under 


Average ; 


Under 


Average 


"ohn Banting, Tortworth Gar- 


erood 








good 




g 1 






dens, Falfleld. 




Average ; 
very good 


Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Under; good 


Over ; good 


Over ; good 


Under; good 


Under ; good 




r. Peaive, Badminton Gardens, 
Gloucester. 




Average 


Average 


Under 


Average 


Under 


Under 


Average 


Under 




Viil J. Jett'eries, Ciri'neestiT. 




Average ; 


Average ; 


Under; good 


Over ; 


Under 


Average 


Average ; 


Under 


Under ( 


}. H. Hollingworth, County 




good 


g 1 




very good 






g 1 






Education Office, Gloucester. 




Average ; 


Over; 


Average ; 


Average ; 


Over; 


Average ; 


Over; 


Average ; 


Average 


?. C. Walton, Stanley Park- 




good 


very good 


good 


good 


very good 


good 


very g 1 


good 




Gardens, Stroud. 



92 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[August 1, 1914. 



CONDITION OF THE FRUIT CROPS— (.continued). 



COUNTY. 



i. England, S.W. 
ULOUCESTERSBIRE. 
(continued) 

IK.ISKFORDSHIRE.... 



IMWH viOtlTUSblRE 
■lOMRRSKTSHIRE ... 



WoiN.'HHTKIiSIIlUE 



WALES : 

ANGLESEY 

CARDIGANSHIRE .... 
CARNARVONSHIRE . 
OENBIGJISH1RK .... 



PEAKS. 



plums. 



CHEKUTES. 



Orel 

Avera.se 

Average ; 
good 

Over ; good 

Under ; good 

Under ; 

very good 

Average ; 

[good 

Under ; good 

Under 

Average ; 

good 
Over ; very 

good 
Over ; very 

good 

Under 
l- udof ; good 
Under ; had 
UHdur ; good 

Under 
Under ; good 



Over 

j Under : g I 

' Average ; 
very good 

Average ; 

good 
Average ; 

good 
Over : good 

Average ; 

good 

Under ; good 

Averagi 

Over ; 
very go< id 
Average 

Over ; very 
good 

tinder ; g I 

Under ; good 

Under ; bad 

Average ; 

g I 

Average 

Under : good 



Average 

Average 

Under; 
very good 

Under ; good 

Under ; good 

Over ; good 

Over; good 

Average ; 

gOOf] 

Average 

Under : had 

Over 

Over ; very 
good 



Average 
Average 

Over ; good 

Under 

Average ; 

good 

Over ; good 

Over ; good 

Average ; 
good 
< >ver 

Average ; 
good 
Over 

Average ; 
got id 



PEACHES 
AND NEC- 
TARINES. 



Average 

Average ; 

good 
Average : 
very good 



APRICOTS. 



Under 

Average 

Average ; 
very good 



SMALL 
FRUITS. 



I Over ; g< h h 1 

Average 
1 Under ; good 



T'n der 

Under 

Under : bad 

Under ; good i 

Over 

I nder Under ; g I 



over ; 

very good 

Average : 

good 

Under ; good 

Average ; 
good 
Under 

Average ; 

good 
Average 

Average ; 
good 

Average : 

-nod 



Average ; | 

\<V\ -nod 

Average 



FLINTSHIRE 

GLAMORG INSHLRE. 



IIONTUOMERYSHIRE 
PEMBROKESHIRE 



RADNORSHIRE 



IRELAND : 



1 Ireland, N. 
]>ITBLItl 



FEKMAK VGH 



LOUS li 

[vTEATH 

UONAGHAN ... 

] VIMiVE 

WESTMEATH 

10. Ireland, S 

■ I ow 



(k.i ; g««d . Over ; verj 
good 



K. I N G ' jj CO 
KILDAR] 



Ovi.r : rood 



Average ; 

IS ' 

Average : 
good 

Over ; very 
good 
Over 

Average ; 

very good 

i ndi r . good 

Over 

Ovei ; very 
good 

\ \ i ra 
good 
l nder 



Over ; 
very good 

Under 

Over ; good 

Over ; good 

Average ; 

good 
Under . bad 

Under 

Over ; good 

Under 

A vera - 

Over ; good 

Over ; good 

Over ; good 

Average ; 
good 
Under 

Under 

Under ; hud 



Average ; 
good 

Over; good Over; very 
gi ii >d 

Over : -nml Over : good 



Ovei verj 
good 
Over 

Over : vei ) 

good 
Average ; 
very good 
Average 

■- i 

Average : 

g i 

Over : good 

Over ; verj 

gl H ii 1 



Average ; 

very g i 

Average 

Average ; 

very good 

Over ; good 

1 ndi i 

Averagi 

Over ; g I 

Ovei : 

very good 

Over 



Over : good 

Over : g 1 

Over 

Average ; 
good 

Average 



A verage ; 

>ri> good 



Average 

Over ; good 

Average 

i nder 

Under ; had 

( iver : good 

Over ; very 
good 

Ovit . had 

Average 



Undei i li i 

Avei agi 

Average ; 

very good 

Under ; bad 

Over; good 

Average 

Averagi 
good 
Ovei 



Ovei 

Over ; good 

Over ; g I 

A vera-' 

i nder ; had 
Average 

Average 

Average ; 
good 



Average 

gi i. ii i 



Average ; 
good 

Average 



Over : good 

Ovei 

Over . verj 

good 
Under : good 

Over : good 

Over ; verj 

g ood 
Averagi 

-nod 

Average 



I verage 
good 



Average ; 
good 

Over ; bad 

Average ; 

verj good 

Average 

Iveragi 

ood 

Ovei 

Ovei 



Ovei 
Averagi 

Average 

\ ■, i . i ■ i 
-nod 

i ndei 



Average ; 
good 



Under : good 

Average ; 
very go* »\ 



Average ; 
good 

Over ; goo 



Average ; 

good 

Average ; 

very good 

Over ; good 

Ovei- ; good 

Under 

Under 
Average 

Average ; 

-mid 

Average ; 
good 
Under 

Under ; good 

Average ; 
good 

Under ; good 



Average ; 
good 



A \ erage Average 

< iver ; good Average ; 
good 



Average 

_ i 



Average 

Ovei 
very good 
Average ; 

g i 



Average : 

good 
Over : good 



average . 
very good 

Over 



Ovei . 

\ei\ good 



Average Average 



Average ; 
good 



■■ verage 
good 
Under 

Ovei 

Under ; bad 



Under ; 

good 

Average 



Average 

Over : g 1 

Over; good 



Average ; 

good 

Under ; bad 

Over; g I 

Average ; 

good 

Over ; good 

Over 

Average ; 
very good 
Over ; very 

-ood 

Over ; very 

gi h id 

Average ; 

good 
Average : 

good 
Average ; 

good 

Ovei' ; 
very good 
Over : very 

g ' 

Average ; 

good 



Average ; 
good 



Over : vers 

good 



Over ; very 

-ood 

Over 

Over : very 

gi iod 

Average : 

verj good 

Over ; I 

Over : verj 

■-• I 

Average ; 

good 
Averagi 



Over ; very 
good 



Averagi ■ ; 
-t m » I 

Under ; bad 
Over : good 

Over 
Under ; good 
i iver : good 

Ovei 

Ovei 



STRAW- 
BERRIES. 



I nder 
Over; good 
Under ; good 

Under 



NUTS. 



Under 

Average ; 

good 
Average ; 

good 
Average 

Average ; j 

goi id 
Average 

Over : very 
- I 

Under 

Under : bad 

Under ; had 

Under ; had 

Average : 

very good 

Under ; good 



Average . 
good 



Average ; 
good 

Average ; 
good 

Avi rage ; 

g I 

Over 

Over ; verj 

'_ I 

Under I ad 

Average : 

g I 

Over ; 
verj goi d 
Under ; had 

Averagi 



Average ; 

-ood 

Under 
CTnder ; bad 
i nder ; bad 

I nder 

Average 

Under : good 

ovei' : 

very g I 

Under 



Average 

Average 

over ; good 

Over 

Average ; 
good 
Under 

Average 

Over : good 

Average 

Average 



Over ; very 
good 



NAME AND ADDRESS. 



Arthur Chapman, Westonbirt 

Gardens, Tetbury. 
W. H. Berry, Highnam Court 

Gardens, Gloucester. 
A. Buckingham, Stallage 

Park Gardens, Brampton 

Brian. 
Thomas Spencer. Goodrich 

Court Gardens, Ross. 
George Mulling, Eastnor Castle 

Gardens, Ledbury. 
A. J. Morris, Downton Castle 

Gardens, Ludlow. 
Thos. Coomber, The Hendre 

Gardens, Monmouth. 
George Shawley, Halswell Park 

Gardens, Bridgwater. 
J, T. Rushton, Barons Uown 

Gardens, Dulverton. 
W A. Farmer, Knowle Gardens, 

Dunster. 
Samuel Kidley, Ruuniiigton 

Nurseries, Wellington. 
E. A. Hussey, Leigh House Gar- 
dens, near Chard. 



Over A. Young, Witley Court Gar- 
dens, Worcester. 
Average C. A. Bayford, Davenham Car- 
dens, Malvern. 
Under; good \\\ Crump, Madresfleld Court 
I Gardens, Malvern. 
Thos. Watkins, The Grange 
Gardens, Claims. 
Average Ernest Avery, Kinstall Park 
Gardens, Bromsgrove. 
Under James Udale, Ombersley Road, 

Dl nit H irll. 



V verage ; 

g 1 



Iveragc 
Under 

Over 

Over ; very 
good 

Over ; good 

Under 



W. Tiso, Glyn Garth Palace Gar 
dens, llenai Bridge. 

W. Phillips, Derry Ormond 

Park Gardens, Llangyhi. 

.1. s. Higgins, Glynllivon Park 

Gardens. 

J. A Jones, Chirk Castle Gardens, 
Ruabon. 

J. Barnard. Mostyn Hall Oar 

dens, Mostyn. 
Richard Milner, Margara I'aik 

Gardens, Port Talbot 
C. T. Warmington, Penllergaer 

Gardens, Swansea. 
A. Gribble, Phis Machynlleth 

Gardens, Machynlleth. 
Geo. Griffin, Sleheek Pars 

Gardens, Haverfonhvtst. 
W. A. Baldwin, Clynttcw Oar- 
dens, Boncath, 8.0. 
J. MacCormack, Maesllwcfa 

Castle Gardens. Glasbury. 
Wilson Palliser, Norton Man 

Gardens, Norton. u.s.o. 



Average 
V verage 



< iver : 
very good 
Over ; \ erj I nder ; good 



good 
Under ; good 

Over ; good 

Over ; verj 
good 
L verage 

Over 

Average ; 
verj good 



Under ; good 

< her ; g 1 

Under; g I 

t ndei 

Under 

Average ; 
very good 



Average : 
good 



Robt. Duthie, C del' Secretary's 

[,i"l-e Hardens, Phu'iiix Park, 

Dublin. 
Thomas Shiels, Lanesborough 

Gardens, Belturbet 
.1. Moncrieff, Florence Court 

Gardens, Enniskillen 
S Cranston, Castle Bellingham 

Gardens. 
Michael M.Kcoun, Julians- 
i town, Drogheda. 
J. B. Pow, Dunsanj Castle 

Gardens. 
.1. Hepburn, Dartre* Gardens. 

Kred. W. Walker, Sion Houst 

Gardens, sion Mills. 
Geo. Bogie, Pakenham Hall 

(gardens, Castlepollard, 

\V. F., Rathvilly, 

.Maurice Colbert, Agheni Gar- 
dens, Conna. 

I. Dearnaby, Magazine Road, 
Cork. 

Pat Sheehan, Glenville Manor 
Gardens, Fermoy. 

E, Clarke, Claremount, Garry 
i Castle, Banagher. 

Frederick Bedford, Straffan 
House Gardens 

Alexr. Black, Carton, May- 
nootb. 

r. a. Boyk-, Ca -i li I oi bi Gar 
dens, Newtown I'oi bes. 



August 1, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



93 



CONDITION OF THE FRUIT CROPS— (.continued). 



(in NT1 



APPLE.S. 



IRELAND: 

ROSCOMMON Under 

tipperary Under; g 

WATERFORD Over ; very 

! Average ; 
good 

CHANNEL 
ISLANDS :! 

GUERNSEY Over; good 

JERSEY Averagi 

good 

ISLE OF 

MAN: 

DOUGLAS Average : 

gl h M I 



PEARS. 



Average ; 

good 
Average ; 

good 
Over ; very 

good 
Over; good 



PLUMS. 



CHERRIES. 



PEACHES 
AND NEC- 
TARINES. 



Average ; 
good 

Average ; 

good 
\ verage . 

good 

("li'lir ; %<hh\ 



Average 

Over; very 

g I 

Over : very 

good 
Average ; 

■j ood 



\ irei agi 



Undei : ^<»<<l Average ; \' 

good g i 

Average ; ' nder ; g 1 Average . 

C I t-:i«l 



Average ; 

vei \ g 1 

v. ver ; good 



Average ; 

g| <><| 

rVverage ; 
good 



APRICOTS. 



SMALL 
FRUITS. 



Vreragi . 
good 



i nder 



i ruler ; bad 



0v« ; good 

Over ; very 

good 
« >\ i r ; vei v 

g I 

Average ; 
very good 



Ovei . very 

- i 

good 



Ovei ood 



STRAW- 

BERRIES. 



Average 

Under ; bad 

Over ; 

very g I 

Average ; 
B 1 



Ov i ;ood 



Average : 

- I 



\vn age . 
bad 



N UTS. 



Under : bud 



Under ; bad 



NAMH AND ADDRESS 



Terence Rogers, ETrenchparl 

llou.se Gardens. 
John Fraser, Sbanballj I asl U 

• Unit ns, Clogheen, Cahir. 
jThbtaas Dunn, Strancally Casth 

Gardens, Tallow. 
David Crombie, * 'nrragh * 

Canleus, Port-law. 



C. Smith & Son, » aledonia 

Niiim ry, Guernsey, 
[nomas Sharxnsn, Imperial 

N nraery, St, Sellers. 



[nglis, Brunswick Kosw 

N6rsi i 



SUMMARIES. 



S( OTLAND. 



IREI.ANIl. 



Records 


CO 

u 




s 


i 

a 
o 

(62) 


-c ■ = 

P a « 

— = ~ 

1 1 


i. 

< 


— r. 


C - 


i5 


Xiiiiii.. tot Records ... 


(52) 


(SO) 


(22) 


(52) 




(4, 


Iveragi 




24 


15 


21 


12 


11 


Hi 




2 


Over 


9 


13 


24 


18 


5 


7 


34 


15 


I 


i nder 


It 


11 


11 


10 


■i 


4 


2 


12 


1 



Records 


Apples. 


i- 

S» 


CD 

a 

a 

s 


01 


oftfl 




as 

5 a 


= i 
-•- 

Is 




■ t !;, cords ... 






(21) 


(19) 


(13) 


Cm 


(21) 


(-21) 







4 


9 


11 


11 


(i 


:: 


4 


, : , 


Oi i 


8 


11 







5 


1 


14 


1 


1 


9 


1 


4 


1 


2 


2 


:'. 


12 





ENGLAND. 



( II INNEL 1-1 INDS 



Number ol Records 

Average 

Over 

Under 



(209) 

7: i 
in 
90 






(209) 




(199) 


(159) 




(214) 




no 


; - 


nil 


77. 


.11 


120 


'II 


6] 


60 


71 




40 


- 


28 


18 


71 


27 


2!l 


49 


11 


90 



(151) 

25 
98 



Number of Records 

lv< rage 

Ovei 

Under 



WALES. 



Number of Records 

Average 

Over 

Under 



(12) 


(12) 


(12) 


4 


4 


4 


« 


3 


B 


- 


— 


2 



(12) (10) 

6 

6 5 

1 I - 



(6) (12) 

4 4 

I s 



(12) 

7 



(7) 



(2) 

1 


(2) 

1 


(2) 
1 


12) 

2 


2 


a) 


i 

(2) 

1 




1 


1 


- 


- 


1 


1 



ISLE OF .MAN. 



Average 

Over 

i nder 



(l) 

l 



(1) (1) 

l — 



ll) 



(1) 





GRAND 


SUMMARY, 1914. 








SUMMARY OF 1913 


FOR 


COMPARISON. 






\ umber ol Records 

Lvei 

Over 

Under 


(297) 
118 
04 
115 


(293) 

14:1 
94 
60 


1U7 
96 
39 


(285) 

14:: 

1(12 

411 


• 

100 

7(1 
34 


087) 
32 
19 
56 


140 

1 11 

16 


129 

11(1 
50 


(17.. 1 
St! 
2:l 
55 


\ umber ..i Records ... 

e 

Over 

Under 


(256) 

121 
29 
106 


(245) 
22 

1 


(248) 

... 


71 
.37 


(167) 

23 

1 

143 


1 
17.2 


(249) 
16 


(248) 

1 is 





WINTER-FLOWERING HYBRID BEGONIAS. 



This race of Begonias, which originated from 
crossings between Begonia socotrana and 
varieties of the tuberous rooting section, is a 
very great acquisition to winter-flowering 
plants. The flowers of some varieties are borne 
in stiff erect stems, whilst others have a pen- 
dant habit, such as Clibran's Pink, which 
carries as many as twelve blooms in a cluster, 
each bloom measuring 3 inches across. The 
leaves of these Begonias are large and of a 
beautiful, glossy green, and serve to show off 
the flowers to the beet advantage. Some 
growers find a little difficulty in cultivating this 
race, and for the benefit of these I describe 
my own methods, which have proved satisfac- 
tory. 

Propagation may be carried out any time be- 
tween April and August, when the growths 
that rise from the axils of the leaves are 
sufficiently large to provide suitable cuttings, 
or shoots from the tubers may be taken that 
come up from the soil just like suckers. The 



cuttings should be inserted singly in thumb 
pots, in a compost of loam and leaf mould in 
equal proportions, with plenty of silver sand 
added. After inserting the cuttings, they 
should be given a watering and the compost 
allowed to drain until dry, then they should bo 
plunged into coconut fibre in a propagating 
case. The glass of this case will need to be 
. wiped three or four times a day in order to 
keep it free of moisture and prevent the 
cuttings from damping. When it is known 
that the cuttings have rooted, a little air 
may be admitted to the frame, keeping the 
Dlants there for a day or two longer until they 
Lave hardened a little, when they may be potted 
into 4-ineh pots. The compost for this re-pot- 
ting should be of fibrous loam three parts, leaf 
mould one part, and peat one part, -with 
sprinklings of broken charcoal and sand. After 
this stage they should be grown in a house 
where the atmospheric temperature does not fall 
below 60°, and atmospheric moisture should be 
maintained by damping the floor twice each day, 
and by spraying the plants lightly on bright 
days. If the plants are exposed to direct sun- 



shine they may require a 6light shade dining the 
hottest hours of the day. 

Directly the plants have rooted through the 
compost in the 4-inch pots, they should be re- 
potted again into the pots in which they 
will flower. Pots of 6-inch diameter are 
sufficiently large. The compost may be the 
same as for the previous potting, except for the 
addition of a moderate quantity of bone-meal. 
Cultivate the plants in the same conditions as 
before, and take care to admit air to the 
structure on all favourable occasions. WJiec 
the plants have rooted thfough the soil again, 
and are growing freely, waterings twice a week 
with diluted liquid cow manure may be appliec 
with advantage. 

The plants are sometimes subject to the at- 
tacks of a mite, and also of white fly, and 
should be fumigated about every fortnight. 
taking care to ascertain that the foliage is dn 
before fumigating is commenced, or the leave? 
may suffer injury. 

Varieties which have proved very satisfactory 
with me are Elatior, Ensign. Clibran's 
Beauty of Hale and Bank Hall. Grower. 



94 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[August 1, 1914. 



EDITORIAL NOTICE. 



ADVERTISEMENTS should be sent to the 
PUBLISHER, 41, Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, WC. 

Editors and Publisher. — Our Correspondents 
would obviate delay in obtaining answers to 
their communications, and save us much time and 
trouble, if they would kindly observe the notice 
printed weekly to the effect that all letters relat- 
ing to financial matters and to advertisements 
should be addressed to the Publisher; and that 
all communications intended for publication, or 
referring to the Literary department, and all 
plants to be named, should be directed to the 
Editors. The two departments, Publishing and 
Editorial, are distinct, and much unnecessary de- 
lay and confusion arise when letters are mis- 
directed. 

Special Notice to Correspondents. — The 
Editors do not undertake to pay for any contribu- 
tions or illustrations, or to return unused com- 
munications or illustrations, unless by special 
arrangement. The Editors do not hold themselves 
responsible for any opinions expressed by their 
correspondents. 



APPOINTMENTS FOR AUCUST. 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 1— 

Society Francaise de Londres Meet. 
MONDAY, AUGUST 3— 

Bletchley and Fenny Stratford Hort. Soc. Sh. 
TUESDAY, AUGUST A. 

Leicester (Abbey Park) Fl. Sh. (2 days). Scottis*) 

Hort. Assoc, meet. 

FRIDAY, AUGUST 7— 

Perthshire Sweet Pea and Rose Soc. Ex. (2 days). 
Dundee Hort. Assoc, meet. 

SATURDAY, AUGUST 8— 

Stirling Hort. Assoc, outing to Callander Park. 
TUESDAY, AUGUST 11— 

Roy. Hort. Soc. Corns, meet and Nat. Gladiolus 

Soc. combined show. 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 13— 

Taunton Deane Hort. Soc. Sh 
MONDAY, AUGUST 17— 

Pitsmoor Fl. Sh. 

Sweet Pea Sh. at Sheffield. 
TUESDAY, AUGUST 18—' 

Brighton Fl. Sh. (2 days). 
WEDNESDAY, AUGUST 19— 

Shropshire Hort. Soc. Sh. at Shrewsbury (2 days). 
THURSDAY, AUGUST 20— 

Aberdeen Roy. Hort. Soc. Sh. (3 days). 
FRIDAY, AUGUST 21— 

Forfar Hort. Soc. Sh. (2 days). 
TUESDAY, AUGUST 25— 

Roy. Hort. Soc. Corns, meet. Newcastle Fl. Sh. (3 

days). 

THURSDAY, AUGUST 27— 

Dundee Hort. Soc. Sh. (3 days). 



Aviragb Mban Tbmpiraturb for the ensuing week 
deduced from observations during the last Fifty 
Years at Greenwich, 62.2. 
Actual Tbmpbraturbb : — 

London, Wednesday, July 29 : Max. 62° ; Min. 53° 
Gardeners' Chronicle Office. 41, Wellington Street, 
Covent Garden, London, Thursday, July 30 
(10 a.m.) ; 29.2 ; Temp. 63°.— Weather- 
Dull. 
Provinces, Wednesday, July 29 : Max. 71°, Weston- 
super-Mare ; Min. 50°, Llandudno. 



The present issue con- 

The Fruit tains our annual re- 

Crops. report on the conditions 

of the hardy fruit crops 
in these Isles, and we venture to think 
that the report is of such a character 
as to justify the liveliest feelings of 
satisfaction. It is not in the nature 
of things that perfect crops should 
be looked for in the case of trees 
that are exposed to all the vicissitudes 
of our chastening climate ; the winds blow 
and rains descend or not for reasons 
totally unconnected with the aspirations 
of fruit cultivators, and the trees, being 
subject to severe fluctuations of tempera- 
ture and water supply, often experience 
checks that the wit of man is quite unable 
to prevent. But in addition to the dis- 
couragement arising from unsuitable 
"weather conditions at particular periods, 
there are the equally grave risks caused 



by the numberless pests and diseases that 
are ever ready to prey upon cultivated 
plants, and are irresistibly attracted by 
such as are capable of bearing choice 
fruits. In face of all the difficulties 
surely the wonder is not that we do not 
obtain perfect crops, but that our fruit 
stores and markets are supplied with the 
quantities that we have come to regard 
as the average or normal yield. 

If we consider the crops in detail we 
shall find that the Apple crop was below 
the average last year, and the present 
figures show that this year's yield will 
likewise be less than usual, but the de- 
ficiency is decidedly less marked, for of 
297 returns there are 182 reports that 
are equal to or "over" and only 115 
below " average." As Apples are the 
principal crop the increased cropping 
indicated in the grand summaries is very 
welcome. There is a striking improve- 
ment in Pears, for 1913 was a very 
bad Pear season — the returns showed 222 
deficient crops and only 23 that were 
average. This year out of 293 returns 
so many as 243 are average or over aver- 
age. It is evident, therefore, that save 
for possible contingencies unforeseen at 
the present, there will be a very plentiful 
supply of Pears this season. Plums were 
almost as scarce last year as Pears, but 
this season the yield will be much more 
liberal, for there are only 89 deficient 
crops reported out of total returns num- 
bering 292. Cherries have been abundant 
almost everywhere, whilst last season the 
crops were unusually meagre. 

The same good reports are given of 
Peaches: indeed the improvement is even 
of greater degree than in any kind of fruit 
so far considered. Last year there were 
143 under average reports out of 167 re- 
turns, whilst this year we have 204 re- 
turns and only 34 crops below the average 
yield. Apricots have 56 "unders " out of 
a total return of 187, but last year there 
were so many as 152 unsatisfactory re- 
ports out of a total of 158. Small fruits, 
too, are better, notwithstanding the ex- 
cellent crops harvested last season. For 
although the number of under average 
reports is the same, namely, sixteen, the 
total returns are 302 against 249. Straw- 
berries alone of all the crops enumerated 
in our tables show a falling off as com- 
pared with last year. Then, the number 
of returns was 248, and there were only 
nine reports of under average crops ; this 
year there are 295 returns and 50 reports 
of deficient crops, so the difference is dis- 
tinctly against the present crop. Our last 
column is devoted to Nuts, and last year, 
it will be remembered, the scarcity of the 
Nut crop was a notable feature of the 
season. In our 142 returns there were 
no fewer than 111 reports of under aver- 
age crops. This year the circumstances are 
more favourable, for of 170 returns there 
are only 55 unsatisfactory reports. 

These details should suffice to encour- 
age the hopes of the consumer of British- 
grown fruits, and it may be hoped that 
they indicate conditions that will prove 
profitable to the cultivator, for on his 
enterprise and skill depend undoubtedly 
the fortunes of this national industry. 



The object of the 
protection against Rome Convention is to 
rL^ IT*' * The brmg about by legisla- 

Rome Convention. . o J t o 

tive and administrative 
measures between the countries adhering 
to the Convention mutual and effective 
action to prevent the introduction and 
extension of plant pests. 

In order to carry out this object the 
Convention contemplates (1) State inspec- 
tion of nurseries, gardens, hothouses and 
other establishments devoted to the trade 
of living plants (plants, cuttings, grafts, 
bulbs and cut flowers). (2) State regula- 
tion of transport and packing of plants. 
(3) The establishment in each of the ad- 
hering countries of a Government depart- 
ment of Phytopathology, to give effect to 
inspection, to control transport and to 
issue certificates; and (4) the foundation 
of one or several research institutions in 
which the scientific and technical investi- 
gation of plant pests shall be conducted. 

The Horticultural branch of the Board 
of Agriculture is in consultation with a 
committee formed of members appointed 
by the Horticultural Trades Association 
and by the Royal Horticultural Society, 
with the object of discovering whether 
opinion in this country is or is not favour- 
able to our adhesion to the Convention. 

The committee has held several meetings 
but, as might be expected, has found con- 
siderable difficulty in recommending un- 
conditional acceptance of the terms of the 
Rome Convention. The difficulties in the 
way of such an acceptance are due to the 
uncertainty attaching to the meaning of 
the terms of several of the articles of the 
Convention. 

Thus Article 5 of the Convention pro- 
vides that living plants — in the sense 
already indicated — may be imported only 
if they are accompanied by a phyto- 
pathological certificate issued by com- 
petent officials of the exporting country. 
The committee is anxious to know whether 
a phytopathological certificate issued by a 
responsible body will suffice to allow of the 
introduction of living plants from a 
country which is not a signatory to the 
Convention. It is no less anxious to know 
whether this Article prevents the importa- 
tion of plants from a " non-contracting " 
■State. If it is shown that adhesion to the 
Conference does not limit nor prevent the 
importation of plants from non-adhering 
countries, the committee is prepared, sub- 
ject to one other proviso, to recommend 
that this country join the Convention. 
This proviso is that cut flowers shall not 
require to be accompanied by a certificate 
of freedom from plant pests. For, in the 
opinion of those engaged in the cut-flower 
industry, to require a certificate with 
each consignment of cut flowers would de- 
stroy the import trade. It is to be 
observed that the question whether such a 
destruction of the import trade in out 
flowers is or is not desirable lies outside 
the reference to the committee. The Rome 
Convention has for its purpose not an 
examination or change in fiscal policy, but 
the reduction of the enemies of vegeta- 
tion. Hence the committee had only to 
consider whether the introduction of out 



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August 1, 1914.] 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



95 



flowers is likely to spread plant diseases. 
They were of opinion that it is not, and 
recommend, therefore, that cut flowers 
shall be excluded from the scope of the 
Convention. 

The net result of the deliberations of the 
committee is that the Horticultural 
branch of the Board of Agriculture has 
undertaken to obtain the official views of 
the Convention on the points above indi- 
cated. 

The committee in its written expression 
of opinion has added two riders which 
are of importance. It recommends, in 
the first place, that negotiations should be 
entered into between this country and the 
Dominions, etc., with the object of estab- 
lishing a phytopathologic.il convention 
within the Empire in order to facilitate 
trade between the home country and the 
Dominions and Dependencies, and in the 
second place it advises that, in the event 
of the Rome Convention meeting again, 
or in the event of a similar convention 
being summoned, British representatives 
should include persons interested and en- 
gaged in horticultural trade. 

Informed opinion will agree that the 
committee has acted wisely in making sure 
of the nature and scope of the commit- 
ments involved by adhesion before recom- 
mending this country to join the Con- 
vention. 



Coloured Plate. — Apple Peacemaker is i 
new culinary variety, raised from Houblon 
crossed with Rival, and received the Award 
of Merit of the Royal Horticultural Society on 
October 7, 1913, when specimens were submitted 
to the Fruit and Vegetable Committee by Mr. 
Wm. Pope, Welford Park Gardens, Newbury. 
It is of the Chas. Ross type (round, large), but 
not quite so regular in outline, and the colour >s 
paler. The tree is said to be a good and con- 
sistent bearer, and the fruit is in season through- 
out September. 

Appointment of Entomologist by R.H.S. 

— At their meeting on the 28th ult. the Presi 
dent and Council of the Royal Horticultural 
Society appointed Professor H. Maxweit- 
Lefroy, M.A., F.Z.S., F.E.S., of the Imperial 
College of Science, South Kensington, as Ento- 
mologist at the Society's gardens at Wisley, in 
connection with their scheme for the develop- 
ment of the gardens and of the practical and 
scientific work there. By special permission. 
Professor Lefroy will hold the dual appointment 
of Entomologist to the Society and to the Im- 
perial College. 

A Large Banksian Rose. — We have re- 
ceived from Mrs. Charlotte M. Brown, 
Brightstone, Isle of Wight, a photograph, which 
unfortunately is not suitable for reproduction, 
of a large Banksian Rose in her garden. The 
Rose is planted near an old summerhouse, which 
it has entirely covered, and the stem is 8 inches 
in circumference near to the ground level. It 
has rambled up other trees, including a Pear, 
40 feet high, reaching to the top. It has 
also covered entirely two Yew trees, and is en- 
croaching on a third. The plant was a glorious 
sight this May, for having grown through, 
it flowered on both sides of these trees. 
Our correspondent writes : "It was in bloom 
in Christmas week, and I had sprays cut 
from it, and again in the middle of 
January, and it was full of buds then, but frost 
and easterly winds nipped them, so the tree did 



not come into flower again until the end of 
April. It receives no treatment, neither pruning 
nor manuring, and is practically on its own roots 
now, as the stem rooted into a little bank 
thrown up just above the ground level. No one 
knows its age, but the tree was probably planted 
forty or more years ago." 

Public Gift by Sir Jeremiah Colman.Bt.— 

In order to preserve the amenities of Reigate Hill 
and in commemoration of the jubilee of the in- 
auguration of the Reigate Corporation in 1863, Sir 
Jeremiah Colman has purchased about 16 acres, 
comprising the summit, steep sides and lower slopes 
of that portion of the north Downs that over- 
looks Reigate, and has dedicated it to the public 
use. Those who are familiar with this beautiful 
Surrey town will know that the scenery of Rei- 
gate Hill, with the famous suspension bridge that 
crosses the London and Brighton main road, is 
unrivalled anywhere so near 'to London. The 
scenic character is to be preserved under very 
strict conditions, enacted both by the vendor, 
Lord Monsom, and the purchaser. A plan has 
been drawn up by Mr. Edward White, of 
Messrs. Milner. Son, and White, and paths 
have been laid out which will be rigidly adhered 
to. The borough of Reigate intends to hold a 
dedication function declaring the hill a public 
place, and it may be hoped that advantage will 
be taken of that auspicious occasion to recognise 
the public spirit that has prompted Sir Jeremiah 
Colman to make this munificent gift. 

Whiteley Park. -On the 21st ult. the Lord 
Bishop of London laid the foundation stone of 
the memorial to the late Mr. William White- 
ley, at Whiteley Park, where cottage homes are 
being built for over 200 aged poor. In the days 
of King Henry VII. Whiteley Park, which is 
situated near Weybridge, is said to have been 
part of Hampton Court Forest, and it is on this 
pleasantly wooded estate of over 200 acres, which 
the trustees have bought with the munificent 
legacy of the late Mr. Whiteley, that the homes 
are in course of erection. Planned by the lead- 
ing architects of the day, it is intended to make 
Whiteley Park the finest example of garden city 
planning extant. 

The Lesser Narcissus Fly. — The eorre- 
spondence on the subject of the Lesser Narcissus 
Fly has fulfilled the useful function of putting 
the various investigators in full and even de- 
tailed possession of one another's views. We 
may take it that the tenacity with which these 
views are held, and the emphasis with which 
they have sometimes been expressed, are indices 
of the industry and persistency with which the 
holders will pursue experimental investigations 
on this subject. If so we may hope that a year 
or so hence the precise roles of Merodon and 
Eumerus may have been determined, and that 
the subject may pa6s from the warm regions of 
controversy into the cool domain of scientific cer- 
tainty. In closing the correspondence we take the 
opportunity of assuring Mr. St. Ox that his 
competence to speak on this subject is not chal- 
lenged seriously by anyone who knows the 
amount of time and ingenuity which he has de- 
voted to the subject, particularly to the ex- 
tremely practical aspect of it — namely, the catch- 
ing and hatching of Merodon. We understand 
that coloured and black-and-white drawings 
made by our correspondent will appear shortly 
in the Daffodil Annual. 

Hops, Fruit and Potatos in the United 

States. — The Department of Agriculture gives 
the condition (expressed as a percentage of the 
ten-year average) of Apples in the United States 
on July 1 as 108.1. of Pears as 110.0, of Hops as 
103.2, and of Potatos as 94.3. The average price 
received by growers on July 1 for Potatos was 
about 3s. 5d. per bushel, and foT Apples on 
June 15 about 5s. 8d. per bushel, prices for both 
commodities being somewhat higher than usual. 



The area under Potatos on July 1 was estimated 
at 3,708,000 acres. 

Birmingham and Midland Union of 
Horticultural Societies.— Mr. Carradine 
has resigned the post of Hon. Secretary of the 
Birmingham and Midland Union of Horticul 
tural Societies, and Mr. T. E. Aston has been 
appointed in his stead. The new secretary's 
address is 25, Grosvenor Road, Handsworth. 

Humorous Verse by an Amateur Gar- 
dener.— Mr. Druery's large circle of friends 
will be interested to learn that he has given 
yet another indication of the versatility 
which is so characteristic of him. In his more 
mature years he has returned to what we under- 
stand was a very delightful and successful avo- 
cation of his earlier years, the writing of verse. 
His latest volume is entitled The Pig's Tale and 
Other Recitations* 

Mr. H. Markham.— The many friends of 
Mr. H. Markham, gardener at Wrotham Park, 
Barnet, will regret to hear of the bereavement 
he has sustained in the death of his wife, which 
occurred on the 25th ult. 

Visit to Messrs. J. Cheal and Sons.- 
On the 24th ult., a few friends visited the nur- 
series of Messrs. J. Cheal and Sons, near Craw- 
ley, Sussex, with a view to inspecting the various 
additions and alterations that have been carried 
out there. The area lias been increased by 15 
acres, making a total of 125 acres, cropped ex- 
clusively with nursery stock. Amongst the new 
features inspected was a small old English 
garden, with paved courts, pergola and sun- 
dial, also a rockery and bog garden. As the 
firm does a large landscape gardening business, 
type gardens such as the English garden and 
others may have considerable value to visitors at 
the nurseries, who intend making additions to 
their own establishments. In the houses the 
principal features included a first-rate strain of 
tuberous-rooted Begonias, and pot fruit trees 
bearing ripe fruit. Messrs. Cheal are well 
known for their cultivation of Dahlias, and the 
appearance of the plants this season is proof that 
exhibitors will again have to reckon with flowers 
from Crawley. It was too early to find the plants 
m full bloom, but the early flowers were ap- 
pearing on the single, the Collerette, the Paeony- 
flowered, and other types, and the plants were 
spreading out in their first effort to cover the 
liberal amount of space allowed each specimen 
in the plantations. As no appreciable rain had 
fallen at Crawley for a period of eight weeks, 
the Dahlias, and, indeed, the fruit and other 
trees, have made less growth than usual at this 
date, but what has been made will doubtless be 
"6tocky," and therefore of high value. The 
nurseries contain counties fruit trees, including 
three or four acres of well-trained espaliers. So 
many as 20.000 cuttings are inserted each year 
for the provision of stocks for the grafting of 
Apples, in addition to an immense number of 
Crab 6tocks raised from seeds. Pears, Plums, 
Peaches, Nectarines, Cherries, and the small 
fruits, such as Gooseberries and Currants, were 
seen in thousands of well-grown plants, and it 
was noticed that the ground about them was well 
tilled with the Planet, Junr., cultivator, and free 
from weeds. A walk through the many acre6 
devoted to ornamental trees and shrubs took some 
time, and it was not possible to stay long to 
admire particular specimens, but it may be said 
that Messrs. Cheal's collection contains not only 
the most popular 6pecies, but the best varieties. 
Roses are grown in large numbers, and 
the budding delayed by the dry weather 
was in full progress. Many of the Pillar Roses 
were in full bloom, and the following varieties 
provoked much admiration : — Francois Jouraville. 
double, pink ; White Dorothy, which appeared, 
more free even than usual ; and Evangeline, with 

* The Pig's Tale and Other Recitations. By (has. T. 
Druery. (Elliot Stock, 7, Paternoster Row, London.) 6s. net. 



96 



THE GARDENERS' CHRONICLE. 



[August 1, 1914. 



single flowers like glorified Dog Roses, and very 
fragrant. The examples of the topiary art were 
perfectly startling, few of the visitors being pre- 
pared for such a large and varied collection of 
wonderfully well-trained specimens. 

An Austrian Expedition to China. — 

We have received the following letter from Mr. 
Camillo Karl Schneider, secretary of the 
Austrian Dendrological Society : " I am sending 
you a few particulars, which may interest 
your readers, of an expedition in which 
I am engaged, in company with Dr. Handel- 
Mazzetti, to Western China. The journey, 
which has for its object botanical and horti- 
cultural research, is organised by the Den- 
drological Society of Austria-Hungary. We 
arrived at Yunnan-fu, the capital of the 
province of Yunnan, on February 3, and 
left for the Yangtze on March 5. We 
avoided the main road and took a less fre- 
quented one (not that followed by Major 
Davies, which we crossed at San-ying-pan). 
We had some very cold days, sometimes with 
3° of frost, but when we finally reached the 
Yangtze the temperature was high. The flora 
of the Yangtze banks is not identical with that 
of the mountains, amd we made a good collection 
of flowering trees, shrubs, and herbaceous 
plants, though the time of year was not very 
favourable. We crossed the Yangtze by a dif- 
ferent ferry from that used by Davies, and, 
passing by Tung-an-chou, we reached Hui-li-chou 
at the end of March. From here we made a 
short excursion to the Lung tschu shan (3,700 
metres high), where we found some small forests 
of Cunninghamia at a height of between 2,400 
and 2,900 m. At the top of the mountain was 
a dense jungle of small-leaved Bamboos, grow- 
ing with evergreen Oaks and Rhododendrons. 
Of the latter genus there were some species 
in flower ; but the richest genus we found 
was Primula, of which we have already col- 
lected about sixteen fine species. From Hui-li 
we went on to Techang on the main road, only 
leaving it to see the coal mines near Yimen. 
From Techang we ascended the Han-tse-rei 
(3.2C0 m.) in the west, and had our first glimpse 
of the valley of the Yalung river. On 
April 9 we arrived at Ning-yuan-fu, where 
we met with a very hospitable reception from 
the French and American missionaries stationed 
there. The natives were also very kind, and 
the Chinese prefect lent us a small house, which 
we were glad to make our headquarters for four 
weeks. Ning-yuan-fu is beautifully situated 
on the shores of a picturesque lake, flanked by 
high mountains to the south and east. We 
climbed the Lo-tieh-shan (4,260 m.), where we 
found Tsuga, and visited the independent tribe 
known as the Lolo, whose territory lies on the 
tains of the Ta-liang-shan. We saw the 
remains of fine forests of Abies, Picea, Tsuga, 
and many deciduous trees. On May 5 
we left the Chien-chang valley and travelled 
westward to the Yalung river, which we crossed 
on the 11th. We made a short stay at Yen- 
yuan-hsien, the capital of the Chin-chiang or 
Yalung, which is celebrated for its salt mines ; 
paid a visit to the Moso-Tussu at Kua-pieh. 
and reached the Yalung a second time at 
Hui-li on May 26. Here we visited the gold 
mines, and then climbed up to the Tibetan 
forests at Eitzetes, ascending northward to a 
height of 4,500 m. We then returned to Yen- 
yuan hsien, having collected about 1,500 speci- 
mens of dried plants and 250 packets of seeds. 
The seeds I sent to the gardens of the Dendro- 
logical Society at Pruhonitz, Austria, the resi- 
dence of the President, Count .Silva Tarouca. 
Dr. Handel Mazzetti was chiefly concerned 
with the rich cryptogamic flora, which is his 
speciality. We are now (June 4) at Yen-yuan- 
hsien, but intend shortly to proceed to Yung- 
Ning and Literang-fu. " 




The Week's Work. 




THE OKCHID HOUSES. 

By H. J. Chapman, Gardener to Mrs. Cookson, 
Oakwood, Wylam-on-Tyne. 

The Hot-water System.— Now is the best 
time of the year to put the boilers and water- 
pipes in thorough order, for they should be 
overhauled at least once a year. Leaky joints 
should be made watertight, valves put in work- 
ing order, the flues and chimneys swept, and 
new fire-bars fitted if necessary. The weather 
is never more favourable for doing this 
work than towards the end of July. Where 
new structures are being erected, ample piping 
should be provided, for it will then be an 
easy matter to maintain the requisite tempera- 
tures without making one part of the house un- 
duly hot, a fault generally found in the older 
structures. 

The Cool House.— Take the opportunity 
the fine weather affords to wash the interior of 
the Odontoglossum and other cool houses, at the 
6ame time cleansing the pots and staging, so 
that all may be in readiness for the general re- 
potting of the plants, which will require to be 
done in a few weeks' time. I find it desirable 
to renew all moisture-retaining substances annu- 
ally in these houses. Coke and materials of a 
like nature harbour slugs and snails, and if 
not removed should be well scalded with boiling 
water to destroy pests and their eggs. In 
rearranging the plants, place those that do not 
require repotting by themselves, as this will save 
the trouble of removing them a second time. 
The outsides of the houses may be cleansed later 
when the permanent shadings are no longer 
necessary. A supply of Sphagnum-moss should 
be secured as soon as possible, carefully picked 
apart, and. washed thoroughly, which will help 
to free it from slugs and insect pests. Care 
should be taken to use only the thick kind, which 
is not so quick growing, and keeps compact. The 
long, narrow kind quickly outgrows its pro- 
portions, and seldom lasts the season through. 
Peat should have the greater portion of the finer 
particles shaken out, securing as much as pos- 
sible the fibrous roots. Good peat is difficult to 
obtain, but I prefer it to Osmunda or Poly- 
podium fibre. Al fibre is very suitable inter- 
mixed with peat, in about equal proportions, and 
as the latter is difficult to procure it makes a 
good substitute. Al fibre should be chopped 
fine and intermixed with plenty of coarse sand. 



THE FLOWER GARDEN. 

By W. Crump, Gardener to Earl Beauchamp, K.C.M.G., 
Madresfield Court, Worcestershire. 

Pinks. — The flowering of these plants is now 
almost over, and it is a suitable time to propa- 
gate them. Take up the old plants, pull them 
to pieces, and replant the portions, each with a 
few roots attached, in the reserve garden or in 
their permanent quarters, such as by the edges 
of borders. Afford a little shade by inserting 
small sprays of evergreens amongst them and 
damp the foliage overhead in dry weather. In 
the case of extra-choice varieties, layering may 
be practised or cuttings may be rooted under a 
bell glass. 

Carnations.— The plants need constant 
attention just now in such work as tying the 
shoots and removing dead flowers. Wire stakes 
twisted spirally are very useful for training 
Carnations and their use economises the labour. 
It is a simple and easy matter to twist the stalks 
around the wires, and the stakes can be made 
by the staff in the winter when the weather is 
too bad for work out of doors. Mark specially 
good varieties and new ones of which the stock 
is limited, with a view to layering the plants as 
soon as they pass out of bloom. In layering, first 
remove some of the top soil round and about 
the collars of the plants, replacing it with road 
grit or light sandy soil, but be careful that the 
road sweepings are free from tar or creosote, 
both of which are destructive to vegetation. 



Road grit containing tar should be placed in a 
heap and allowed to remain for twelve months 
before it is used, turning it occasionally in the 
meantime. Beds of tree Carnations of the 
varieties Britannia, Lady Hermione, May Day, 
Enchantress, Mrs. Lawson, Lady Bountiful and 
Mikado, formed of plants rooted last autumn 
and planted out of pots in the spring, have 
done well this season, and promise to provide a 
long succession of flowers. 

Roses.— Climbing varieties trained on 
pergolas, etc., having finished flowering, should 
be well thinned of the old flowering branches 
and weakly shoots. The strong, basal growths 
of the current year, which will flower next 
season, should be trained in position and ex- 
posed to sunlight and air. Climbers on walls 
should be treated similarly. The petals of full- 
blown Roses are useful for the making of pot- 
pourri ; they should be gathered when perfectly 
dry, laid out thinly on clean sheets of paper in 
a dry, shady room, and turned occasionally. 
Examine the petals closely for the presence of 
Rose maggots, which would soon spoil them. 

Hardy Plants. -Large numbers of small 
growing plants suitable for the rockery and 
other hardy flowers can be propagated quite 
easily at this time of the year from cuttings 
rooted in a cold frame exposed to full sun- 
shine. Insert the cuttings in little groups or 
rows in a thick layer of silver-sand. Keep the 
frame closed, but do not shade the glass at any 
period of the day. Instead, syringe the frame 
occasionally according to the amount of sunshine. 
The dwarf-growing Campanulas, Androsaces. 
Arenarias, Helianthemums or Rock Roses, all 
the members of the Cistus family, dwarf 
Phloxes, Lithospermums, and many other kinds 
may be increased in this manner. 

Shrubby Species. -The shrubby Hyperi- 
cums are at their most beautiful stage and many 
of the species, including H. multinorum, H. 
patulum, H. Moserianum, H. inodorum and H. 
Kalmianum, have deliciously-scented flowers. 
Olearia Haastii and Veronica salicifolia are 
both grandly in bloom. 

Seed-Gathering— Many hardy herbaceous 
plants and those suitable for the wild garden 
may be raised from home-saved seeds. Gather 
the capsules when they are ripe, selecting them 
from plants with the best-coloured flowers and 
the best habit of growth. Anchusas and Ver- 
bascums are both ripening their pods now. 



PLANTS UNDER GLASS. 

By C. H. Cook, Gardener to the Earl of Derby, 
Knowsley Hall. Lancashire. 

Chrysanthemums. -All Chrysanthemums 
should now be in their summer quarters, and in 
the pots in which they will flower. The ground 
on which the plants are stood should be covered 
with a layer of ashes of a depth sufficient to 
make it worm-proof. When the plants are 
arranged along the sides of paths, a piece of 
slate should be placed under each pot. It is 
essential to have the shoots of Chrysanthemums 
ripened thoroughly. Therefore the plants must 
be exposed to full sunshine; at the same time 
they must be sheltered from high winds, 
which are usually prevalent in September and 
October. Sec